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WORK STUDY-WORK STUDY-
METHOD,TIME STUDYMETHOD,TIME STUDY
Hareesh.MHareesh.M
I.D.NO:2014600120I.D.NO:2014600120
INTRODUCTION
 With increasing complexities of the technological world,
need to simplify the work system has been increasing
day by day.
 Work study is an area of knowledge that addresses the
problem of work simplification with the basic objectives
of
PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT,PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT,
HUMAN COMFORT & SAFETYHUMAN COMFORT & SAFETY
o
Work Study-Definition
“Work study is defined as that body of knowledge
concerned with the analysis of the work methods
and the equipment used in performing a job, the
design of an optimum work method and the
standardization of proposed work methods.”
Work Study
The systematic examination of the method of
carrying on activities so as to improve the effective
use of resources and to set up standards of
performance for the activities being carried out.
Method Study
Systematic recording and critical examination of
existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a
means of developing and applying easier and more
effective methods and reducing cost
The main purpose of method study is to eliminate
the unnecessary operations and to achieve the best
method of performing the operation
Method Study ( Steps)
 Select job/process to be examined & observe current
performance
• high process cost, bottlenecks, tortuous route, low
productivity, erratic quality
 Record & document facts
• activities performed
• operators involved - how etc
• equipment and tools used
• materials processed or moved
 Apply critical examination - challenge job components &
necessity (purpose, place, sequence, method).
 Develop alternative methods & present proposals
 Document as base for new work system
 Install, monitor (slippage) & maintain
Method Study (Objectives)
Improvement in use of all inputs
Economy in human effort
Layout improvement
Improvement in design of plant and
machinery
Improvement in safety standards and
procedures
Better working environment
Method Study ( Facilitating Factors)
High operating cost
High wastage & scrap
Excessive movement of materials and workmen
Excessive production bottlenecks
Excessive rejections and rework
Complaints about quality
Complaints about poor working condition
Increasing number of accidents
Excessive use of overtime
Work Study (Benefits)
Increased productivity and increased efficiency
Reduced manufacturing costs
Improved work place layout
Better manpower planning and capacity planning
Fair wages to employees
Better working conditions for employees
Improved workflow
Reduced material handling costs
Better industrial relations and employee morale
Provides better job satisfaction to employees
Work Measurement
The application of technique designed to establish
time for a qualified worker to carry out a task at a
defined rate of working at a defined level of
performance
Fair Day’s work
Work Measurement
Why define/measure work?
standard, reliable methods
control performance & quality
obtain predictability
defined labour costs & performance
set pay rates & provide data for effort-reward
relationship
Why set standard times
assumptions about competent, motivated
workers
be clear about "allowances" & fatigue
Work Measurement (Objectives)
Finding ineffective time in an activity
Setting standards (norms) for output level
Performance evaluation – capability management
Capacity management
Comparing work methods
Scheduling – facility operations
Establishing wage incentives schemes
Work Measurement (Techniques)
Stop – watch time study
Work sampling
Predetermined times standards
Standard data
Work Study (Opponents)
All work is different - idiographic vs/ nomothetic
Work study is obsolete
It is exploitative of workers
It has never been and never will be accepted here
Time Study
One of the most common types of work
measurement is time study
For example - Purpose
An international coffee shop chain may want to
find out how long a barista should take to make a
specific coffee drink. Some of the stated
condition may include using cold milk that needs
to be steamed, rather than already steamed milk.
Time Study
Observations
A qualified practitioner should observe the
employee using a time measurement device. The
observer should also assess the quality of work
Observed Person
The observed person in the time study must be
fully trained in the measured task
Time StudiesTime Studies
1.1. Define the task to be studiedDefine the task to be studied
2.2. Divide the task into precise elementsDivide the task into precise elements
3.3. Decide how many times to measure the taskDecide how many times to measure the task
4.4. Time and record element times and rating ofTime and record element times and rating of
performanceperformance
Time StudiesTime Studies
5.5. Compute average observed timeCompute average observed time
AverageAverage
observed timeobserved time
Sum of the times recorded to performSum of the times recorded to perform
each elementeach element
Number of observationsNumber of observations==
6.6. Determine performance rating andDetermine performance rating and
normal timenormal time
Normal time =Normal time =
Average observedAverage observed
time Xtime X Performance ratingPerformance rating
factorfactor
7.7. Add the normal times for each element to develop theAdd the normal times for each element to develop the
total normal time for the tasktotal normal time for the task
8.8. Compute the standard timeCompute the standard time
 Standard time= total normal time/1-allowance factor
Time Study ExampleTime Study Example
Average observed time = 4.0 minutesAverage observed time = 4.0 minutes
Worker rating = 85%Worker rating = 85%
Allowance factor = 13%Allowance factor = 13%
Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating factor)Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating factor)
= (4.0)(.85)= (4.0)(.85)
= 3.4 minutes= 3.4 minutes
Standard time = = =Standard time = = =
Normal timeNormal time
1 - Allowance factor1 - Allowance factor
3.43.4
1 - .131 - .13
3.43.4
.87.87
= 3.9 minutes= 3.9 minutes
Time Study Example -1Time Study Example -1
Allowance factor = 15%Allowance factor = 15%
PerformancePerformance
Job ElementJob Element 11 22 33 44 55 RatingRating
(A)(A) Compose and type letterCompose and type letter 88 1010 99 21*21* 1111 120%120%
(B)(B) Type envelope addressType envelope address 22 33 22 11 33 105%105%
(C)(C) Stuff, stamp, seal, andStuff, stamp, seal, and 22 11 5*5* 22 11 110%110%
sort envelopessort envelopes
Cycle Observed (in minutes)Cycle Observed (in minutes)
1.1. Delete unusual or nonrecurring observations (marked with *)Delete unusual or nonrecurring observations (marked with *)
2.2. Compute average times for each elementCompute average times for each element
Average time for A = (8 + 10 + 9 + 11)/4 = 9.5 minutesAverage time for A = (8 + 10 + 9 + 11)/4 = 9.5 minutes
Average time for B = (2 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 3)/5 = 2.2 minutesAverage time for B = (2 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 3)/5 = 2.2 minutes
Average time for C = (2 + 1 + 2 + 1)/4 = 1.5 minutesAverage time for C = (2 + 1 + 2 + 1)/4 = 1.5 minutes
Time Study Example S2Time Study Example S2
3.3. Compute the normal time for each elementCompute the normal time for each element
Normal time for A = (9.5)(1.2) = 11.4 minutesNormal time for A = (9.5)(1.2) = 11.4 minutes
Normal time for B = (2.2)(1.05) = 2.31 minutesNormal time for B = (2.2)(1.05) = 2.31 minutes
Normal time for C = (1.5)(1.10) = 1.65 minutesNormal time for C = (1.5)(1.10) = 1.65 minutes
Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating)Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating)
4.4. Add the normal times to find the total normal timeAdd the normal times to find the total normal time
Total normal time = 11.40 + 2.31 + 1.65 = 15.36 minutesTotal normal time = 11.40 + 2.31 + 1.65 = 15.36 minutes
Time Study Example S2Time Study Example S2
5.5. Compute the standard time for the jobCompute the standard time for the job
Standard time =Standard time =
Total normal timeTotal normal time
1 - Allowance factor1 - Allowance factor
= = 18.07 minutes= = 18.07 minutes
15.3615.36
1 - .151 - .15
Thank youThank you

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Work study method and time study-final - copy

  • 1. WORK STUDY-WORK STUDY- METHOD,TIME STUDYMETHOD,TIME STUDY Hareesh.MHareesh.M I.D.NO:2014600120I.D.NO:2014600120
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  With increasing complexities of the technological world, need to simplify the work system has been increasing day by day.  Work study is an area of knowledge that addresses the problem of work simplification with the basic objectives of PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT,PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT, HUMAN COMFORT & SAFETYHUMAN COMFORT & SAFETY o
  • 3. Work Study-Definition “Work study is defined as that body of knowledge concerned with the analysis of the work methods and the equipment used in performing a job, the design of an optimum work method and the standardization of proposed work methods.”
  • 4. Work Study The systematic examination of the method of carrying on activities so as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up standards of performance for the activities being carried out.
  • 5. Method Study Systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing cost The main purpose of method study is to eliminate the unnecessary operations and to achieve the best method of performing the operation
  • 6.
  • 7. Method Study ( Steps)  Select job/process to be examined & observe current performance • high process cost, bottlenecks, tortuous route, low productivity, erratic quality  Record & document facts • activities performed • operators involved - how etc • equipment and tools used • materials processed or moved  Apply critical examination - challenge job components & necessity (purpose, place, sequence, method).  Develop alternative methods & present proposals  Document as base for new work system  Install, monitor (slippage) & maintain
  • 8. Method Study (Objectives) Improvement in use of all inputs Economy in human effort Layout improvement Improvement in design of plant and machinery Improvement in safety standards and procedures Better working environment
  • 9. Method Study ( Facilitating Factors) High operating cost High wastage & scrap Excessive movement of materials and workmen Excessive production bottlenecks Excessive rejections and rework Complaints about quality Complaints about poor working condition Increasing number of accidents Excessive use of overtime
  • 10. Work Study (Benefits) Increased productivity and increased efficiency Reduced manufacturing costs Improved work place layout Better manpower planning and capacity planning Fair wages to employees Better working conditions for employees Improved workflow Reduced material handling costs Better industrial relations and employee morale Provides better job satisfaction to employees
  • 11. Work Measurement The application of technique designed to establish time for a qualified worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working at a defined level of performance Fair Day’s work
  • 12. Work Measurement Why define/measure work? standard, reliable methods control performance & quality obtain predictability defined labour costs & performance set pay rates & provide data for effort-reward relationship Why set standard times assumptions about competent, motivated workers be clear about "allowances" & fatigue
  • 13. Work Measurement (Objectives) Finding ineffective time in an activity Setting standards (norms) for output level Performance evaluation – capability management Capacity management Comparing work methods Scheduling – facility operations Establishing wage incentives schemes
  • 14. Work Measurement (Techniques) Stop – watch time study Work sampling Predetermined times standards Standard data
  • 15. Work Study (Opponents) All work is different - idiographic vs/ nomothetic Work study is obsolete It is exploitative of workers It has never been and never will be accepted here
  • 16. Time Study One of the most common types of work measurement is time study For example - Purpose An international coffee shop chain may want to find out how long a barista should take to make a specific coffee drink. Some of the stated condition may include using cold milk that needs to be steamed, rather than already steamed milk.
  • 17. Time Study Observations A qualified practitioner should observe the employee using a time measurement device. The observer should also assess the quality of work Observed Person The observed person in the time study must be fully trained in the measured task
  • 18. Time StudiesTime Studies 1.1. Define the task to be studiedDefine the task to be studied 2.2. Divide the task into precise elementsDivide the task into precise elements 3.3. Decide how many times to measure the taskDecide how many times to measure the task 4.4. Time and record element times and rating ofTime and record element times and rating of performanceperformance
  • 19. Time StudiesTime Studies 5.5. Compute average observed timeCompute average observed time AverageAverage observed timeobserved time Sum of the times recorded to performSum of the times recorded to perform each elementeach element Number of observationsNumber of observations== 6.6. Determine performance rating andDetermine performance rating and normal timenormal time Normal time =Normal time = Average observedAverage observed time Xtime X Performance ratingPerformance rating factorfactor
  • 20. 7.7. Add the normal times for each element to develop theAdd the normal times for each element to develop the total normal time for the tasktotal normal time for the task 8.8. Compute the standard timeCompute the standard time  Standard time= total normal time/1-allowance factor
  • 21. Time Study ExampleTime Study Example Average observed time = 4.0 minutesAverage observed time = 4.0 minutes Worker rating = 85%Worker rating = 85% Allowance factor = 13%Allowance factor = 13% Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating factor)Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating factor) = (4.0)(.85)= (4.0)(.85) = 3.4 minutes= 3.4 minutes Standard time = = =Standard time = = = Normal timeNormal time 1 - Allowance factor1 - Allowance factor 3.43.4 1 - .131 - .13 3.43.4 .87.87 = 3.9 minutes= 3.9 minutes
  • 22. Time Study Example -1Time Study Example -1 Allowance factor = 15%Allowance factor = 15% PerformancePerformance Job ElementJob Element 11 22 33 44 55 RatingRating (A)(A) Compose and type letterCompose and type letter 88 1010 99 21*21* 1111 120%120% (B)(B) Type envelope addressType envelope address 22 33 22 11 33 105%105% (C)(C) Stuff, stamp, seal, andStuff, stamp, seal, and 22 11 5*5* 22 11 110%110% sort envelopessort envelopes Cycle Observed (in minutes)Cycle Observed (in minutes) 1.1. Delete unusual or nonrecurring observations (marked with *)Delete unusual or nonrecurring observations (marked with *) 2.2. Compute average times for each elementCompute average times for each element Average time for A = (8 + 10 + 9 + 11)/4 = 9.5 minutesAverage time for A = (8 + 10 + 9 + 11)/4 = 9.5 minutes Average time for B = (2 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 3)/5 = 2.2 minutesAverage time for B = (2 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 3)/5 = 2.2 minutes Average time for C = (2 + 1 + 2 + 1)/4 = 1.5 minutesAverage time for C = (2 + 1 + 2 + 1)/4 = 1.5 minutes
  • 23. Time Study Example S2Time Study Example S2 3.3. Compute the normal time for each elementCompute the normal time for each element Normal time for A = (9.5)(1.2) = 11.4 minutesNormal time for A = (9.5)(1.2) = 11.4 minutes Normal time for B = (2.2)(1.05) = 2.31 minutesNormal time for B = (2.2)(1.05) = 2.31 minutes Normal time for C = (1.5)(1.10) = 1.65 minutesNormal time for C = (1.5)(1.10) = 1.65 minutes Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating)Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Rating) 4.4. Add the normal times to find the total normal timeAdd the normal times to find the total normal time Total normal time = 11.40 + 2.31 + 1.65 = 15.36 minutesTotal normal time = 11.40 + 2.31 + 1.65 = 15.36 minutes
  • 24. Time Study Example S2Time Study Example S2 5.5. Compute the standard time for the jobCompute the standard time for the job Standard time =Standard time = Total normal timeTotal normal time 1 - Allowance factor1 - Allowance factor = = 18.07 minutes= = 18.07 minutes 15.3615.36 1 - .151 - .15

Editor's Notes

  1. Pioneering techinque of improving VFM and productivity Major discipline of Industrial Engineering and even to date remains the basic of all other technique
  2. Inputs: Man, machine, material, capital and information.
  3. Nomethetic – philosophical Idiographic – clinical science – describes pecularity The human factor is very important for WS Good relations is a key factor for success Eductaional qualification
  4. A qualified worker is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, possessing the required intelligence and the education and having acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standards of safety, quantity and quality. It measures time and separated effective time from in effectives and hence by this we can reduce the inefective time Fair days work : amount of work done by qualified employee in standard condition and not limited by processes
  5. Capacity mgmt – resources and plant and machinery
  6. Nomethetic – philosophical Idiographic – clinical science – describes pecularity
  7. Assumes: set sequence, routine work cycle (all workers), little discretion, 100% effort rating - trained/qualified, motivated/committed, working at normal pace & not fatigued .Fix standard time and enter into measured work manual/database. Time study determine how long a qualified worker under stated conditions can reasonably be expected to complete a task. time Study: establish standard times - management knowledge rate operator performance - criteria for appraisal gather information to calculate production capabilities & data for capacity planning. define/cost work content of finished goods and services e.g. for charging & estimating
  8. Observations: For instance, the manager in the example would be an ideal observer in conducting a time study of coffer making work. Observed Person: A person making coffee, for example, must be fully trained and familiar with the process of coffee making if the time study wishes to determine how long it takes to make the coffee.