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Chapter 5 Perception and  Individual Decision Making TWELFTH EDITION
What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? ,[object Object],[object Object],Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
Factors That Influence Perception E X H I B I T  5 –1
Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations. Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation. Consistency: responds in the same way over time. Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
Attribution Theory E X H I B I T  5 –2
Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Projection Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.
Specific Applications in Organizations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Specific Applications in Organizations (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making Perception of the decision maker Outcomes Problem A  perceived  discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state. Decisions Choices made from among alternatives developed from data  perceived  as relevant.
Assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Rational Decision- Making Model Describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome.
Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],E X H I B I T  5 –3
The Three Components of Creativity Creativity The ability to produce novel and useful ideas. Three-Component  Model of Creativity Proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative-thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation. E X H I B I T  5 –4 Source:  T.M. Amabile, “Motivating Creativity in Organizations,”  California Management Review , Fall 1997, p. 43.
How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations Bounded Rationality Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.
How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Common Biases and Errors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Common Biases and Errors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Intuition ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Individual Differences in Decision Making ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Organizational Constraints on Decision Makers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cultural Differences in Decision Making ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ethics in Decision Making ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ethics in Decision Making ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ways to Improve Decision Making ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Toward Reducing Bias and Errors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],E X H I B I T  5 –6 Source:  S.P. Robbins,  Decide & Conquer: Making Winning Decisions and Taking Control of Your Life  (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2004), pp. 164–68.

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Chapter 5 perception and individual

  • 1. Chapter 5 Perception and Individual Decision Making TWELFTH EDITION
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  • 3. Factors That Influence Perception E X H I B I T 5 –1
  • 4. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations. Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation. Consistency: responds in the same way over time. Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
  • 5. Attribution Theory E X H I B I T 5 –2
  • 6. Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
  • 7. Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
  • 8. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
  • 9. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
  • 10. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Projection Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.
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  • 13. The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making Perception of the decision maker Outcomes Problem A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state. Decisions Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant.
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  • 16. The Three Components of Creativity Creativity The ability to produce novel and useful ideas. Three-Component Model of Creativity Proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative-thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation. E X H I B I T 5 –4 Source: T.M. Amabile, “Motivating Creativity in Organizations,” California Management Review , Fall 1997, p. 43.
  • 17. How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations Bounded Rationality Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.
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