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Community Engagement,
Solidarity and Citizenship
Module 1 – Quarter 1
The Importance of Studying Community Dynamics
and Community Action
Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
i
Development Team of the Module
Author: Leterin II G. Agcopra
Content Editor: Michael M. Taytay
Language Editor: Elbert T. Maestre
Proofreader : Presentacion P. Alarba
Layout Artist: Ivy O. Niñeza
Development Team:
Chairperson:
Co-Chairpersons:
Dr. Arturo B. Bayocot, CESO III
Regional Director
Dr. Victor G. De Gracia Jr. CESO V
Assistant Regional Director
Jonathan S. dela Peña, PhD, CESO V
Schools Division Superintendent
Rowena H. Para-on, PhD
Assistant Schools Division Superintendent
Mala Epra B. Magnaong, Chief ES, CLMD
Members: Neil A. Improgo, PhD, EPS-LRMS; Bienvenido U. Tagolimot, Jr., PhD, EPS-ADM;
Erlinda G. Dael, PhD, CID Chief; Maria Teresa M. Absin, EPS (English); Celieto B.
Magsayo, LRMS Manager; Loucile L. Paclar, Librarian II;
Kim Eric G. Lubguban, PDO II
Community Engagement, Solidarity, and Citizenship (CSC)
Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 1 – Module 1: Understanding the importance of studying community
Dynamics and community action
First Edition, 2020
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Published by the Department of Education
Secretary:
Undersecretary:
Assistant Secretary:
Leonor Magtolis Briones
Diosdado M. San Antonio
Alma Ruby C. Torio
Printed in the Philippines by
Department of Education - Alternative Delivery Mode (DepEd-ADM)
Office Address: Masterson Avenue, Upper Balulang, Zone 1, Cagayan de Oro City,
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Telefax:
E-mail Address:
Community Engagement,
Solidarity and Citizenship
Module 1 – Quarter 1
The Importance of Studying Community
Dynamics and Community Action
Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
Cover page i
This instructional material was collaboratively developed and
reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or
universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to
email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of
Education at action@deped.gov.ph.
We value your feedback and recommendations.
ii
iii
Copyright page
Table of Contents
ii
iv
FIRST QUARTER - MODULE 1
What I Need to Know
What Should I Expect
Things to Remember to Get Through
Remember This
1
1
2
2
LESSON 1- Importance of Studying Community Dynamics and Community
Action
What Should I Expect
What I Know
What is it
What’s In
What’s More
Assessment
3
3
4
10
10
11
LESSON 2 – Definitions of Social Sciences, Institutions, Civil Society and
Local/Grassroots Level
What Should I Expect
What I know
What’s New
Assessment
Additional Activities
Assessment
References
12
12
13
25
26
27
28
iv
WHAT I NEED TO KNOW
THINGS TO REMEMBER TO
GET THROUGH
Research findings show that course module is useful academically up to
some level in improving the standards of students. The struggle to study is the main
aim of the students in the teaching-learning process. The goal of all above is to make
teaching-learning process most effective.
In this module, the students understand and appreciate the integration of
social science perspective and community action initiatives.
After studying this module, students will be able to:
1. demons
W
trat
H
e a
A
n
T
unde
S
rs
H
tan
O
din
U
g
L
of
D
the
I
inte
E
gr
X
atio
P
n
E
of
C
so
T
cial science
perspective and community action initiatives;
2. synthesize the integrative experience of implementing
community-action initiatives applying social sciences’
ideas and methods;
3. understand the meaning of community; and
4. learn the importance of studying the community and its
dynamics.
To learn the benefits from this module, follow the steps below:
1. Read the module title and the module introduction to get an idea of what the
module covers. Specifically, read the first two sections of this module
carefully. The first section tells you what this module is all about while the
second section tells you of what you are expected to learn.
1
2. Never move on to the next page unless you have done what you are expected
to do in the previous page. Before you start each lesson, read first the
INSTRUCTIONS.
3. Work on the activities. Take note of the skills that each activity is helping you
to develop.
4. Take the Post-Test after you are done with all the lessons and activities in the
module.
5. Meet with your teacher. Ask him/her about any difficulty or confusion you have
encountered in this module.
6. Finally, prepare and gather all your outputs and submit them to your teacher.
7. Please write all your answers of the tests, activities, exercises, and others in
your separate activity notebook.
GOOD LUCK AS YOU BEGIN THIS MODULE!
LESSON
1
2
Importance of Studying Community Dynamics and
Community Action in relation to applied social
sciences and the learners’ future career options
WHAT SHOULD I EXPECT
WHAT I KNOW
WHAT IS IT
V
Competency 1A: Explain the importance of studying community dynamics and
community action in relation to applied social sciences and the learners’ future
career options, HUMSS_CSC12-IIIa-c-1 (2 hours)
At the end of this lesson, the learners are expected to:
1. understand the meaning of community;
2. identify the types of community;
3. appreciate the importance of studying the community
dynamics; and
4. learn the social science for future career options.
and its
Exercise 1.0 I Dream
Instructions: Complete the statement below and answer the questions that follows:
(10 minutes)
I, , dream to be a/an in the future.
(Name) (Dream)
1. What influenced you to form this dream?
2. How do you think this dream will help your future family and the community?
3. Why do you think that this dream is essential?
4. Is your dream still reachable in your current standing as grade 12 student?
3
What is community?
4
A community is a group of people who share something in common. You can
define a community by the shared attributes of the people in it and/or by the strength
of the connections among them. You need a bunch of people who are alike in some
way, who feel some sense of belonging or interpersonal connection.
A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such
as norms, religion, values, customs, or identity. Communities may share a sense
of place situated in a given geographical area (e.g. a country, village, town, or
neighbourhood) or in virtual space through communication platforms. Durable
relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties also define a sense of
community, important to their identity, practice, and roles in social institutions such
as family, home, work, government, society, or humanity at large. Although
communities are usually small relative to personal social ties, "community" may also
refer to large group affiliations such as national communities, international
communities, and virtual communities.
French comuneté (currently "Communauté"), which comes
The English-language word "community" derives from the Old
from
the Latin communitas "community", "public spirit" (from Latin communis, "common").
Human communities may share intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs,
and risks in common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of
cohesiveness.
According to David M. Chavis & Kien Lee, “Community” is so easy to say. The
word itself connects us with each other. It describes an experience so common that
we never really take time to explain it. It seems so simple, so natural, and so human.
In the social sector, we often add it to the names of social innovations as a symbol of
good intentions (for example, community mental health, community policing,
community-based philanthropy, community economic development).
However, the meaning of community is complex. Insufficient understanding of
what a community is and its role in the lives of people in diverse societies has led to
the downfall of many well-intended “community” efforts.
Types of Community
5
A formal group is formed when people come together to accomplish specific goals
an objectives.
An informal group is formed when two or more people come together to accomplish
a specific task which is mainly socially geared.
An urban area is the region surrounding a city. An area with high density of
population.
A rural area is an open swath of land that has few homes or other buildings, and not
very many people. A rural area’s population density is very low.
A global community are the people or nations of the world, considered as being
closely connected by modern telecommunications and as being economically,
socially, and politically interdependent.
Sectoral means relating to the various economic sectors of a society or to
a particular economic sector.
A social space is physical or virtual space such as a social center,
online social media, or other gathering place where people gather and interact.
There are, broadly speaking, five common features of communities.
You can classify every type of community by the purpose that brings them together.
1. Interest. Communities of people who share the same interest or passion.
2. Action. Communities of people trying to bring about change.
3. Place. Communities of people brought together by geographic boundaries.
4. Practice. Communities of people in the same profession or undertake the
same activities.
5. Circumstance. Communities of people brought together by external
events/situations.
About 90% of community projects, especially branded communities, try to
develop a community of interest. But a community of interest competes with our
mental leisure time. Communities of interest are the hardest type of community to
develop.
Community Dynamics is the process of change and development
in communities of all living organisms—including plants, microorganisms, and small
and large creatures of every sort. Populations of an organism will appear in an
environment as its requirements for establishment are met.
What could it be used for?
For commissioners, policy-makers and anybody else involved in the design and
delivery of local services, Community Dynamics data can be used to bring additional
depth into the understanding of your local areas.
6
Particularly, these data sets could have a role to play in projects and initiatives
looking to work in a more asset-based way.
Importance of Understanding Community Dynamics and Community Action
Community Dynamics is the change and development involved in a
community that includes all forms of living organisms.
Community Action is putting communities as the center of the services
development and services delivery. This initiative aims to cater the primary needs of
the communities before implementing it. In such way, community action will help the
community dynamics or the degree of improvement of the community.
It is important to understand these two because these will propel the success
and stability of the communities. They go hand in hand and are proportionally
related.
Whatiscommunityaction?
Community action is any activity that increases the understanding,
engagement and empowerment of communities in the design and delivery of local
services. It includes a broad range of activities and is sometimes described as ‘social
action' or ‘community engagement'. These activities can vary in their objective, the
role the community plays, the types of activities involved, their scale and their
integration within the council. What they have in common is that they all involve
greater engagement of local citizens in the planning, design and delivery of local
services.
Why is community action important?
Community action is about putting communities at the heart of their own local
services. Involving communities in the design and delivery of services can help to
achieve a number of objectives, including:
 Building community and social capacity – helping the community to share
knowledge, skills and ideas.
 Community resilience – helping the community to support itself.
 Prevention – a focus on early access to services or support, engagement in
design, cross-sector collaboration and partnerships.
 Maintaining and creating wealth – for example helping people into
employment or developing community enterprises.
Role of the Community
The role the community includes community consultation, joint planning, joint
design, joint delivery and community-led activities.
Applied Social Sciences
These are social science disciplines, professions and occupations which seek to use
basic social science research and theory to improve the daily life of communities,
organizations and persons.
7
What can I do with my degree in Social Sciences?
Social Science Careers
The occupations listed below are a selection of those which may
interest Social Sciences students and graduates from the School of Social Policy,
Sociology and Social Research.
Advice Worker- Advice Workers provide information, advice and guidance on a
range of topics depending on the role. These topics may include housing,
employment, welfare, education, finance and law.
Civil Service Career- The Civil Service delivers public services according to
government policies. There are a large number of different departments and so a
huge variety of different roles.
Charity Officer- here are a variety of different roles within charities including project
management, volunteer co-ordination and fund raising.
Community Development Worker- Working in communities and liaising with
different agencies to bring about change and improvements. Some work may be
targeted towards certain groups of people e.g. the unemployed or the homeless.
Community Education Officer- Promoting and coordinating a range of educational
options to members of a local community.
Equality and Diversity Officer- Equality Officers promote diversity and work to
ensure that people are treated fairly and not discriminated against for characteristics
including race, gender, age or disability.
Family Support Worker- Working with families facing a variety of difficulties and
helping them to solve problems and move forward.
Housing Officer- Housing Officers work for local authorities or housing associations
to manage rented accommodation including solving problems raised by tenants,
organizing maintenance, allocating properties and dealing with payment issues.
Housing Policy Officers develop policies for local authorities or housing associations.
Human Resources Officer- Human Resources Officers aim to ensure that
organizations have a skilled and efficient workforce. They are involved in recruitment
8
and selection, training and development, grievance and discipline and provide advice
on employment law.
Immigration, Customs and Border Roles- There are a variety of roles involving
monitoring people, banned substances and other goods leaving and entering the
country to ensure safety and security and to maintain the law.
Intelligence Analyst- Analyzing and assessing intelligence data largely for the
purposes of security and crime prevention.
International Aid/Development Worker- Working to improve the lives of people in
developing countries.
Legal Careers- Providing legal services to clients.
Local Government Careers- Developing policies and delivering local services.
There are a huge variety of roles within local government including roles in social
care, housing and education to name just a few.
Mediator- Working with people to help them solve conflicts and disagreements.
Police Officer- Police Officers work to make communities safer by maintaining the
law and preventing crime.
Prison Officer- Prison Officers are responsible for maintaining security in prisons
and supporting the rehabilitation of prisoners.
Probation Officer- Probation Officers work with offenders and aim to reduce rates of
re-offending and protect the public.
Psychologist- There are a range of different psychologist roles but broadly they
help clients to improve their psychological well being.
Psychotherapy, Counselling and mental Roles- Supporting people to overcome a
range of psychological or emotional difficulties.
Social Researcher- Social Researchers could work for universities or
research/market research organizations. Social research covers a wide range of
WHAT’S IN
topics including crime, transport and education. Social Researchers manage
research projects including collecting and analyzing data and presenting the results.
Social Worker- Social Workers work with people in the community who need
support, for example, the elderly, children who are at risk, people with disabilities or
mental health difficulties.
Substance Misuse Worker- Supporting clients to overcome their problems with
drug, alcohol or solvent misuse.
Teacher/Lecturer/Education Roles- There are a variety of opportunities within
education from primary schools to universities.
Victim Care Officer- Providing help to people who have been victims of crime,
including supporting them during court proceedings.
Volunteer Coordinator- Managing the recruitment, training, placement and
retention of volunteers.
Youth Offending Officer- Working with young offenders with the aim of reducing
rates of re-offending and supporting young people to achieve positive outcomes.
Youth Worker- Working with young people to provide support, raise aspirations and
break down barriers to achieving. This is done in a variety of ways including through
recreational activities, organizing projects, mentoring and liaising with other
agencies.
9
WHAT’S MORE
ASSESSMENT
INSTRUCTIONS:
In your notebook, answer the following questions.
1.) Define Community in your own words.
2.) Give three (3) reasons why do we need to study community.
3.) Describe your community in one (1) word, and why?
4.) List down at least five (5) activities in your community that you actively
engaged in.
5.) Give at least five (5) contributions you did to your community as an individual.
Note to the teacher:
Have your own assessment on the above What’s
In activity. Also, you decide the scoring of this activity.
Thank you.
ACTIVITY 1
1.) Make a non-sequential blocks in your notebook focusing in the Social Science
Careers listed above, select the top five (5) priority career you want in the
future.
(Note: Limit 5 careers only and you can have your own graphical design)
To the teacher:
You can vary the instructions such as:
1.Vary the number of timeline-events, genres and their
structures.
2.Give your own graphical design or ask the students to have their
own.
3.Opt to have another activity as long as it has something to do with
tracing the literary evolution of the Philippines.
10
WHAT SHOULD I EXPECT
WHAT I KNOW
Instructions: Match each statement in Column A with what it describes
in Column B. Write the letter of the answer in your notebook.
Column A
1 A human settlement with a high population
density.
2.Areas have a low population density and
small settlements.
3.Known as the change and development
involved in a community that includes all forms
of living organisms.
4.A physical or virtual space such as a social
center, online social media, or other gathering
place where people gather and interact.
5.A situation putting communities as the center
of the services development and services
delivery.
6.A group of people who share something in
common.
Column B
a. Social Science
b. Rural community
c. Community action
d. Community dynamics
e. Social space
f. Community
g. Urban community
h. Sociology
Learning Competency 1B: Define using various perspectives, e.g., social sciences,
institutions, civil society, and local/grassroots level HUMSS_CSC12-IIa-c-2
(2 hours).
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
1. understand the community through the lens of the social sciences;
2. identify the various social science perspectives;
3. appreciate the value of community action initiatives; and
4. discuss the community through the five main social institutions.
PERSPECTIVE AND LOCAL/GRASSROOTS
SOCIAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVES,
LESSON INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE, CIVIL SOCIETY
2
11
WHAT’S NEW
Instruction: Write T if the statement is true and F if it is false. Write your
answer in your notebook.
1.Family is responsible for reproduction to replace members, provides protection,
socialize the young.
2.Politics produce and distribute goods and services.
3.Education is a way to pass on culture, knowledge, and values.
4.Religion helps people find purpose in their live, develops spiritual side of people,
provides guidelines for personal behavior and social interaction.
5.Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and
the relationships among individuals within those societies.
6.Sociology is the study of what makes us human.
7.Anthropology is the study of human social life.
8.Economic is the art or science of government.
9.Anthropological perspective focuses on the study of the full scope of human
diversity and the application of that knowledge to help people of different
backgrounds.
10.Institution is a society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social,
or similar purpose.
I. SOCIAL SCIENCE
Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and
the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly
used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in
the 19th century. In addition to sociology, it is now encompasses a wide array
of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human
geography, linguistics, management science, media studies, musicology, political
science, psychology, welfare and nursing studies[1]
and social history.
Sociology is the study of human social life. Sociology is a branch of the social
sciences that uses systematic methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis
to develop and refine a body of knowledge about human social structure.
The perspective of sociology involves seeing through the outside appearances of
people’s actions and organizations (Berger, P. 1963). It is the way of looking at the
society and the social behaviour—the subject matter of sociology. It goes beyond
12
13
identifying patterns of social behaviour. It also attempts to provide explanations for
such patterns.
What is a social science perspective?
The Social Science Perspective is viewing life through the tinted spectacles of
the speculations passed off as “science” by bullying academics. In sad truth, they
cannot predict wars, social changes, elections, or anything else. And certainly they
are incapable of creating or manipulating anything significant.
They call themselves “scientists” because they explain the world in complex
language and invented words that they pretend to understand. In reality, they have
no science because science means to be able to predict without error and to
manipulate or create phenomena.
A lens maker can create a lens for a specific function because he knows the
materials, the math, and the laws of optics. An astronomer can predict eclipses and
the path of planets. A chemist can synthesize new chemicals, and predict reactions
and the energies involved. Always, without error.
However a social scientist can only generate large volumes of garbled prose,
too thick to be called a lie and without the work ability required of the truth.
ompare
it to the beliefs and practices
of other societies, past, and
present (Dudgeon). The
holistic,
cross-cultural and comparative
more deeply about
approach can help us think
other
people and
14
cultures,
consciously
and live more
in our global
world. It also changes your
way of thinking
about the world with a wider
of the human
It allows us to
appreciation
experience.
understand
how the evolutionary package
inherited from our ancestors
work in today’s environment.
Sources:
15
Dudgeon, Roy C. “The
Anthropological Perspective:
What Makes it Unique.”
“Why is Anthropology
Important.”
https://classroom.synonym.co
m/why-is-anthropology-
important-12080725.html .
ompare
it to the beliefs and practices
of other societies, past, and
present (Dudgeon). The
holistic,
cross-cultural and comparative
approach can help us think
16
more deeply about other
people and
cultures,
consciously
and live more
in our global
world. It also changes your
way of thinking
about the world with a wider
of the human
It allows us to
appreciation
experience.
understand
how the evolutionary package
inherited from our ancestors
work in today’s environment.
17
Sources:
Dudgeon, Roy C. “The
Anthropological Perspective:
What Makes it Unique.”
“Why is Anthropology
Important.”
https://classroom.synonym.co
m/why-is-anthropology-
important-12080725.html .
ompare
it to the beliefs and practices
of other societies, past, and
present (Dudgeon). The
holistic,
18
cross-cultural and comparative
more deeply about
approach can help us think
other
people and
cultures,
consciously
and live more
in our global
world. It also changes your
way of thinking
about the world with a wider
of the human
It allows us to
appreciation
experience.
understand
how the evolutionary package
inherited from our ancestors
work in today’s environment.
19
Sources:
Dudgeon, Roy C. “The
Anthropological Perspective:
What Makes it Unique.”
“Why is Anthropology
Important.”
https://classroom.synonym.co
m/why-is-anthropology-
important-12080725.html .
ompare
it to the beliefs and practices
of other societies, past, and
20
present (Dudgeon). The
holistic,
cross-cultural and comparative
more deeply about
approach can help us think
other
people and
cultures,
consciously
and live more
in our global
world. It also changes your
way of thinking
about the world with a wider
of the human
It allows us to
appreciation
experience.
understand
21
how the evolutionary package
inherited from our ancestors
work in today’s environment.
Sources:
Dudgeon, Roy C. “The
Anthropological Perspective:
What Makes it Unique.”
“Why is Anthropology
Important.”
https://classroom.synonym.co
m/why-is-anthropology-
important-12080725.html .
22
What is the
perspective?
important?
anthropological
Why is it
Anthropology is the study of
people, past and present, that
focuses on understanding the
human condition both
culturally and biologically.
Other than culture concept,
Anthropology has
different distinctive ways of
thinking about the world,
human cultures, societies, and
people.
23
Anthropological Perspective
focuses on the study of the full
scope of human diversity and
the
application of that knowledge
to help people of different
backgrounds. Some of the
aspects of the
Anthropological Perspective
are culture, cultural relativism,
human diversity,
focus. The
fieldwork,
holism,
biocultural
main
four
of
cross-
perspectives
Anthropology are the
cultural or
24
comparative emphasis, its
evolutionary/historical
emphasis, its ecological
emphasis, and its
holistic emphasis (Dudgeon).
From an anthropological
perspective, these concepts are
related to
each other and they are also
seen as integrated with one
another.
origin and the
human beings,
history
and
In order to understand the
of
to
acknowledge
25
global cultured and
communities, people should be
able to consider
anthropological perspectives
in their both social
academic
and
lives.
Anthropological perspective is
very important because it
looks at shared aspects of
like
humanity
cultural
language,
connections,
economics, and curiosity
to find the common thread.
What makes the
Anthropological Perspective
unique is that unlike
26
other social scientists,
anthropologists look beyond
the confines of our own
society and compare
it to the beliefs and practices
of other societies, past, and
present (Dudgeon). The
holistic,
cross-cultural and comparative
more deeply about
approach can help us think
other
people and
cultures,
consciously
and live more
in our global
world. It also changes your
way of thinking
27
about the world with a wider
of the human
It allows us to
appreciation
experience.
understand
how the evolutionary package
inherited from our ancestors
work in today’s environment
What is the anthropological
perspective? Why is it
important?
Anthropology is the study of
people, past and present, that
focuses on understanding the
human condition both
culturally and biologically.
28
Other than culture concept,
Anthropology has
different distinctive ways of
thinking about the world,
human cultures, societies, and
people.
Anthropological Perspective
focuses on the study of the full
scope of human diversity and
the
application of that knowledge
to help people of different
backgrounds. Some of the
aspects of the
Anthropological Perspective
are culture, cultural relativism,
29
human diversity,
focus. The
fieldwork,
holism,
biocultural
main
four
of
cross-
perspectives
are the
Anthropology
cultural or
comparative emphasis, its
evolutionary/historical
emphasis, its ecological
emphasis, and its
holistic emphasis (Dudgeon).
From an anthropological
perspective, these concepts are
related to
30
each other and they are also
seen as integrated with one
another.
origin and the
human beings,
history
and
In order to understand the
of
to
acknowledge
global cultured and
communities, people should be
able to consider
anthropological perspectives
in their both social
academic
and
lives.
Anthropological perspective is
very important because it
31
looks at shared aspects of
like
humanity
cultural
language,
connections,
economics, and curiosity
to find the common thread.
What makes the
Anthropological Perspective
unique is that unlike
other social scientists,
anthropologists look beyond
the confines of our own
society and compare
it to the beliefs and practices
of other societies, past, and
present (Dudgeon). The
holistic,
32
cross-cultural and comparative
more deeply about
approach can help us think
other
people and
cultures,
consciously
and live more
in our global
world. It also changes your
way of thinking
about the world with a wider
of the human
It allows us to
appreciation
experience.
understand
how the evolutionary package
inherited from our ancestors
work in today’s environment
What is Anthropology?
Anthropology is the study of what makes us human. Anthropologists take a broad
approach in understanding different aspects of the human experiences, which we
call holism. They consider the past, through archaeology, to see how human groups
lived hundreds or thousands of years ago and what was important to them. They
consider what makes up our biological bodies and genetics as well as our bones,
diet, and health.
1. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
-focuses on the study of the full scope of human diversity and the application of
that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds. These are culture, cultural
relativism, fieldwork, human diversity, holism, bio-cultural focus.
2. SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
-involves the investigation of the problem on micro and macro levels. At micro
level, sociology studies how individuals behave in social situations—at work, at play,
at home, or in school, or in small and large groups. It deals with people’s everyday
interactions (social interactionist, ethno methodological and phenomenological
approaches of study).
At macro level, sociology focuses on patterns of behaviour and forms of
organisation that characterise entire societies (classical and grand theorist’s
approaches). At this level, sociology deals with large-scale structures (such as
bureaucracy), broad social categories, institutions, social systems, and social
problems such as war, unemployment, poverty, corruption, and solutions to these
problems are sought at the structural or organisational level. In their studies,
sociologists utilise both approaches of study, i.e., qualitative (introspective-
participant method) and quantitative (statistical, interview and survey techniques).
3. POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE
Politics (from Greek: Πολιτικά, politiká, 'affairs of the cities') is the set of activities
that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power
relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The
academic study of politics is referred to as Political Science.
Perspectives on politics seeks to provide a space for broad and synthetic
discussion within the political science profession and between the profession and the
broader scholarly and reading publics. Such discussion necessarily draws on and
contributes to the scholarship published in the more specialized journals that
dominate our discipline. At the same time, Perspectives seeks to promote a
complementary form of broad public discussion and synergistic understanding within
the profession that is essential to advancing research and promoting scholarly
community. Perspectives seeks to nurture a political science public sphere,
publicizing important scholarly topics, ideas, and innovations, linking scholarly
authors and readers, and promoting broad reflexive discussion among political
scientists about the work that we do and why this work matters.
II. INSTITUTIONS
A society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar
purpose. It is an established organization or corporation (such as a bank or
university) especially of a public character financial institutions
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE
PICTURE USED.
33
The 5 Major Social Institutions and Their Functions
The five major social institutions and their functions are fairly universal, but
could vary depending one’s culture or geographic location. However, it is likely that
there be some common or overlapping social institutions, each with its relevant set of
functions, which vary somewhat depending on social values, moral standards, and
level of civilization.
Traditionally, sociology identifies the following major types of social institutions:
Functions of major institutions
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE
PICTURE USED.
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE
USED.
34
Family - Responsible for reproduction to replace members,
provides protection, socialize the young
Economic- Produces and distributes goods and services
Political- Assists group in decision making
Education - A way to pass on culture, knowledge, and values
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE
PICTURE USED.
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE
PICTURE USED.
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE THE PICTURE
USED.
35
Religion - Helps people find purpose in their lives
Develops spiritual side of people
Provides guidelines for personal behavior and social interaction
III. CIVIL SOCIETY PERSPECTIVE
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE
PICTURE USED.
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE
PICTURE USED.
36
Civil society refers to the space for collective action around shared interests,
purposes and values, generally distinct from government and commercial for profit
actors. Civil society includes charities, development NGO’s, community groups,
women organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, trade
unions, social movements, coalitions and advocacy groups. However, civil society is
not homogeneous and the boundaries between civil society and government or civil
society and commercial actors can be blurred. There is certainly no one 'civil society'
view, and civil society actors need to contend with similar issues of
representativeness and legitimacy as those of other representatives and advocates.
1. MANIFESTATIONS OF CIVIL SOCIETY GROUPS
The emergence of civil society groups is well received by development
practitioner in varied forms. Such groups are formed based on the customs and
norms of the prevailing society. Groups that are formed under these have
individuals who can freely choose to associate with not just one but as many as he
or she likes. Since people have the liberty to do such, the groups act like leverage
for particular individuals to be with like-minded citizens. Think of these groups as an
intermediary of the citizens in their relationship with their government and the private
sector. An individual alone will not have the same lobbying power as when he or she
is with a group that has more social capital as an enabler. This combination of
networks and relationships promotes clout in order to carry out the group’s advocate
and goals.
2. ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE
PICTURE USED.
NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE
PICTURE USED.
37
The role of civil society in good governance is to apprise people of their
fundamental rights and responsibilities. In addition, civil society is instrumental in
making people aware about the role of the government and state institutions, as well
as the responsibilities of state functionaries. Without that knowledge, most people
are unaware of governance, public issues and the administrative structures and
functions.
3. NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS
NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs
and associations which provide services to its members and others. They are
usually nonprofit organizations. Many NGOs are active in humanitarianism or the
social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust,
which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and
stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as
the World Economic Forum. According to NGO.org, (the non-governmental
organizations associated with the United Nations [), NGOs are any non-profit,
voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level.
Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety
of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments,
advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision
of information.
Some NGOs rely primarily on volunteers, while others support a paid staff.
Two broad groups of NGOs are identified by the World Bank:
 Operational NGOs- which focus on development projects.
 Advocacy NGOs- which are organized to promote particular causes.
How NGOs are Funded?
As non-profits, NGOs rely on a variety of sources for funding, including:
 membership dues
 private donations
 the sale of goods and services
 grants
38
39
Despite their independence from government, some NGOs rely significantly on
government funding. Large NGOs may have budgets in the millions or billions of
dollars.
Some common characteristics of NGOs according to Ball and Dunn are:
 They are formed voluntarily.
 They are independent of government.
 They are not for private profit or gain.
Their principal is to improve the circumstances and prospects of disadvantaged
people.
4. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to
achieve a particular goal, typically a social or political one. Interest group, also
called special interest group or pressure group, any association of individuals or
organizations, usually formally organized, that, on the basis of one or more shared
concerns, attempts to influence public policy in its favor. All interest groups share a
desire to affect government policy to benefit themselves or their causes. Their goal
could be a policy that exclusively benefits group members or one segment of society
(e.g., government subsidies for farmers) or a policy that advances a broader public
purpose (e.g., improving air quality). They attempt to achieve their goals by lobbying
—that is, by attempting to bring pressure to bear on policy makers to gain policy
outcomes in their favour.
5. INTEREST GROUPS
Interest groups are a natural outgrowth of the communities of interest that
exist in all societies, from narrow groups such as the Japan Eraser Manufacturers
Association to broad groups such as the American Federation of Labor–Congress of
Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO) and to even broader organizations such as the
military. Politics and interests are inseparable. Interests are a prevalent, permanent,
and essential aspect of all political systems—democratic, authoritarian, and
totalitarian regimes alike. Furthermore, interest groups exist at all levels of
government—national, state, provincial, and local—and increasingly they have
occupied an important role in international affairs.
Some interest groups consist of individuals such as ranchers or fruit growers
who may form farm commodity organizations. In other instances, an interest group
consists not of individuals but of organizations or businesses.
The term interest rather than interest group is often used to denote broad or
less-formalized political constituencies, such as the agricultural interest and the
environmental interest—segments of society that may include many formal interest
groups. Similarly, interest is often used when considering government entities
working to influence other governments (e.g., a local government seeking to secure
funding from the national government). In authoritarian and developing societies,
where formal interest groups are restricted or not as well developed, interest is often
used to designate broader groupings such as government elites and tribal leaders.
The common goals and sources of interest groups obscure, however, the fact
that they vary widely in their form and lobbying strategies both within and across
political systems. This article provides a broad overview that explains these
differences and the role that interest groups play in society.
6. Local and International Organizations
There are variety of legal types of organizations,
including corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, political
organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit
corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions.
An organization is an entity, such as a company, an institution, or an association,
comprising one or more people and having a particular purpose.
Local International
Government Organizations International Organizations
Local organization means an
organization whose activities are limited
to this state or to a specific geographical
area within this state.
A local government is a form of public
administration which, in a majority of
contexts, exists as the lowest tier of
administration within a given state. The
term is used to contrast with offices
at state level, which are referred to as
the central government, national
government, or (where
appropriate) federal government and
also to supranational government which
deals with governing institutions between
states. Local governments generally act
within powers delegated to them
by legislation or directives of the higher
level of government. In federal states,
local government generally comprises
the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of
government, whereas in unitary states,
local government usually occupies the
second or third tier of government, often
with greater powers than higher-level
administrative divisions.
40
An international
organization (intergovernmental
organization) is an organization
by a treaty or other
governed by international
established
instrument
law and possessing its own
international legal personality, such as
the United Nations, the World Health
Organization and NATO. International
organizations are composed of
primarily Member states, but may also
include other entities, such as other
international organizations.
Notable examples include the United
Nations (UN), Organization for Security
and Co-operation
Europe (OSCE), Council
in
of
Europe (COE), International Labour
Organization (ILO) and International
Police Organization (INTERPOL).
Non-government Organizations International Non-government
41
Organizations
Organizations which are independent of
government involvement are known
as non-governmental
organizations or NGOs or non-
government organizations. NGOs are
a subgroup of organizations founded by
citizens, which include clubs
and associations which provide services
to its members and others. They are
usually nonprofit organizations. Many
NGOs are active in humanitarianism or
the social sciences. Surveys indicate that
NGOs have a high degree of public trust,
which can make them a useful proxy for
the concerns of society and
stakeholders. However, NGOs can also
be lobby groups for corporations, such
as the World Economic
Forum. According to NGO.org (the non-
governmental organizations associated
with the United Nations), "[an NGO is]
any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group
which is organized on a local, national or
international level ... Task-oriented and
driven by people with a common interest,
NGOs perform a variety of service and
humanitarian functions, bring citizen
concerns to Governments, advocate and
monitor policies and encourage political
participation through provision of
information
An international non-governmental
organization (INGO) extends the
concept of a non-governmental
organization (NGO) to an international
scope.
NGOs are independent of governments
and can be seen as two
types, advocacy NGOs, which aim to
influence governments with a specific
goal, and operational NGOs, which
provide services. Examples of NGO
mandates are environmental
preservation, human rights promotions
or the advancement of women. NGOs
are typically not-for-profit, but receive
funding from companies or
membership fees. Many large INGOs
have components of operational
projects and advocacy initiatives
working together within individual
countries.
IV. GRASSROOTS LEVEL
A grassroots movement is one which uses the people in a given district, region,
or community as the basis for a political or economic movement. Grassroots
movements and organizations use collective action from the local level to effect
change at the local, regional, national, or international level. Grassroots movements
are associated with bottom-up, rather than top-down decision making, and are
sometimes considered more natural or spontaneous than more traditional power
structures.
Grassroots movements, using self-organization, encourage community members
to contribute by taking responsibility and action for their community. Grassroots
movements utilize a variety of strategies from fundraising and registering voters, to
simply encouraging political conversation. Goals of specific movements vary and
change, but the movements are consistent in their focus on increasing mass
participation in politics. These political movements may begin as small and at the
42
local level, but grassroots politics as Cornel West contends are necessary in shaping
progressive politics as they bring public attention to regional political concerns.
The idea of grassroots is often conflated with participatory democracy. The Port
Huron Statement, a manifesto seeking a more democratic society, says that to
create a more equitable society, "the grass roots of American Society" need to be
the basis of civil rights and economic reform movements.[6]
The terms can be
distinguished in that grassroots often refers to a specific movement or organization,
whereas participatory democracy refers to the larger system of governance.
STRATEGIES OF GRASSROOTS MOVEMENTS
Grassroots movements use tactics that build power from local and community
movements.
Below is a list of strategies considered to be grassroots because of their focus on
engaging the populace.







 Hosting house meetings or parties
 Having larger meetings
 Putting up posters
 Talking with pedestrians on the street or walking door-to-door (often involving
informational clipboards)
Gathering signatures for petitions
Mobilizing letter-writing, phone-calling, and emailing campaigns
Setting up information tables
Raising money from many small donors for political advertising or campaigns
Organizing large demonstrations
Asking individuals to submit opinions to media outlets and government
officials
Holding get out the vote activities, which include the practices of reminding
people to vote and transporting them to polling places.
V. COMMUNITY ACTION INITIATIVE
Whatiscommunityaction?
Community action is any activity that increases the understanding,
engagement and empowerment of communities in the design and delivery of local
services. It also includes a broad range of activities and is sometimes described as
‘social action' or ‘community engagement'. These activities can vary in their
objective, the role the community plays, the types of activities involved, their scale
and their integration within the council. What they have in common is that they all
involve greater engagement of local citizens in the planning, design and delivery of
local services.
Why is community action important?
ASSESSMENT
Community action is about putting communities at the heart of their own local
services. Involving communities in the design and delivery of services can help to
achieve a number of objectives, including:
 Building community and social capacity – helping the community to share
knowledge, skills and ideas.
 Community resilience – helping the community to support itself.
 Prevention – a focus on early access to services or support, engagement in
design, cross-sector collaboration and partnerships.
 Maintaining and creating wealth – for example helping people into
employment or developing community enterprises.
WHAT ARE THE CORE VALUES OF COMMUNITY ACTION INITIATIVES?
It focuses on community-action initiatives such as community engagement,
solidarity, and citizenship as guided by the core values of human rights, social
justice, empowerment and advocacy, gender equality, and participatory
development.
The types of activity can include:
 Asset transfer (either through formal transfer to bodies such as parish
councils or community interest companies, or transfer of their management to
local community and voluntary groups).
 Making better use of physical resources, such as council-owned buildings, to
support community-led activities.
 Community engagement in decision-making (for example through public
engagement events where the community helps to decide local priorities, co-
design or co-commission services).
 Community networks
 Community grants NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE THE PICTURE
USED.
43
Instructions: Choose a word in the box that corresponds to each of the
following statements below. Write the letter of your choice in your notebook.
1. The study of what makes us human.
2. The study of human social life.
3. Art or science of government.
4. Refers to the space for collective action around shared interests,
purposes and values, generally distinct from government and
commercial for-profit actors.
5. A non-profit, citizen-based group that functions independently of
government.
6. Loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a
particular goal, typically a social or political one.
7. One which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as
the basis for a political or economic movement.
8. Any activities that increase the understanding, engagement and
empowerment of communities in the design and delivery of local
services.
9. A local government is a form of public administration which, in a
majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a
given state.
10.It is an organization is an entity, such as a company, an institution, or
an association, comprising one or more people and having a particular
purpose.
GO)
a. Civil society
b. Sociology
c. Politics
d. social movement
e. non-governmental organization (N
f. anthropology
g. grassroots movement
h. Community action
i. local government
j. Local organization
k. Organization
44
Needs Wants
Institution and Actors Possible Intervention
Government
Family
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES
45
Instructions: Do the following activity in your activity notebook.
1.Take five (5) minutes to think about your community and write down all the needs
and wants of your community in the first box.
2.After listing the needs and wants, list down on the second box list the actors in
the different institutions in your community and how these institution intervene or
help out in making your community a better place to live in.
References:
pouncedigital.com.au
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community)
David M. Chavis & Kien Lee May 12, 2015
https://www.feverbee.com/different-types-of-communities/
Source: Brainly.ph - https://brainly.ph/question/1532455#readmore
en.citizendium.org › wiki › Definition
https://www.kent.ac.uk/ces/student/degree/social-sciences/index.html
https://www.americananthro.org/AdvanceYourCareer/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=2150
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_science
https://www.local.gov.uk/our-support/guidance-and-resources/community-action/community-
action-overview/what-community-action
https://www.lawinsider.com/dictionary/local-organization#
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organization
https://www.britannica.com/topic/interest-group
https://aidwatch.org.au/aidwatch-monitor-news/in-the-news/what-is-an-ngo/
https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/13/what-is-non-government-organization.asp
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-governmental_organization
https://r4d.org/resources/role-civil-society-organizations-supporting-fiscal-transparency-african-
countries/
https://tribune.com.pk/story/1637755/civil-society-good-governance
https://www.who.int/social_determinants/themes/civilsociety/en/
SlideShare
https://www.google.com/search
https://www.who.int/social_determinants/themes/civilsociety/en/
slideshare.net
https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/perspectives
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/politics
https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/sociological-perspective-what-is-sociological-
perspective/35056
www.studocu.com
46
For inquiries or feedback, please write or call:
Department of Education - Alternative Delivery Mode (DepEd-ADM)
Office Address: Masterson Avenue, Upper Balulang, Zone 1, Cagayan de
Oro City, Cagayan de Oro, Lalawigan ng Misamis Oriental
Telefax:
E-mail Address:
47

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community-engagement-module-1-quarter-1-the-importance-of-studying-community-dynamics-and-community-action.pptx

  • 1. Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship Module 1 – Quarter 1 The Importance of Studying Community Dynamics and Community Action Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
  • 2. SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL i Development Team of the Module Author: Leterin II G. Agcopra Content Editor: Michael M. Taytay Language Editor: Elbert T. Maestre Proofreader : Presentacion P. Alarba Layout Artist: Ivy O. Niñeza Development Team: Chairperson: Co-Chairpersons: Dr. Arturo B. Bayocot, CESO III Regional Director Dr. Victor G. De Gracia Jr. CESO V Assistant Regional Director Jonathan S. dela Peña, PhD, CESO V Schools Division Superintendent Rowena H. Para-on, PhD Assistant Schools Division Superintendent Mala Epra B. Magnaong, Chief ES, CLMD Members: Neil A. Improgo, PhD, EPS-LRMS; Bienvenido U. Tagolimot, Jr., PhD, EPS-ADM; Erlinda G. Dael, PhD, CID Chief; Maria Teresa M. Absin, EPS (English); Celieto B. Magsayo, LRMS Manager; Loucile L. Paclar, Librarian II; Kim Eric G. Lubguban, PDO II Community Engagement, Solidarity, and Citizenship (CSC) Alternative Delivery Mode Quarter 1 – Module 1: Understanding the importance of studying community Dynamics and community action First Edition, 2020 Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Undersecretary: Assistant Secretary: Leonor Magtolis Briones Diosdado M. San Antonio Alma Ruby C. Torio Printed in the Philippines by Department of Education - Alternative Delivery Mode (DepEd-ADM) Office Address: Masterson Avenue, Upper Balulang, Zone 1, Cagayan de Oro City, Cagayan de Oro, Lalawigan ng Misamis Oriental Telefax: E-mail Address:
  • 3. Community Engagement, Solidarity and Citizenship Module 1 – Quarter 1 The Importance of Studying Community Dynamics and Community Action Department of Education ● Republic of the Philippines TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. Cover page i This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@deped.gov.ph. We value your feedback and recommendations. ii iii
  • 4. Copyright page Table of Contents ii iv FIRST QUARTER - MODULE 1 What I Need to Know What Should I Expect Things to Remember to Get Through Remember This 1 1 2 2 LESSON 1- Importance of Studying Community Dynamics and Community Action What Should I Expect What I Know What is it What’s In What’s More Assessment 3 3 4 10 10 11 LESSON 2 – Definitions of Social Sciences, Institutions, Civil Society and Local/Grassroots Level What Should I Expect What I know What’s New Assessment Additional Activities Assessment References 12 12 13 25 26 27 28 iv
  • 5. WHAT I NEED TO KNOW THINGS TO REMEMBER TO GET THROUGH Research findings show that course module is useful academically up to some level in improving the standards of students. The struggle to study is the main aim of the students in the teaching-learning process. The goal of all above is to make teaching-learning process most effective. In this module, the students understand and appreciate the integration of social science perspective and community action initiatives. After studying this module, students will be able to: 1. demons W trat H e a A n T unde S rs H tan O din U g L of D the I inte E gr X atio P n E of C so T cial science perspective and community action initiatives; 2. synthesize the integrative experience of implementing community-action initiatives applying social sciences’ ideas and methods; 3. understand the meaning of community; and 4. learn the importance of studying the community and its dynamics. To learn the benefits from this module, follow the steps below: 1. Read the module title and the module introduction to get an idea of what the module covers. Specifically, read the first two sections of this module carefully. The first section tells you what this module is all about while the second section tells you of what you are expected to learn. 1
  • 6. 2. Never move on to the next page unless you have done what you are expected to do in the previous page. Before you start each lesson, read first the INSTRUCTIONS. 3. Work on the activities. Take note of the skills that each activity is helping you to develop. 4. Take the Post-Test after you are done with all the lessons and activities in the module. 5. Meet with your teacher. Ask him/her about any difficulty or confusion you have encountered in this module. 6. Finally, prepare and gather all your outputs and submit them to your teacher. 7. Please write all your answers of the tests, activities, exercises, and others in your separate activity notebook. GOOD LUCK AS YOU BEGIN THIS MODULE! LESSON 1 2 Importance of Studying Community Dynamics and Community Action in relation to applied social sciences and the learners’ future career options
  • 7. WHAT SHOULD I EXPECT WHAT I KNOW WHAT IS IT V Competency 1A: Explain the importance of studying community dynamics and community action in relation to applied social sciences and the learners’ future career options, HUMSS_CSC12-IIIa-c-1 (2 hours) At the end of this lesson, the learners are expected to: 1. understand the meaning of community; 2. identify the types of community; 3. appreciate the importance of studying the community dynamics; and 4. learn the social science for future career options. and its Exercise 1.0 I Dream Instructions: Complete the statement below and answer the questions that follows: (10 minutes) I, , dream to be a/an in the future. (Name) (Dream) 1. What influenced you to form this dream? 2. How do you think this dream will help your future family and the community? 3. Why do you think that this dream is essential? 4. Is your dream still reachable in your current standing as grade 12 student? 3
  • 8. What is community? 4 A community is a group of people who share something in common. You can define a community by the shared attributes of the people in it and/or by the strength of the connections among them. You need a bunch of people who are alike in some way, who feel some sense of belonging or interpersonal connection. A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion, values, customs, or identity. Communities may share a sense of place situated in a given geographical area (e.g. a country, village, town, or neighbourhood) or in virtual space through communication platforms. Durable relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties also define a sense of community, important to their identity, practice, and roles in social institutions such as family, home, work, government, society, or humanity at large. Although communities are usually small relative to personal social ties, "community" may also refer to large group affiliations such as national communities, international communities, and virtual communities. French comuneté (currently "Communauté"), which comes The English-language word "community" derives from the Old from the Latin communitas "community", "public spirit" (from Latin communis, "common"). Human communities may share intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, and risks in common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. According to David M. Chavis & Kien Lee, “Community” is so easy to say. The word itself connects us with each other. It describes an experience so common that we never really take time to explain it. It seems so simple, so natural, and so human. In the social sector, we often add it to the names of social innovations as a symbol of good intentions (for example, community mental health, community policing, community-based philanthropy, community economic development). However, the meaning of community is complex. Insufficient understanding of what a community is and its role in the lives of people in diverse societies has led to the downfall of many well-intended “community” efforts. Types of Community
  • 9. 5 A formal group is formed when people come together to accomplish specific goals an objectives. An informal group is formed when two or more people come together to accomplish a specific task which is mainly socially geared. An urban area is the region surrounding a city. An area with high density of population. A rural area is an open swath of land that has few homes or other buildings, and not very many people. A rural area’s population density is very low. A global community are the people or nations of the world, considered as being closely connected by modern telecommunications and as being economically, socially, and politically interdependent. Sectoral means relating to the various economic sectors of a society or to a particular economic sector. A social space is physical or virtual space such as a social center, online social media, or other gathering place where people gather and interact. There are, broadly speaking, five common features of communities. You can classify every type of community by the purpose that brings them together. 1. Interest. Communities of people who share the same interest or passion. 2. Action. Communities of people trying to bring about change. 3. Place. Communities of people brought together by geographic boundaries. 4. Practice. Communities of people in the same profession or undertake the same activities. 5. Circumstance. Communities of people brought together by external events/situations. About 90% of community projects, especially branded communities, try to develop a community of interest. But a community of interest competes with our mental leisure time. Communities of interest are the hardest type of community to develop. Community Dynamics is the process of change and development in communities of all living organisms—including plants, microorganisms, and small and large creatures of every sort. Populations of an organism will appear in an environment as its requirements for establishment are met. What could it be used for? For commissioners, policy-makers and anybody else involved in the design and delivery of local services, Community Dynamics data can be used to bring additional depth into the understanding of your local areas.
  • 10. 6 Particularly, these data sets could have a role to play in projects and initiatives looking to work in a more asset-based way. Importance of Understanding Community Dynamics and Community Action Community Dynamics is the change and development involved in a community that includes all forms of living organisms. Community Action is putting communities as the center of the services development and services delivery. This initiative aims to cater the primary needs of the communities before implementing it. In such way, community action will help the community dynamics or the degree of improvement of the community. It is important to understand these two because these will propel the success and stability of the communities. They go hand in hand and are proportionally related. Whatiscommunityaction? Community action is any activity that increases the understanding, engagement and empowerment of communities in the design and delivery of local services. It includes a broad range of activities and is sometimes described as ‘social action' or ‘community engagement'. These activities can vary in their objective, the role the community plays, the types of activities involved, their scale and their integration within the council. What they have in common is that they all involve greater engagement of local citizens in the planning, design and delivery of local services. Why is community action important? Community action is about putting communities at the heart of their own local services. Involving communities in the design and delivery of services can help to achieve a number of objectives, including:  Building community and social capacity – helping the community to share knowledge, skills and ideas.  Community resilience – helping the community to support itself.  Prevention – a focus on early access to services or support, engagement in design, cross-sector collaboration and partnerships.  Maintaining and creating wealth – for example helping people into employment or developing community enterprises. Role of the Community The role the community includes community consultation, joint planning, joint design, joint delivery and community-led activities. Applied Social Sciences These are social science disciplines, professions and occupations which seek to use basic social science research and theory to improve the daily life of communities, organizations and persons.
  • 11. 7 What can I do with my degree in Social Sciences? Social Science Careers The occupations listed below are a selection of those which may interest Social Sciences students and graduates from the School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research. Advice Worker- Advice Workers provide information, advice and guidance on a range of topics depending on the role. These topics may include housing, employment, welfare, education, finance and law. Civil Service Career- The Civil Service delivers public services according to government policies. There are a large number of different departments and so a huge variety of different roles. Charity Officer- here are a variety of different roles within charities including project management, volunteer co-ordination and fund raising. Community Development Worker- Working in communities and liaising with different agencies to bring about change and improvements. Some work may be targeted towards certain groups of people e.g. the unemployed or the homeless. Community Education Officer- Promoting and coordinating a range of educational options to members of a local community. Equality and Diversity Officer- Equality Officers promote diversity and work to ensure that people are treated fairly and not discriminated against for characteristics including race, gender, age or disability. Family Support Worker- Working with families facing a variety of difficulties and helping them to solve problems and move forward. Housing Officer- Housing Officers work for local authorities or housing associations to manage rented accommodation including solving problems raised by tenants, organizing maintenance, allocating properties and dealing with payment issues. Housing Policy Officers develop policies for local authorities or housing associations. Human Resources Officer- Human Resources Officers aim to ensure that organizations have a skilled and efficient workforce. They are involved in recruitment
  • 12. 8 and selection, training and development, grievance and discipline and provide advice on employment law. Immigration, Customs and Border Roles- There are a variety of roles involving monitoring people, banned substances and other goods leaving and entering the country to ensure safety and security and to maintain the law. Intelligence Analyst- Analyzing and assessing intelligence data largely for the purposes of security and crime prevention. International Aid/Development Worker- Working to improve the lives of people in developing countries. Legal Careers- Providing legal services to clients. Local Government Careers- Developing policies and delivering local services. There are a huge variety of roles within local government including roles in social care, housing and education to name just a few. Mediator- Working with people to help them solve conflicts and disagreements. Police Officer- Police Officers work to make communities safer by maintaining the law and preventing crime. Prison Officer- Prison Officers are responsible for maintaining security in prisons and supporting the rehabilitation of prisoners. Probation Officer- Probation Officers work with offenders and aim to reduce rates of re-offending and protect the public. Psychologist- There are a range of different psychologist roles but broadly they help clients to improve their psychological well being. Psychotherapy, Counselling and mental Roles- Supporting people to overcome a range of psychological or emotional difficulties. Social Researcher- Social Researchers could work for universities or research/market research organizations. Social research covers a wide range of
  • 13. WHAT’S IN topics including crime, transport and education. Social Researchers manage research projects including collecting and analyzing data and presenting the results. Social Worker- Social Workers work with people in the community who need support, for example, the elderly, children who are at risk, people with disabilities or mental health difficulties. Substance Misuse Worker- Supporting clients to overcome their problems with drug, alcohol or solvent misuse. Teacher/Lecturer/Education Roles- There are a variety of opportunities within education from primary schools to universities. Victim Care Officer- Providing help to people who have been victims of crime, including supporting them during court proceedings. Volunteer Coordinator- Managing the recruitment, training, placement and retention of volunteers. Youth Offending Officer- Working with young offenders with the aim of reducing rates of re-offending and supporting young people to achieve positive outcomes. Youth Worker- Working with young people to provide support, raise aspirations and break down barriers to achieving. This is done in a variety of ways including through recreational activities, organizing projects, mentoring and liaising with other agencies. 9
  • 14. WHAT’S MORE ASSESSMENT INSTRUCTIONS: In your notebook, answer the following questions. 1.) Define Community in your own words. 2.) Give three (3) reasons why do we need to study community. 3.) Describe your community in one (1) word, and why? 4.) List down at least five (5) activities in your community that you actively engaged in. 5.) Give at least five (5) contributions you did to your community as an individual. Note to the teacher: Have your own assessment on the above What’s In activity. Also, you decide the scoring of this activity. Thank you. ACTIVITY 1 1.) Make a non-sequential blocks in your notebook focusing in the Social Science Careers listed above, select the top five (5) priority career you want in the future. (Note: Limit 5 careers only and you can have your own graphical design) To the teacher: You can vary the instructions such as: 1.Vary the number of timeline-events, genres and their structures. 2.Give your own graphical design or ask the students to have their own. 3.Opt to have another activity as long as it has something to do with tracing the literary evolution of the Philippines. 10
  • 15. WHAT SHOULD I EXPECT WHAT I KNOW Instructions: Match each statement in Column A with what it describes in Column B. Write the letter of the answer in your notebook. Column A 1 A human settlement with a high population density. 2.Areas have a low population density and small settlements. 3.Known as the change and development involved in a community that includes all forms of living organisms. 4.A physical or virtual space such as a social center, online social media, or other gathering place where people gather and interact. 5.A situation putting communities as the center of the services development and services delivery. 6.A group of people who share something in common. Column B a. Social Science b. Rural community c. Community action d. Community dynamics e. Social space f. Community g. Urban community h. Sociology Learning Competency 1B: Define using various perspectives, e.g., social sciences, institutions, civil society, and local/grassroots level HUMSS_CSC12-IIa-c-2 (2 hours). At the end of this lesson, students will be able to: 1. understand the community through the lens of the social sciences; 2. identify the various social science perspectives; 3. appreciate the value of community action initiatives; and 4. discuss the community through the five main social institutions. PERSPECTIVE AND LOCAL/GRASSROOTS SOCIAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVES, LESSON INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE, CIVIL SOCIETY 2 11
  • 16. WHAT’S NEW Instruction: Write T if the statement is true and F if it is false. Write your answer in your notebook. 1.Family is responsible for reproduction to replace members, provides protection, socialize the young. 2.Politics produce and distribute goods and services. 3.Education is a way to pass on culture, knowledge, and values. 4.Religion helps people find purpose in their live, develops spiritual side of people, provides guidelines for personal behavior and social interaction. 5.Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. 6.Sociology is the study of what makes us human. 7.Anthropology is the study of human social life. 8.Economic is the art or science of government. 9.Anthropological perspective focuses on the study of the full scope of human diversity and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds. 10.Institution is a society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar purpose. I. SOCIAL SCIENCE Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. In addition to sociology, it is now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, management science, media studies, musicology, political science, psychology, welfare and nursing studies[1] and social history. Sociology is the study of human social life. Sociology is a branch of the social sciences that uses systematic methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop and refine a body of knowledge about human social structure. The perspective of sociology involves seeing through the outside appearances of people’s actions and organizations (Berger, P. 1963). It is the way of looking at the society and the social behaviour—the subject matter of sociology. It goes beyond 12
  • 17. 13 identifying patterns of social behaviour. It also attempts to provide explanations for such patterns. What is a social science perspective? The Social Science Perspective is viewing life through the tinted spectacles of the speculations passed off as “science” by bullying academics. In sad truth, they cannot predict wars, social changes, elections, or anything else. And certainly they are incapable of creating or manipulating anything significant. They call themselves “scientists” because they explain the world in complex language and invented words that they pretend to understand. In reality, they have no science because science means to be able to predict without error and to manipulate or create phenomena. A lens maker can create a lens for a specific function because he knows the materials, the math, and the laws of optics. An astronomer can predict eclipses and the path of planets. A chemist can synthesize new chemicals, and predict reactions and the energies involved. Always, without error. However a social scientist can only generate large volumes of garbled prose, too thick to be called a lie and without the work ability required of the truth. ompare it to the beliefs and practices of other societies, past, and present (Dudgeon). The holistic, cross-cultural and comparative more deeply about approach can help us think other people and
  • 18. 14 cultures, consciously and live more in our global world. It also changes your way of thinking about the world with a wider of the human It allows us to appreciation experience. understand how the evolutionary package inherited from our ancestors work in today’s environment. Sources:
  • 19. 15 Dudgeon, Roy C. “The Anthropological Perspective: What Makes it Unique.” “Why is Anthropology Important.” https://classroom.synonym.co m/why-is-anthropology- important-12080725.html . ompare it to the beliefs and practices of other societies, past, and present (Dudgeon). The holistic, cross-cultural and comparative approach can help us think
  • 20. 16 more deeply about other people and cultures, consciously and live more in our global world. It also changes your way of thinking about the world with a wider of the human It allows us to appreciation experience. understand how the evolutionary package inherited from our ancestors work in today’s environment.
  • 21. 17 Sources: Dudgeon, Roy C. “The Anthropological Perspective: What Makes it Unique.” “Why is Anthropology Important.” https://classroom.synonym.co m/why-is-anthropology- important-12080725.html . ompare it to the beliefs and practices of other societies, past, and present (Dudgeon). The holistic,
  • 22. 18 cross-cultural and comparative more deeply about approach can help us think other people and cultures, consciously and live more in our global world. It also changes your way of thinking about the world with a wider of the human It allows us to appreciation experience. understand how the evolutionary package inherited from our ancestors work in today’s environment.
  • 23. 19 Sources: Dudgeon, Roy C. “The Anthropological Perspective: What Makes it Unique.” “Why is Anthropology Important.” https://classroom.synonym.co m/why-is-anthropology- important-12080725.html . ompare it to the beliefs and practices of other societies, past, and
  • 24. 20 present (Dudgeon). The holistic, cross-cultural and comparative more deeply about approach can help us think other people and cultures, consciously and live more in our global world. It also changes your way of thinking about the world with a wider of the human It allows us to appreciation experience. understand
  • 25. 21 how the evolutionary package inherited from our ancestors work in today’s environment. Sources: Dudgeon, Roy C. “The Anthropological Perspective: What Makes it Unique.” “Why is Anthropology Important.” https://classroom.synonym.co m/why-is-anthropology- important-12080725.html .
  • 26. 22 What is the perspective? important? anthropological Why is it Anthropology is the study of people, past and present, that focuses on understanding the human condition both culturally and biologically. Other than culture concept, Anthropology has different distinctive ways of thinking about the world, human cultures, societies, and people.
  • 27. 23 Anthropological Perspective focuses on the study of the full scope of human diversity and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds. Some of the aspects of the Anthropological Perspective are culture, cultural relativism, human diversity, focus. The fieldwork, holism, biocultural main four of cross- perspectives Anthropology are the cultural or
  • 28. 24 comparative emphasis, its evolutionary/historical emphasis, its ecological emphasis, and its holistic emphasis (Dudgeon). From an anthropological perspective, these concepts are related to each other and they are also seen as integrated with one another. origin and the human beings, history and In order to understand the of to acknowledge
  • 29. 25 global cultured and communities, people should be able to consider anthropological perspectives in their both social academic and lives. Anthropological perspective is very important because it looks at shared aspects of like humanity cultural language, connections, economics, and curiosity to find the common thread. What makes the Anthropological Perspective unique is that unlike
  • 30. 26 other social scientists, anthropologists look beyond the confines of our own society and compare it to the beliefs and practices of other societies, past, and present (Dudgeon). The holistic, cross-cultural and comparative more deeply about approach can help us think other people and cultures, consciously and live more in our global world. It also changes your way of thinking
  • 31. 27 about the world with a wider of the human It allows us to appreciation experience. understand how the evolutionary package inherited from our ancestors work in today’s environment What is the anthropological perspective? Why is it important? Anthropology is the study of people, past and present, that focuses on understanding the human condition both culturally and biologically.
  • 32. 28 Other than culture concept, Anthropology has different distinctive ways of thinking about the world, human cultures, societies, and people. Anthropological Perspective focuses on the study of the full scope of human diversity and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds. Some of the aspects of the Anthropological Perspective are culture, cultural relativism,
  • 33. 29 human diversity, focus. The fieldwork, holism, biocultural main four of cross- perspectives are the Anthropology cultural or comparative emphasis, its evolutionary/historical emphasis, its ecological emphasis, and its holistic emphasis (Dudgeon). From an anthropological perspective, these concepts are related to
  • 34. 30 each other and they are also seen as integrated with one another. origin and the human beings, history and In order to understand the of to acknowledge global cultured and communities, people should be able to consider anthropological perspectives in their both social academic and lives. Anthropological perspective is very important because it
  • 35. 31 looks at shared aspects of like humanity cultural language, connections, economics, and curiosity to find the common thread. What makes the Anthropological Perspective unique is that unlike other social scientists, anthropologists look beyond the confines of our own society and compare it to the beliefs and practices of other societies, past, and present (Dudgeon). The holistic,
  • 36. 32 cross-cultural and comparative more deeply about approach can help us think other people and cultures, consciously and live more in our global world. It also changes your way of thinking about the world with a wider of the human It allows us to appreciation experience. understand how the evolutionary package inherited from our ancestors work in today’s environment What is Anthropology? Anthropology is the study of what makes us human. Anthropologists take a broad approach in understanding different aspects of the human experiences, which we
  • 37. call holism. They consider the past, through archaeology, to see how human groups lived hundreds or thousands of years ago and what was important to them. They consider what makes up our biological bodies and genetics as well as our bones, diet, and health. 1. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE -focuses on the study of the full scope of human diversity and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds. These are culture, cultural relativism, fieldwork, human diversity, holism, bio-cultural focus. 2. SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE -involves the investigation of the problem on micro and macro levels. At micro level, sociology studies how individuals behave in social situations—at work, at play, at home, or in school, or in small and large groups. It deals with people’s everyday interactions (social interactionist, ethno methodological and phenomenological approaches of study). At macro level, sociology focuses on patterns of behaviour and forms of organisation that characterise entire societies (classical and grand theorist’s approaches). At this level, sociology deals with large-scale structures (such as bureaucracy), broad social categories, institutions, social systems, and social problems such as war, unemployment, poverty, corruption, and solutions to these problems are sought at the structural or organisational level. In their studies, sociologists utilise both approaches of study, i.e., qualitative (introspective- participant method) and quantitative (statistical, interview and survey techniques). 3. POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE Politics (from Greek: Πολιτικά, politiká, 'affairs of the cities') is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The academic study of politics is referred to as Political Science. Perspectives on politics seeks to provide a space for broad and synthetic discussion within the political science profession and between the profession and the broader scholarly and reading publics. Such discussion necessarily draws on and contributes to the scholarship published in the more specialized journals that dominate our discipline. At the same time, Perspectives seeks to promote a complementary form of broad public discussion and synergistic understanding within the profession that is essential to advancing research and promoting scholarly community. Perspectives seeks to nurture a political science public sphere, publicizing important scholarly topics, ideas, and innovations, linking scholarly authors and readers, and promoting broad reflexive discussion among political scientists about the work that we do and why this work matters. II. INSTITUTIONS A society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar purpose. It is an established organization or corporation (such as a bank or university) especially of a public character financial institutions NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. 33
  • 38. The 5 Major Social Institutions and Their Functions The five major social institutions and their functions are fairly universal, but could vary depending one’s culture or geographic location. However, it is likely that there be some common or overlapping social institutions, each with its relevant set of functions, which vary somewhat depending on social values, moral standards, and level of civilization. Traditionally, sociology identifies the following major types of social institutions: Functions of major institutions NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. 34
  • 39. Family - Responsible for reproduction to replace members, provides protection, socialize the young Economic- Produces and distributes goods and services Political- Assists group in decision making Education - A way to pass on culture, knowledge, and values NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE THE PICTURE USED. 35
  • 40. Religion - Helps people find purpose in their lives Develops spiritual side of people Provides guidelines for personal behavior and social interaction III. CIVIL SOCIETY PERSPECTIVE NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. 36
  • 41. Civil society refers to the space for collective action around shared interests, purposes and values, generally distinct from government and commercial for profit actors. Civil society includes charities, development NGO’s, community groups, women organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, trade unions, social movements, coalitions and advocacy groups. However, civil society is not homogeneous and the boundaries between civil society and government or civil society and commercial actors can be blurred. There is certainly no one 'civil society' view, and civil society actors need to contend with similar issues of representativeness and legitimacy as those of other representatives and advocates. 1. MANIFESTATIONS OF CIVIL SOCIETY GROUPS The emergence of civil society groups is well received by development practitioner in varied forms. Such groups are formed based on the customs and norms of the prevailing society. Groups that are formed under these have individuals who can freely choose to associate with not just one but as many as he or she likes. Since people have the liberty to do such, the groups act like leverage for particular individuals to be with like-minded citizens. Think of these groups as an intermediary of the citizens in their relationship with their government and the private sector. An individual alone will not have the same lobbying power as when he or she is with a group that has more social capital as an enabler. This combination of networks and relationships promotes clout in order to carry out the group’s advocate and goals. 2. ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE OF THE PICTURE USED. 37
  • 42. The role of civil society in good governance is to apprise people of their fundamental rights and responsibilities. In addition, civil society is instrumental in making people aware about the role of the government and state institutions, as well as the responsibilities of state functionaries. Without that knowledge, most people are unaware of governance, public issues and the administrative structures and functions. 3. NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations which provide services to its members and others. They are usually nonprofit organizations. Many NGOs are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. According to NGO.org, (the non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations [), NGOs are any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level. Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information. Some NGOs rely primarily on volunteers, while others support a paid staff. Two broad groups of NGOs are identified by the World Bank:  Operational NGOs- which focus on development projects.  Advocacy NGOs- which are organized to promote particular causes. How NGOs are Funded? As non-profits, NGOs rely on a variety of sources for funding, including:  membership dues  private donations  the sale of goods and services  grants 38
  • 43. 39 Despite their independence from government, some NGOs rely significantly on government funding. Large NGOs may have budgets in the millions or billions of dollars. Some common characteristics of NGOs according to Ball and Dunn are:  They are formed voluntarily.  They are independent of government.  They are not for private profit or gain. Their principal is to improve the circumstances and prospects of disadvantaged people. 4. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social or political one. Interest group, also called special interest group or pressure group, any association of individuals or organizations, usually formally organized, that, on the basis of one or more shared concerns, attempts to influence public policy in its favor. All interest groups share a desire to affect government policy to benefit themselves or their causes. Their goal could be a policy that exclusively benefits group members or one segment of society (e.g., government subsidies for farmers) or a policy that advances a broader public purpose (e.g., improving air quality). They attempt to achieve their goals by lobbying —that is, by attempting to bring pressure to bear on policy makers to gain policy outcomes in their favour. 5. INTEREST GROUPS Interest groups are a natural outgrowth of the communities of interest that exist in all societies, from narrow groups such as the Japan Eraser Manufacturers Association to broad groups such as the American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO) and to even broader organizations such as the military. Politics and interests are inseparable. Interests are a prevalent, permanent, and essential aspect of all political systems—democratic, authoritarian, and totalitarian regimes alike. Furthermore, interest groups exist at all levels of government—national, state, provincial, and local—and increasingly they have occupied an important role in international affairs. Some interest groups consist of individuals such as ranchers or fruit growers who may form farm commodity organizations. In other instances, an interest group consists not of individuals but of organizations or businesses. The term interest rather than interest group is often used to denote broad or less-formalized political constituencies, such as the agricultural interest and the environmental interest—segments of society that may include many formal interest groups. Similarly, interest is often used when considering government entities working to influence other governments (e.g., a local government seeking to secure funding from the national government). In authoritarian and developing societies,
  • 44. where formal interest groups are restricted or not as well developed, interest is often used to designate broader groupings such as government elites and tribal leaders. The common goals and sources of interest groups obscure, however, the fact that they vary widely in their form and lobbying strategies both within and across political systems. This article provides a broad overview that explains these differences and the role that interest groups play in society. 6. Local and International Organizations There are variety of legal types of organizations, including corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, political organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions. An organization is an entity, such as a company, an institution, or an association, comprising one or more people and having a particular purpose. Local International Government Organizations International Organizations Local organization means an organization whose activities are limited to this state or to a specific geographical area within this state. A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. 40 An international organization (intergovernmental organization) is an organization by a treaty or other governed by international established instrument law and possessing its own international legal personality, such as the United Nations, the World Health Organization and NATO. International organizations are composed of primarily Member states, but may also include other entities, such as other international organizations. Notable examples include the United Nations (UN), Organization for Security and Co-operation Europe (OSCE), Council in of Europe (COE), International Labour Organization (ILO) and International Police Organization (INTERPOL). Non-government Organizations International Non-government
  • 45. 41 Organizations Organizations which are independent of government involvement are known as non-governmental organizations or NGOs or non- government organizations. NGOs are a subgroup of organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and associations which provide services to its members and others. They are usually nonprofit organizations. Many NGOs are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. However, NGOs can also be lobby groups for corporations, such as the World Economic Forum. According to NGO.org (the non- governmental organizations associated with the United Nations), "[an NGO is] any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level ... Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information An international non-governmental organization (INGO) extends the concept of a non-governmental organization (NGO) to an international scope. NGOs are independent of governments and can be seen as two types, advocacy NGOs, which aim to influence governments with a specific goal, and operational NGOs, which provide services. Examples of NGO mandates are environmental preservation, human rights promotions or the advancement of women. NGOs are typically not-for-profit, but receive funding from companies or membership fees. Many large INGOs have components of operational projects and advocacy initiatives working together within individual countries. IV. GRASSROOTS LEVEL A grassroots movement is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement. Grassroots movements and organizations use collective action from the local level to effect change at the local, regional, national, or international level. Grassroots movements are associated with bottom-up, rather than top-down decision making, and are sometimes considered more natural or spontaneous than more traditional power structures. Grassroots movements, using self-organization, encourage community members to contribute by taking responsibility and action for their community. Grassroots movements utilize a variety of strategies from fundraising and registering voters, to simply encouraging political conversation. Goals of specific movements vary and change, but the movements are consistent in their focus on increasing mass participation in politics. These political movements may begin as small and at the
  • 46. 42 local level, but grassroots politics as Cornel West contends are necessary in shaping progressive politics as they bring public attention to regional political concerns. The idea of grassroots is often conflated with participatory democracy. The Port Huron Statement, a manifesto seeking a more democratic society, says that to create a more equitable society, "the grass roots of American Society" need to be the basis of civil rights and economic reform movements.[6] The terms can be distinguished in that grassroots often refers to a specific movement or organization, whereas participatory democracy refers to the larger system of governance. STRATEGIES OF GRASSROOTS MOVEMENTS Grassroots movements use tactics that build power from local and community movements. Below is a list of strategies considered to be grassroots because of their focus on engaging the populace.         Hosting house meetings or parties  Having larger meetings  Putting up posters  Talking with pedestrians on the street or walking door-to-door (often involving informational clipboards) Gathering signatures for petitions Mobilizing letter-writing, phone-calling, and emailing campaigns Setting up information tables Raising money from many small donors for political advertising or campaigns Organizing large demonstrations Asking individuals to submit opinions to media outlets and government officials Holding get out the vote activities, which include the practices of reminding people to vote and transporting them to polling places. V. COMMUNITY ACTION INITIATIVE Whatiscommunityaction? Community action is any activity that increases the understanding, engagement and empowerment of communities in the design and delivery of local services. It also includes a broad range of activities and is sometimes described as ‘social action' or ‘community engagement'. These activities can vary in their objective, the role the community plays, the types of activities involved, their scale and their integration within the council. What they have in common is that they all involve greater engagement of local citizens in the planning, design and delivery of local services. Why is community action important?
  • 47. ASSESSMENT Community action is about putting communities at the heart of their own local services. Involving communities in the design and delivery of services can help to achieve a number of objectives, including:  Building community and social capacity – helping the community to share knowledge, skills and ideas.  Community resilience – helping the community to support itself.  Prevention – a focus on early access to services or support, engagement in design, cross-sector collaboration and partnerships.  Maintaining and creating wealth – for example helping people into employment or developing community enterprises. WHAT ARE THE CORE VALUES OF COMMUNITY ACTION INITIATIVES? It focuses on community-action initiatives such as community engagement, solidarity, and citizenship as guided by the core values of human rights, social justice, empowerment and advocacy, gender equality, and participatory development. The types of activity can include:  Asset transfer (either through formal transfer to bodies such as parish councils or community interest companies, or transfer of their management to local community and voluntary groups).  Making better use of physical resources, such as council-owned buildings, to support community-led activities.  Community engagement in decision-making (for example through public engagement events where the community helps to decide local priorities, co- design or co-commission services).  Community networks  Community grants NOTE: CONSIDER PROVIDING SOURCE THE PICTURE USED. 43
  • 48. Instructions: Choose a word in the box that corresponds to each of the following statements below. Write the letter of your choice in your notebook. 1. The study of what makes us human. 2. The study of human social life. 3. Art or science of government. 4. Refers to the space for collective action around shared interests, purposes and values, generally distinct from government and commercial for-profit actors. 5. A non-profit, citizen-based group that functions independently of government. 6. Loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social or political one. 7. One which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement. 8. Any activities that increase the understanding, engagement and empowerment of communities in the design and delivery of local services. 9. A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. 10.It is an organization is an entity, such as a company, an institution, or an association, comprising one or more people and having a particular purpose. GO) a. Civil society b. Sociology c. Politics d. social movement e. non-governmental organization (N f. anthropology g. grassroots movement h. Community action i. local government j. Local organization k. Organization 44
  • 49. Needs Wants Institution and Actors Possible Intervention Government Family ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES 45 Instructions: Do the following activity in your activity notebook. 1.Take five (5) minutes to think about your community and write down all the needs and wants of your community in the first box. 2.After listing the needs and wants, list down on the second box list the actors in the different institutions in your community and how these institution intervene or help out in making your community a better place to live in. References: pouncedigital.com.au
  • 50. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community) David M. Chavis & Kien Lee May 12, 2015 https://www.feverbee.com/different-types-of-communities/ Source: Brainly.ph - https://brainly.ph/question/1532455#readmore en.citizendium.org › wiki › Definition https://www.kent.ac.uk/ces/student/degree/social-sciences/index.html https://www.americananthro.org/AdvanceYourCareer/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=2150 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_science https://www.local.gov.uk/our-support/guidance-and-resources/community-action/community- action-overview/what-community-action https://www.lawinsider.com/dictionary/local-organization# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organization https://www.britannica.com/topic/interest-group https://aidwatch.org.au/aidwatch-monitor-news/in-the-news/what-is-an-ngo/ https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/13/what-is-non-government-organization.asp https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-governmental_organization https://r4d.org/resources/role-civil-society-organizations-supporting-fiscal-transparency-african- countries/ https://tribune.com.pk/story/1637755/civil-society-good-governance https://www.who.int/social_determinants/themes/civilsociety/en/ SlideShare https://www.google.com/search https://www.who.int/social_determinants/themes/civilsociety/en/ slideshare.net https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/perspectives https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/politics https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/sociology/sociological-perspective-what-is-sociological- perspective/35056 www.studocu.com 46
  • 51. For inquiries or feedback, please write or call: Department of Education - Alternative Delivery Mode (DepEd-ADM) Office Address: Masterson Avenue, Upper Balulang, Zone 1, Cagayan de Oro City, Cagayan de Oro, Lalawigan ng Misamis Oriental Telefax: E-mail Address: 47