SlideShare a Scribd company logo
The Best of Both Worlds: Transforming 
OpenCourseWare in the age of 
Interactivity 
Peter Pinch, pdpinch@mit.edu 
Brandon Muramatsu, mura@mit.edu 
Cite as: Pinch. P. & Muramatsu, B. (2014, November). The Best of Both Worlds: Transforming OpenCourseWare in the Age of Interactivity. Open Education Conference 2014. Crystal City, VA. 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
BACKGROUND 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
2
Content and Assessment are Separate 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
3 
OER Content 
Videos 
Lectures 
Textbooks 
Webpages 
Assessments 
OER Assessments 
“Easy to Share” 
Static / Isolated 
Separate Quiz 
and Test Systems 
The Challenge
The Potential? 
• Do for assessments and items, what’s been done for 
content (whole courses, lectures, videos) 
• Embed anywhere 
• Share 
– Don’t reinvent the wheel for every course 
• Evaluate, record and track Responses 
• Scale –> More use of items/assessments for validity 
• May lead to evidence of impact? 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
4
Focus: Formative Assessment 
• Putting mechanisms for students to check their 
understanding / mastery of concepts directly in course 
materials 
• Primarily for formative (self-check, understanding) not 
summative (exams or formal assignments) 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
5
WHAT’S DONE TODAY IN OER WITH FORMATIVE 
ASSESSMENT? 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
6
Saylor.org Precalculus II 
www.saylor.org 
• Course Assessments 
• http://www.saylor.org/courses/ma003/?ismissing=0&re 
sourcetype=4 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
7 
Credit: Saylor Foundation, CC BY
Saylor.org – “Assessment” 
• http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/ 
uploads/2011/11/MA003-1.2.5-PART2.pdf 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
Credit: Washington SBCTC, CC BY 
8
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
9 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
6.002x 
10 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
6.002x 
11 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
OUR APPROACH: 
OPENASSESSMENTS.ORG 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
12
openassessments.org 
13 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
What is OpenAssessments.org? 
• Embed an assessment in any web content 
• Focus on formative assessments 
• Start with limited question types 
–Multiple-choice/single answer 
– Numerical answer 
– Short answer 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
14
How do you use it? 
• Create a question in a standardized format 
– Typically using IMS Question & Test Interoperability spec 
– Likely created in your learning management system 
• Put the question on a public web server 
• Copy and paste the URL to the question file 
• Viola — Open Embedded Assessment! 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
15
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
16
USING OPEN EMBEDDED ASSESSMENTS IN 
MIT OPENCOURSEWARE 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
17
MIT OpenCourseWare 
Unlocking Knowledge > 2,240 courses 
• 120-150 new course each year 
• Materials taken directly from the classroom and published 
online 
• No certification 
• No registration 
• Completely Free 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Why does MIT make OCW the way it does? 
• Many courses aren’t born digital 
• Minimizing faculty effort 
• Maximizing accessibility 
• Easing distribution 
• Simple maintenance 
• … and it’s not all static 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
19
OCW Scholar – 8.03SC 
20 
Lewin, Walter, Wit Busza, George Stephans, and Martin Connors. 8.03SC Physics III: Vibrations and Waves, Fall 2012. (MIT 
OpenCourseWare: Massachusetts Institute of Technology), http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-03sc-physics-iii-vibrations-and-waves- 
fall-2012 (Accessed 7 Nov, 2013). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
OCW Scholar – BCS9.00SC 
21 
Gabrieli, John. 9.00SC Introduction to Psychology, Fall 2011. (MIT OpenCourseWare: Massachusetts Institute of Technology), 
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/brain-and-cognitive-sciences/9-00sc-introduction-to-psychology-fall-2011 (Accessed 7 Nov, 2013). 
License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
What happens when an MIT course is born digital? 
• MITx residential course; 
not a MOOC 
• Interactive reading 
questions 
• Problem set “checker” 
• Written in OLX 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
22
What happens when an MIT course is born digital? 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
23
Open Learning XML (OLX) 
<problem url_name="ps1-check" showanswer="closed" 
rerandomize="never" weight="0" display_name="Check pset 1 
answers"> 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
<text> 
<p>Probabality of two-pair:<br/> 
<numericalresponse answer=".047539"> 
<textline> 
<responseparam type="tolerance" default="0.001"/> 
</textline> 
</numericalresponse> 
</p> 
</text> 
</problem> 
24
What happens when an MIT professor makes OCW? 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
25
What happens when an MIT professor makes OCW? 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
26
What happens when an MIT professor makes OCW? 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
27
But can we make it reusable? 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
28
Embedded in MIT OpenCourseWare 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
29
How it works 
We pass a URL for the raw OLX code to the open assessments 
web application: 
http://www.openassessments.com/assessments/load?utf8=✓src_url=http://…/cours 
es/mathematics/18-05-introduction-to-probability-and-statistics-spring- 
2014/sequential/ps1.xml 
And then to embed it in MIT OCW, we use an iframe: 
<iframe style="width: 100%; height: 600px;" 
src="http://www.openassessments.com/assessments/load?utf8=✓&style=ocw&src_ur 
l=http://…/courses/mathematics/18-05-introduction-to-probability-and-statistics- 
spring-2014/sequential/ps1.xml"> 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
30
Analytics (Mockup) 
31
Related and Future Work 
• Increasing use 
– Open Item Banks 
– Use in Lumen Learning-developed OER course 
– Extending to additional MIT OCW courses 
• Extending functionality 
– Additional question types, especially 
parameterized/interactive ones 
• How will use use it? openassessments.org 
Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 
32

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The Best of Both Worlds: Transforming OpenCourseWare in an age of Interactivity

  • 1. The Best of Both Worlds: Transforming OpenCourseWare in the age of Interactivity Peter Pinch, pdpinch@mit.edu Brandon Muramatsu, mura@mit.edu Cite as: Pinch. P. & Muramatsu, B. (2014, November). The Best of Both Worlds: Transforming OpenCourseWare in the Age of Interactivity. Open Education Conference 2014. Crystal City, VA. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  • 2. BACKGROUND Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2
  • 3. Content and Assessment are Separate Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 3 OER Content Videos Lectures Textbooks Webpages Assessments OER Assessments “Easy to Share” Static / Isolated Separate Quiz and Test Systems The Challenge
  • 4. The Potential? • Do for assessments and items, what’s been done for content (whole courses, lectures, videos) • Embed anywhere • Share – Don’t reinvent the wheel for every course • Evaluate, record and track Responses • Scale –> More use of items/assessments for validity • May lead to evidence of impact? Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 4
  • 5. Focus: Formative Assessment • Putting mechanisms for students to check their understanding / mastery of concepts directly in course materials • Primarily for formative (self-check, understanding) not summative (exams or formal assignments) Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 5
  • 6. WHAT’S DONE TODAY IN OER WITH FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT? Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 6
  • 7. Saylor.org Precalculus II www.saylor.org • Course Assessments • http://www.saylor.org/courses/ma003/?ismissing=0&re sourcetype=4 Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 7 Credit: Saylor Foundation, CC BY
  • 8. Saylor.org – “Assessment” • http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/ uploads/2011/11/MA003-1.2.5-PART2.pdf Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Credit: Washington SBCTC, CC BY 8
  • 9. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 9 Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
  • 10. 6.002x 10 Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
  • 11. 6.002x 11 Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
  • 12. OUR APPROACH: OPENASSESSMENTS.ORG Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 12
  • 13. openassessments.org 13 Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
  • 14. What is OpenAssessments.org? • Embed an assessment in any web content • Focus on formative assessments • Start with limited question types –Multiple-choice/single answer – Numerical answer – Short answer Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 14
  • 15. How do you use it? • Create a question in a standardized format – Typically using IMS Question & Test Interoperability spec – Likely created in your learning management system • Put the question on a public web server • Copy and paste the URL to the question file • Viola — Open Embedded Assessment! Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 15
  • 16. Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 16
  • 17. USING OPEN EMBEDDED ASSESSMENTS IN MIT OPENCOURSEWARE Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 17
  • 18. MIT OpenCourseWare Unlocking Knowledge > 2,240 courses • 120-150 new course each year • Materials taken directly from the classroom and published online • No certification • No registration • Completely Free Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  • 19. Why does MIT make OCW the way it does? • Many courses aren’t born digital • Minimizing faculty effort • Maximizing accessibility • Easing distribution • Simple maintenance • … and it’s not all static Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 19
  • 20. OCW Scholar – 8.03SC 20 Lewin, Walter, Wit Busza, George Stephans, and Martin Connors. 8.03SC Physics III: Vibrations and Waves, Fall 2012. (MIT OpenCourseWare: Massachusetts Institute of Technology), http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-03sc-physics-iii-vibrations-and-waves- fall-2012 (Accessed 7 Nov, 2013). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
  • 21. OCW Scholar – BCS9.00SC 21 Gabrieli, John. 9.00SC Introduction to Psychology, Fall 2011. (MIT OpenCourseWare: Massachusetts Institute of Technology), http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/brain-and-cognitive-sciences/9-00sc-introduction-to-psychology-fall-2011 (Accessed 7 Nov, 2013). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
  • 22. What happens when an MIT course is born digital? • MITx residential course; not a MOOC • Interactive reading questions • Problem set “checker” • Written in OLX Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 22
  • 23. What happens when an MIT course is born digital? Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 23
  • 24. Open Learning XML (OLX) <problem url_name="ps1-check" showanswer="closed" rerandomize="never" weight="0" display_name="Check pset 1 answers"> Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. <text> <p>Probabality of two-pair:<br/> <numericalresponse answer=".047539"> <textline> <responseparam type="tolerance" default="0.001"/> </textline> </numericalresponse> </p> </text> </problem> 24
  • 25. What happens when an MIT professor makes OCW? Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 25
  • 26. What happens when an MIT professor makes OCW? Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 26
  • 27. What happens when an MIT professor makes OCW? Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 27
  • 28. But can we make it reusable? Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 28
  • 29. Embedded in MIT OpenCourseWare Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 29
  • 30. How it works We pass a URL for the raw OLX code to the open assessments web application: http://www.openassessments.com/assessments/load?utf8=✓src_url=http://…/cours es/mathematics/18-05-introduction-to-probability-and-statistics-spring- 2014/sequential/ps1.xml And then to embed it in MIT OCW, we use an iframe: <iframe style="width: 100%; height: 600px;" src="http://www.openassessments.com/assessments/load?utf8=✓&style=ocw&src_ur l=http://…/courses/mathematics/18-05-introduction-to-probability-and-statistics- spring-2014/sequential/ps1.xml"> Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 30
  • 32. Related and Future Work • Increasing use – Open Item Banks – Use in Lumen Learning-developed OER course – Extending to additional MIT OCW courses • Extending functionality – Additional question types, especially parameterized/interactive ones • How will use use it? openassessments.org Unless otherwise specified this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 32

Editor's Notes

  1. Cite as: Pinch. P. & Muramatsu, B. (2014, November). The Best of Both Worlds: Transforming OpenCourseWare in the Age of Interactivity. Open Education Conference 2014. Crystal City, VA.
  2. • or at least, not experienced digitally by students. And the the parts that are digital are the most cutting edge parts – which run into problems elsewhere • We publish about 150 courses per year the goal for faculty is no more than 5 hours to get a course published • that’s “little a accessibility,” meaning we try to avoid demanding software. As it is, we still distribute java apps, which are hard to install and run, and things like uncompiled matlab files • we strongly prefer client-side technology – HTML, CSS, JavaScript – so that users can download it and redistribute it with little fuss • We have few resources to go back and fix things, so you when you encounter interactivity, I always have to ask myself “how long before this breaks”
  3. http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-03sc-physics-iii-vibrations-and-waves-fall-2012/unit-iii-electromagnetic-waves/lecture-14/ Simple hide/reveal problem, written in JavaScript.
  4. http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/brain-and-cognitive-sciences/9-00sc-introduction-to-psychology-fall-2011/science-research/ Simple Multiple-choice problem, written in JavaScript. However, it must be noted that these examples are from Scholar courses, which have additional production resources. This are actually “born digital” courses.
  5. 18.05 was taught in the spring of 2014. It’s an introductory course on probability and statistics from a mathematics perspective. It used our residential version of open edX to offer students reading questions and a problem set checker. Students couldn’t do the problem set online, but they could use the checker to confirm the accuracy of their numeric responses.
  6. Works in MITx: 78*6*6*11*4/2598960 Doesn’t work in MITx: 78*6*6*11*4 / (52! / (5! * (52-5)!))
  7. 18.05 used OLX to author the course. Raises the question of, how can we transform this to make something interactive. This is a little more complex in reality, because the OLX code gets spread across multiple, linked files.
  8. So the Math professor wrote his own transform from OLX to JavaScript. It works beautifully, but it has some of the same issues with earlier OCW JavaScript interactivity. It’s difficult to re-use – especially because students need to reference the PDF. We have no way to track user performance.
  9. So the Math professor wrote his own transform from OLX to JavaScript. It works beautifully, but it has some of the same issues with earlier OCW JavaScript interactivity. It’s difficult to re-use – especially because students need to reference the PDF. We have no way to track user performance.
  10. So the Math professor wrote his own transform from OLX to JavaScript. It works beautifully, but it has some of the same issues with earlier OCW JavaScript interactivity. It’s difficult to re-use – especially because students need to reference the PDF. We have no way to track user performance.