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Term Paper on
Hypothesis
Presented By:
Hareesh M
2014600120
Hypothesis
Hypothesis:
• Hypothesisisconsideredasthe principal instrumentinresearch.
• Its mainfunctionisto suggestnew experimentsandobservations
Definition:
• A hypothesisisaconjectural statementof the relationbetweentwoormore variables.
(Kerlinger,1956)
• Hypothesisisaformal statementthatpresentsthe expectedrelationshipbetweenan
independentanddependentvariable.(Creswell,1994)
• Hypothesisneedstobe structuredbefore the data-gatheringandinterpretationphase of the
research
• The hypothesisgivesdirectiontothe collectionandinterpretationof data
Characteristics ofhypothesis
• Hypothesisshouldbe clearandprecise.
• Hypothesisshouldbe capable of being tested
• Hypothesisshouldbe limitedinscope andmustbe specific
• Hypothesisshouldstate relationshipbetweenvariables
• Hypothesisshouldbe consistentwithmostknownfacts,amenabletotestingwithina
reasonable time
Null and Alternative Hypothesis
• The Null hypothesis(H0) isa claimof “no Significance difference between2variables”
• The Alternative hypothesis(Ha) claims“H0 is false”.OpptoNull Hypothesis
Confidence interval
• It isexpressedasapercentage andrepresentshow oftenthe true percentageof the population
whowouldpickan answerlieswithinthe confidence interval.
• The 95% confidence levelmeansyoucanbe 95% certain;
• the 99% confidence levelmeansyoucanbe 99% certain.
• Most researchersuse the 95% confidence level.
Level of Confidence
• A confidence level referstothe percentage of all possiblesamplesthatcanbe expectedto
include the true populationparameter.Forexample,supposeall possible sampleswere selected
fromthe same population,andaconfidence interval were computedforeachsample.A 95%
confidence levelimpliesthat95% of the confidence intervalswouldinclude the true population
parameter.
Hypothesistestingof means
 Mean of the populationcanbe testedpresuming
 differentsituationssuchasthe populationmaybe
 Normal or otherthan normal,itssample size maybe large or small,variance of the population
may be knownor unknownandthe alternative hypothesismaybe two-sidedorone sided.our
testingtechniquewilldifferindifferentsituations.
 We may considersome of the importantSituations.
Hypothesistestingfor differencesbetweenmeans
The null hypothesisfortestingof differencebetweenmeansisgenerallystatedas H0 : m1 = m2 ,
• wherem1 is population mean of onepopulation andm2 ispopulationmeanof the second
population,assumingboththe populationstobe normal populations.
• Alternativehypothesismaybe of not equal toor lessthanor greaterthan type as statedearlier
and accordinglywe shall determinethe acceptance orrejectionregionsfortestingthe
hypotheses.
• There may be differentsituationswhenwe are examiningthe significance of difference between
twomeans,but the followingmaybe takenasthe usual situations.
Business research term paper-hareesh
Business research term paper-hareesh

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Business research term paper-hareesh

  • 1. Term Paper on Hypothesis Presented By: Hareesh M 2014600120
  • 2. Hypothesis Hypothesis: • Hypothesisisconsideredasthe principal instrumentinresearch. • Its mainfunctionisto suggestnew experimentsandobservations Definition: • A hypothesisisaconjectural statementof the relationbetweentwoormore variables. (Kerlinger,1956) • Hypothesisisaformal statementthatpresentsthe expectedrelationshipbetweenan independentanddependentvariable.(Creswell,1994) • Hypothesisneedstobe structuredbefore the data-gatheringandinterpretationphase of the research • The hypothesisgivesdirectiontothe collectionandinterpretationof data Characteristics ofhypothesis • Hypothesisshouldbe clearandprecise. • Hypothesisshouldbe capable of being tested • Hypothesisshouldbe limitedinscope andmustbe specific • Hypothesisshouldstate relationshipbetweenvariables • Hypothesisshouldbe consistentwithmostknownfacts,amenabletotestingwithina reasonable time Null and Alternative Hypothesis • The Null hypothesis(H0) isa claimof “no Significance difference between2variables” • The Alternative hypothesis(Ha) claims“H0 is false”.OpptoNull Hypothesis Confidence interval • It isexpressedasapercentage andrepresentshow oftenthe true percentageof the population whowouldpickan answerlieswithinthe confidence interval. • The 95% confidence levelmeansyoucanbe 95% certain; • the 99% confidence levelmeansyoucanbe 99% certain.
  • 3. • Most researchersuse the 95% confidence level. Level of Confidence • A confidence level referstothe percentage of all possiblesamplesthatcanbe expectedto include the true populationparameter.Forexample,supposeall possible sampleswere selected fromthe same population,andaconfidence interval were computedforeachsample.A 95% confidence levelimpliesthat95% of the confidence intervalswouldinclude the true population parameter. Hypothesistestingof means  Mean of the populationcanbe testedpresuming  differentsituationssuchasthe populationmaybe  Normal or otherthan normal,itssample size maybe large or small,variance of the population may be knownor unknownandthe alternative hypothesismaybe two-sidedorone sided.our testingtechniquewilldifferindifferentsituations.  We may considersome of the importantSituations.
  • 4. Hypothesistestingfor differencesbetweenmeans The null hypothesisfortestingof differencebetweenmeansisgenerallystatedas H0 : m1 = m2 , • wherem1 is population mean of onepopulation andm2 ispopulationmeanof the second population,assumingboththe populationstobe normal populations. • Alternativehypothesismaybe of not equal toor lessthanor greaterthan type as statedearlier and accordinglywe shall determinethe acceptance orrejectionregionsfortestingthe hypotheses. • There may be differentsituationswhenwe are examiningthe significance of difference between twomeans,but the followingmaybe takenasthe usual situations.