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Change Management Think Piece Piers Schreiber [email_address] +44 7707 263 782
Key Features of Successful Transformational Change It is designed around the business drivers It wins emotional and intellectual support It models and reinforces the new way of working It puts significant investment into communications It creates experiences that shape future behaviour It aligns all the dimensions of management behind the change It releases talent, creativity and ingenuity – often in unexpected ways Incorporate the drivers into the project plan Develop clear engagement / involvement strategies Accomplished before, during and after implementation Communicate from the very start of the project Align and engage all levels of management behind the change Allow for processing resistance and conflict – natural during change Provide processes that emotionally support people through all parts of the change Key Features Implications
Ten Points of Potential Failure A continued discrepancy between top management statements of values or styles and their actual managerial behaviour – Saying one thing and doing another A big programme of activities without any clear goals for change Confusion between ends and means – the question of ‘training for what’ must be answered Short-term perspective. Three to five years is a realistic time framework for organisational change Lack of coordination between a number of different activities aimed at increasing organisational effectiveness Overdependence on others – either outside consultants or inside specialists Large gap between the commitment to change at the top of the organisation and the transfer of this interest to the middle of the organisation Trying to fit a major organisational change into an old organisational structure The constant search for cookbook solutions Applying an intervention or strategy inappropriately. The tendency to apply someone else’s package
The Need for a Compelling  Business Case Strong data-driven rationale A specific research-based reason for change Linked directly to performance goals Clarification and communication of vision Compelling reason and urgency behind change activities Focused strategy for stakeholder engagement Identification of critical audiences and gap analysis Realistic understanding of organisational implications Formal; informal; people; tasks
The Need for a  Burning Platform
The Need for a  Strong Foundation Create a shared, defined and robust view of the imperatives for change and performance requirement Decide on the vehicle for change (e.g. process redesign, cost reduction, culture change, closer alignment with customers) Assess the organisation’s readiness and capability for change Identify stakeholders
The Change Equation (Beckhard) Information about what is happening to the IFC and me, and why Changing individual behaviour requires both new information and new experiences Vision Dissatisfaction 1 ST  Steps Costs $$$ Emotional + + > Information Experience Behaviour + = Perception X ( ) Experience of doing my work in new ways which reinforces the change and engages me potentially My perceptions of the organisation, its management and my own capability A shift in my behaviour and attitudes
Leadership Moving one or more people from where they happen to be to some other place Clear committed leadership is vital to the success of any change
Key Features of Leading Change Making the journey and destination compellingly attractive Helping people see a future they want to be part of Helping people find a purpose and meaning for themselves Requesting commitment Enrolling Enabling Energising Exemplifying Helping people see possibilities for their contribution Challenging self-limiting beliefs Setting (together) stretching targets Building self-esteem, confidence and trust Putting into action Building and sustaining people’s energy Celebrating successes Giving recognition Expressing optimism Demonstrating the behaviours and values that are being required of others
Key Features of Leading Change Explain the basic purpose behind the outcome ‘ What was the problem?’ Who said so and on what evidence? What would have occurred if no one had acted to solve it? What could have happened to us if that had occurred Purpose Picture Plan Part Paint the picture of how the outcome will look and feel What is the outcome going to look, feel and sound like? How are people going to get their work done and interact with each other? How will a day be organised? Lay out the plan for phasing in the outcome Outline steps and schedules in which people will receive information, training & support they need to make the transition People oriented to tell employees how and when their worlds are going to change Start with where people are & work forward to leave the past behind and emerge with new attitudes, behaviours & identity Establish each person’s part in both the plan and the outcome Show employees the role & their relationship to others. Until they see it they can’t adjust hopes & fears to the new reality Show employees what part they play in the outcome & the transition process
Transformation Process Set the direction Create the desire & will to change Phase Content Outcomes Part Unfreeze Mobilise Realise Reinforce Sustain Make early changes & build confidence Secure widespread shift in behaviour Underpin with changes in structure & people processes Strive for continuous performance improvement Break with the past Build the energy Perform-ance lift-off Embed new culture Push the limits
Plan from the Perspective of the Recipients of Change Board Senior Mgmt Team Where do we want them to be? What initiatives will help them get there? Is the ‘load’ of change reasonable & within capabilities? What projects do we need to provide the initiatives Customer Facing Staff Front-line Managers Middle Managers Support Teams Part Unfreeze Mobilise Realise Reinforce Sustain
Plotting Shifts in Commitment (Example) Line Managers Senior Team Board HR Employees Project Sponsor Key Players No Commitment Let It Happen Help It Happen Make It Happen Key: X  = Present state O  = Minimum commitment needed X X X X X X O O O O O O
Surfacing Potential Barriers Early On Strategy Structure Process Operating principles Culture/behaviour Jobs People Change gets bogged because barriers are not dealt with soon enough or openly enough to keep the change process moving Barriers may exist anywhere and everywhere – even the difficult-to-see places… Leadership Management Resources Systems Rewards Values/Beliefs Capabilities Consider: How will this change effort affect…?
Identify Strategies for Closing Critical Gaps Rewards Systems Resources Management Leadership People Culture/Behaviour Operating Principles Process Structure Strategy Strategy Gap Organisational Dimension
Importance of Leadership Communication Actions speak louder than words Day-to-day behaviour and signals need to live the vision Why should I change my behaviour or go the extra mile? Leadership 65% Grapevine ? Systems &  Processes 25% Media 10%
The Transition Curve: How Attitudes & Feelings Change Confidence Time “ I’m not sure I know what’s going on” “ I feel overwhelmed” “ I can handle this” “ We can’t do this. It won’t work. We’re not allowed” “ Actually, things might get better” “ This could be a better way of doing it” “ This way is more effective” “ S/he really made the effort to help us implement this change”
Making Sense of the Journey The information they receive Their work and how they do it The context in which they do their work The needs of the organisation To change their behaviour, employees need to see the link between:
Link between desired result & communication approach Level of change Level of involvement Tell Sell Consult Join Awareness Understanding (and Action) Acceptance/ Alignment Ownership/ Engagement
Choosing the Right  Communications Tools & Channels Level of change Level of involvement Tell Sell Consult Join Awareness Understanding (and Action) Acceptance/ Alignment Ownership/ Engagement Newsletters, emails, memos, letters, notices Booklets, plenary sessions, presentations, videos, intranets Focus groups, working parties, suggestions schemes, consultative presentations Working sessions, 1-to-1 conversations, workshops, coaching
Information + Involvement to Build Commitment & Change Increasing Commitment Awareness of desired change Understanding of change direction Translation to the work setting Commitment to personal change Internalisation of new behaviour “ Yeah, I saw the memo” “ I understand where we need to go” “ I know how we need to do our jobs differently” “ OK, I’m ready to do it the new way” “ This is the way we do things here” Stages of Individual Behaviour Change Information with some involvement sufficient here Significant involvement needed
Ten Strategies for Employee Involvement Meet regularly with employees and openly discuss the organisational changes and why they occurred Recognise that employees understand that you may not have the answers to everything, but it’s important for them to feel the communications are open and honest Constantly communicate clear goals and vision of the new situation Encourage people to discuss fears and concerns in teams Open ‘suggestion boxes’ for employees to raise questions in anonymity Set up weekly lunches or other informal meetings to discuss the progress of the restructuring process Whenever possible, assign roles and responsibilities in line with peoples interests Develop rituals and marker events that allow people to connect Involve employees affected by the changes in making decisions about what’s best for them Discuss realistic career options with employees and ensure training is available for any new skills that are needed
Coaching Others in Building Employee Commitment Identify individuals or groups whose commitment is necessary to the success of the change effort Create and follow a departmental plan to increase commitment of all players Continually encourage and enable employee involvement Continually communicate the goals of the change process Turn covert resistance to overt resistance and then to commitment WALK THE TALK!
What People Pay Attention To: Leader attention, measurement, rewards and controls Leader reaction to critical incidents Leader role modelling, coaching Criteria for recruitment, promotion, retirement and excommunication Formal and informal socialisation Recurring systems and procedures Organisation design and structure Design of physical space Stories and myths about key people and events Formal statements, charters, creeds, codes of ethics etc Between 80-90% of behaviour is determined by the first three points

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Change Management

  • 1. Change Management Think Piece Piers Schreiber [email_address] +44 7707 263 782
  • 2. Key Features of Successful Transformational Change It is designed around the business drivers It wins emotional and intellectual support It models and reinforces the new way of working It puts significant investment into communications It creates experiences that shape future behaviour It aligns all the dimensions of management behind the change It releases talent, creativity and ingenuity – often in unexpected ways Incorporate the drivers into the project plan Develop clear engagement / involvement strategies Accomplished before, during and after implementation Communicate from the very start of the project Align and engage all levels of management behind the change Allow for processing resistance and conflict – natural during change Provide processes that emotionally support people through all parts of the change Key Features Implications
  • 3. Ten Points of Potential Failure A continued discrepancy between top management statements of values or styles and their actual managerial behaviour – Saying one thing and doing another A big programme of activities without any clear goals for change Confusion between ends and means – the question of ‘training for what’ must be answered Short-term perspective. Three to five years is a realistic time framework for organisational change Lack of coordination between a number of different activities aimed at increasing organisational effectiveness Overdependence on others – either outside consultants or inside specialists Large gap between the commitment to change at the top of the organisation and the transfer of this interest to the middle of the organisation Trying to fit a major organisational change into an old organisational structure The constant search for cookbook solutions Applying an intervention or strategy inappropriately. The tendency to apply someone else’s package
  • 4. The Need for a Compelling Business Case Strong data-driven rationale A specific research-based reason for change Linked directly to performance goals Clarification and communication of vision Compelling reason and urgency behind change activities Focused strategy for stakeholder engagement Identification of critical audiences and gap analysis Realistic understanding of organisational implications Formal; informal; people; tasks
  • 5. The Need for a Burning Platform
  • 6. The Need for a Strong Foundation Create a shared, defined and robust view of the imperatives for change and performance requirement Decide on the vehicle for change (e.g. process redesign, cost reduction, culture change, closer alignment with customers) Assess the organisation’s readiness and capability for change Identify stakeholders
  • 7. The Change Equation (Beckhard) Information about what is happening to the IFC and me, and why Changing individual behaviour requires both new information and new experiences Vision Dissatisfaction 1 ST Steps Costs $$$ Emotional + + > Information Experience Behaviour + = Perception X ( ) Experience of doing my work in new ways which reinforces the change and engages me potentially My perceptions of the organisation, its management and my own capability A shift in my behaviour and attitudes
  • 8. Leadership Moving one or more people from where they happen to be to some other place Clear committed leadership is vital to the success of any change
  • 9. Key Features of Leading Change Making the journey and destination compellingly attractive Helping people see a future they want to be part of Helping people find a purpose and meaning for themselves Requesting commitment Enrolling Enabling Energising Exemplifying Helping people see possibilities for their contribution Challenging self-limiting beliefs Setting (together) stretching targets Building self-esteem, confidence and trust Putting into action Building and sustaining people’s energy Celebrating successes Giving recognition Expressing optimism Demonstrating the behaviours and values that are being required of others
  • 10. Key Features of Leading Change Explain the basic purpose behind the outcome ‘ What was the problem?’ Who said so and on what evidence? What would have occurred if no one had acted to solve it? What could have happened to us if that had occurred Purpose Picture Plan Part Paint the picture of how the outcome will look and feel What is the outcome going to look, feel and sound like? How are people going to get their work done and interact with each other? How will a day be organised? Lay out the plan for phasing in the outcome Outline steps and schedules in which people will receive information, training & support they need to make the transition People oriented to tell employees how and when their worlds are going to change Start with where people are & work forward to leave the past behind and emerge with new attitudes, behaviours & identity Establish each person’s part in both the plan and the outcome Show employees the role & their relationship to others. Until they see it they can’t adjust hopes & fears to the new reality Show employees what part they play in the outcome & the transition process
  • 11. Transformation Process Set the direction Create the desire & will to change Phase Content Outcomes Part Unfreeze Mobilise Realise Reinforce Sustain Make early changes & build confidence Secure widespread shift in behaviour Underpin with changes in structure & people processes Strive for continuous performance improvement Break with the past Build the energy Perform-ance lift-off Embed new culture Push the limits
  • 12. Plan from the Perspective of the Recipients of Change Board Senior Mgmt Team Where do we want them to be? What initiatives will help them get there? Is the ‘load’ of change reasonable & within capabilities? What projects do we need to provide the initiatives Customer Facing Staff Front-line Managers Middle Managers Support Teams Part Unfreeze Mobilise Realise Reinforce Sustain
  • 13. Plotting Shifts in Commitment (Example) Line Managers Senior Team Board HR Employees Project Sponsor Key Players No Commitment Let It Happen Help It Happen Make It Happen Key: X = Present state O = Minimum commitment needed X X X X X X O O O O O O
  • 14. Surfacing Potential Barriers Early On Strategy Structure Process Operating principles Culture/behaviour Jobs People Change gets bogged because barriers are not dealt with soon enough or openly enough to keep the change process moving Barriers may exist anywhere and everywhere – even the difficult-to-see places… Leadership Management Resources Systems Rewards Values/Beliefs Capabilities Consider: How will this change effort affect…?
  • 15. Identify Strategies for Closing Critical Gaps Rewards Systems Resources Management Leadership People Culture/Behaviour Operating Principles Process Structure Strategy Strategy Gap Organisational Dimension
  • 16. Importance of Leadership Communication Actions speak louder than words Day-to-day behaviour and signals need to live the vision Why should I change my behaviour or go the extra mile? Leadership 65% Grapevine ? Systems & Processes 25% Media 10%
  • 17. The Transition Curve: How Attitudes & Feelings Change Confidence Time “ I’m not sure I know what’s going on” “ I feel overwhelmed” “ I can handle this” “ We can’t do this. It won’t work. We’re not allowed” “ Actually, things might get better” “ This could be a better way of doing it” “ This way is more effective” “ S/he really made the effort to help us implement this change”
  • 18. Making Sense of the Journey The information they receive Their work and how they do it The context in which they do their work The needs of the organisation To change their behaviour, employees need to see the link between:
  • 19. Link between desired result & communication approach Level of change Level of involvement Tell Sell Consult Join Awareness Understanding (and Action) Acceptance/ Alignment Ownership/ Engagement
  • 20. Choosing the Right Communications Tools & Channels Level of change Level of involvement Tell Sell Consult Join Awareness Understanding (and Action) Acceptance/ Alignment Ownership/ Engagement Newsletters, emails, memos, letters, notices Booklets, plenary sessions, presentations, videos, intranets Focus groups, working parties, suggestions schemes, consultative presentations Working sessions, 1-to-1 conversations, workshops, coaching
  • 21. Information + Involvement to Build Commitment & Change Increasing Commitment Awareness of desired change Understanding of change direction Translation to the work setting Commitment to personal change Internalisation of new behaviour “ Yeah, I saw the memo” “ I understand where we need to go” “ I know how we need to do our jobs differently” “ OK, I’m ready to do it the new way” “ This is the way we do things here” Stages of Individual Behaviour Change Information with some involvement sufficient here Significant involvement needed
  • 22. Ten Strategies for Employee Involvement Meet regularly with employees and openly discuss the organisational changes and why they occurred Recognise that employees understand that you may not have the answers to everything, but it’s important for them to feel the communications are open and honest Constantly communicate clear goals and vision of the new situation Encourage people to discuss fears and concerns in teams Open ‘suggestion boxes’ for employees to raise questions in anonymity Set up weekly lunches or other informal meetings to discuss the progress of the restructuring process Whenever possible, assign roles and responsibilities in line with peoples interests Develop rituals and marker events that allow people to connect Involve employees affected by the changes in making decisions about what’s best for them Discuss realistic career options with employees and ensure training is available for any new skills that are needed
  • 23. Coaching Others in Building Employee Commitment Identify individuals or groups whose commitment is necessary to the success of the change effort Create and follow a departmental plan to increase commitment of all players Continually encourage and enable employee involvement Continually communicate the goals of the change process Turn covert resistance to overt resistance and then to commitment WALK THE TALK!
  • 24. What People Pay Attention To: Leader attention, measurement, rewards and controls Leader reaction to critical incidents Leader role modelling, coaching Criteria for recruitment, promotion, retirement and excommunication Formal and informal socialisation Recurring systems and procedures Organisation design and structure Design of physical space Stories and myths about key people and events Formal statements, charters, creeds, codes of ethics etc Between 80-90% of behaviour is determined by the first three points