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Construction Documentation
   and Record Management:
Get it Right to Prevail in Disputes
           Presented by
        Matthew J. DeVries
      Smith Cashion & Orr PLC
Possible Titles




        2
Baseball Gone Wild!




          3
Tour de France Gone Wild!




             4
“Teenage Son” Gone Wild!




            5
“Adult Son” Gone Wild!




           6
“Ferdinand the Bull” Gone Wild!




                7
“Construction Projects” …




             8
… Gone Wild!




      9
The End

• Questions?




                  10
Who Are You?

• Coast to Coast … Toronto … Vancouver
• Presidents, VPs, PMs, OMs, PEs, COO
  – Public and Private Owners/Developers
  – Architects/Engineers
  – General contractors
  – Specialty subcontractors/suppliers
  – Insurance carriers
  – Consultants (PM and Forensic)
  – Bottom Feeders
                    11
Who Am I?

• Construction Attorney, LEED ® AP,
  Husband, Father of 5, Blogger, Author




                    12
1. Project Management Procedures




              13
1. Project Management Procedures
    2. Project Documentation




              14
1. Project Management Procedures
          2. Project Documentation
3. Critical / Non-Critical Documentation




                   15
1. Project Management Procedures
         2. Project Documentation
3. Critical / Non-Critical Documentation




4. Legal Issues / Litigation Concerns

                   16
1. Project Management Procedures
         2. Project Documentation
3. Critical / Non-Critical Documentation




4. Legal Issues / Litigation Concerns
5. Examples of Projects Gone Wild
                   17
The Conclusion

• To promote effective project
  management procedures




                       18
The Conclusion

• To promote effective project
  management procedures
• Claim preservation
  – Notice of claim
  – Proof of liability
  – Document claim impact




                       19
The Conclusion

• To promote effective project
  management procedures
• Claim preservation
  – Notice of claim
  – Proof of liability
  – Document claim impact
• If you end up in court …
  – Minimize exposure
  – Prevail in your disputes
                         20
Project Management Procedures

• Establish standard management
  procedures
  – Processing of COs & extra work
  – Purchasing and receiving
  – Project documentation
  – Costs and accounting system
  – Scheduling



                       21
Project Management Procedures

• Establish lines of communication
  – Regular job meetings
  – Field coordination meetings
  – Design coordination meetings
     • Address changes
     • Address progress
     • Address quality




                          22
Project Management Procedures

• Establish procedures to manage, monitor
  and document work and progress
  – Ensures regular flow of information for
    project control and coordination
  – Contemporaneous, accurate and complete
    record of job conditions and problems
    including their impact to the project



                       23
Project Documentation

• Purpose
  – For proper planning and management
  – Notice and reservation of rights
  – Aiding in resolving claims and disputes
• Can be overwhelming but is essential
• Must be organized
  – Standardized with written procedures
  – Major classifications
  – Chronological filing

                      24
Project Documentation

•   Why are proper records so essential for
    claims and disputes?

    (1) To establish causal connection to event

    (2) To establish reservation of rights/non-waiver

    (3) To properly identify actual costs and delays

                          25
Critical Project Documentation
• Correspondence
  – Establish responsibility for responding
    to/acting on
  – Used to comply with notice requirements
  – Used to confirm discussions in writing
    • Will help to clarify any misunderstandings




                          26
Critical Project Documentation

• Meeting minutes/notes
  – List participants
  – Subjects covered
  – Nature of discussions
  – Future action
  – Distribute to all participants or those
    affected
  – Use previous minutes as agenda for next
    meeting

                     27
Critical Project Documentation

• Daily reports/logs
  – Routine, contemporaneous description of
    work progress and problems
  – Create standard form for easier use by
    field personnel
  – Can be used to build as-built schedule




                       28
Critical Project Documentation
• Daily reports/logs (cont’d)
   – Information recorded briefly and concisely
      •   Manpower by subcontractors
      •   Equipment used or idle
      •   Major work activities
      •   Any delays or problems
      •   Areas of work not available
      •   Safety issues and accidents
      •   Oral instructions and informal meetings
      •   Weather summary

                              29
Critical Project Documentation

• Personal daily diaries
  – Prepared by foreman, superintendents,
    project engineers, project managers
     • Record site conditions
     • Record labor and equipment usage
     • Record impediments to work
  – Consistency is important
    for trustworthiness


                        30
Critical Project Documentation

• Time sheets
  – Document manpower
     • Number of manhours worked
     • Work performed
• Accounting records
  – Must prove damages
     with reasonable certainty
  – Invoices

                       31
Critical Project Documentation

• Photographs
  – Monitor, depict and
    preserve conditions
  – Pictorial diary of project (weekly or monthly)
  – Document defective work or problem
    conditions
     Note pertinent information on back
     • Date, time, location, condition depicted,
       photographer
     • Create photo log
                            32
Critical Project Documentation

• Status/submittal logs
  – Shop drawings, field orders, change
    requests, change orders, authorizations to
    proceed, requests for information, drawing
    revisions, transmittals
• CPM schedule
  – Realistic baseline
     • Input from subs for buy-in
  – Regular periodic updates
                         33
Non-Critical Documentation
Personal emails, IMs, or blog trails




                  34
Non-Critical Documentation
    Personal emails, IMs, or blog trails




Inappropriate copies




                       35
Non-Critical Documentation
    Personal emails, IMs, or blog trails




Inappropriate copies        Website traffic logs




                       36
Non-Critical Documentation
Personal emails, IMs, or blog trails




 Inappropriate copies        Website traffic logs




                        37
Project Management Software

  •   Different software packages
  •   Types of information track
  •   Web based capabilities
  •   Project management uses
  •   Executive uses
  •   Other project team member uses
  •   Why do we need to know this?


                  38
Software Packages

• Prolog
  Manager/Proliance
• Expedition
• Plans and Specs
• Bentley Systems Inc.
• Microsoft Project
  – Self hosted
  – Application service
    provider environment
                     39
Web Based Capabilities
• Project team accesses same
  web based database
• Access to design drawings, job
  site photos, schedules, and
  +400 reports
• Document control is enhanced
  by tracking revisions, storing
  master files, streamlining review
  process
• Compliance with corporate
  procedures
                         40
Project Mgt. and Exec. Uses

• Procurement control         • Daily reports
• Cost control                • Contracts
• Document                    • Integration with
  management                    SureTrak and
• Field administration          Primavera
• Reports                     • Change orders
• Correspondence              • Purchase orders
  documents

                         41
Why do we need to know this?




• Step towards paperless project
• Excellent audit trial – check in/out, IP address,
  version control
• Consolidate project documentation
• Integration problems with accounting software

                         42
Legal Issues

What is the “put it in writing” rule?


       What is hearsay? Non-hearsay? Exceptions?


               Email versus Letter versus Change Order?

                     Can we shred documents at the end?

                                What about paperless project?

                                43
“Put it in Writing” Rule

• What should you record?
• For whom are you documenting?
  – General contractors/subcontractors
  – Business/legal purposes
• Hearsay
  – What is the hearsay rule?
  – Exceptions


                     44
Exceptions to “Hearsay” Rule
– Business record exception
– Author actually observed conditions
– The records were prepared in the normal
  course of business
– The records were prepared at the time of
  the event(s) or reasonably soon thereafter
– There is no suggestion that the records
  were prepared for the specific purpose of
  use in litigation –“A less-guarded time.”


                     45
The Paperless Project

• Who owns the license to the program?
• How much access do the parties have to
  the documents created in the program?
• Who controls the server?
• Will the parties be granted access to
  project documents during the project?
• Is less formal communication (email)
  good or bad for the parties?

                    46
Paperless Project    (cont’d)




• Would you still use letters?
• Could emails to attorneys be retrieved
  by other parties?
• Is a written instruction via email the
  same as a change order?
• What type of information would you
  want protected?

                    47
Duty to Preserve




        48
Duty to Preserve




        49
Duty to Preserve




        50
Duty to Preserve




        51
Sample Documents




        52
Sample Documents




        53
Sample Documents




        54
Sample Documents




        55
Sample Documents




        56
Sample Documents




        57
The Real World

• “One look is worth a thousand words.”
  – Fred Barnard (Dec. 8, 1921 advertisement)

• 畫意能達萬言
  – The Home Book of Proverbs, Maxims and Familiar Phrases (Mar. 10, 1927)

• "Un bon croquis vaut mieux qu'un long
  discours"
  – Napoloean Bonaparte

• “As the Chinese say, 1001 words is worth
  more than a picture.”
  – John McCarthy, computer scientist


                                          58
E-mail: Not-So-Good


To: John
From: Paul
Re: Project Delays


John, I am going to have Drew send you some progress curve comparisons for
us to start the delay status analysis. I think we need to begin the discussion
with our management that we are late and tell them that we are analyzing
how late. We also need to consult the claims team as how we tell our
management that we are late. The schedule needs some serious work to be
used as a float tool and everyone is going to be looking to get answers.




                                         59
E-Mail: Bad

   From: Contracts Manager about Upper Management
People did not listen and act on previous recommendations in a timely manner
and I am annoyed that those delays significantly impact the cost and schedule
to this project. COMMITMENT from management means listening to the
people who have to make things happen …

Yes, I am annoyed, but more importantly I am concerned where we are going
with this project if people do not listen and act quickly. How can we be
successful with the schedule and cost if we do not have the resources to
execute the job proactively and/or project management does not respond when
we make recommendations? WE NEED HELP!!!!




                                      60
E-Mail: Worse

   From: Upper Management about Contracts Manager


Guys, let’s get real. I have three simple questions:

Is Bob the right person to be Contracts Manager on this project? If there is any
hesitation, then take the necessary action to get the right person in place.

Is there adequate support for the Contracts Manager at the site and/or back-up
available?

Are there any other projects in this deadlocked condition?




                                       61
E-Mail: The Worst

       From: Upper Management to Contracts Manager


Bob,

I understand your frustration about lack of support from back in the East. We
are attempting to get the additional resources and assistance that you have
requested. In the meantime, you need to continue with the team in place. If
we are going to make the contractor look like they cannot do their job, we
MUST look and act like we are doing ours!!!

Rob




                                      62
E-Mail: Dirty Words

                     Internal Correspondence


Great! What the hell are we supposed to do now?!?! This invoice will now have
to be made known to ABC Co., but not before our sailaway date of May 15th
                                   *******
I am sure that Mr. Smith and Mr. Jones will be involved here, but I would much
rather have ABC Co. see this after our equipment has left the port and is on
the High Seas on their vessels.




                                      63
E-Mail: Dirty Words

                     Internal Correspondence


Great! What the hell are we supposed to do now?!?! This invoice will now have
to be made known to ABC Co., but not before our sailaway date of May 15th
                                   *******
I am sure that Mr. Smith and Mr. Jones will be involved here, but I would much
rather have ABC Co. see this after our equipment has left the port and is on
the High Seas on their vessels.




Lesson Learned: Watch out for the four-letter words.

                                      64
Daily Report



4) MISLABLED PARTS STILL
ONGOING. LOST TIME IS
MOUNTING UP. LAYDOWN AREA
HAVING A HARD TIME DUE TO
MISLABELING.


              65
Deviation Report




Description: Labor Availability

Root Cause: Missed in the
original estimate.

                 66
Change Order Log



No.           Item         Date   Amount     Pending         Notes
 1    Rebar masonry        3/14   $114,450      0       Missed quantity
 2    Rebar                3/14   $92,896       0       Missed quantity
 3    Curb                 3/14   $58,905       0       Missed quantity
 4    Additional pumps     5/7    $105,990      0       Engineer
 5    Additional filters   5/7    $12,450       0       Engineer
 6    Electrical           5/7    $311,412   $311,412   Engineer




                                    67
Project Photos: Organization




              68
Photos: Assist in Project Administration

                    Location:
                      Nashville, TN
                    User:
                      Owner (out‐of‐town)
                    Feature:
                      Progression photos used 
                      by project members 
                      during construction
                        Source: Multivista Construction Documentation



                   69
Photos: Proof of Installed Quantities

Location:
  Memphis, TN
User:
  General Contractor
Feature:
  Aerial photos used to 
  establish entitlement to 
  installed quantities


                              70
Photos: Impeachment of Witness

               Location:
                 Memphis, TN
               User:
                 General Contractor
               Feature:
                 Aerial photos used to 
                 contradict witness 
                 testimony on scope of 
                 completion

               71
Photos: Proof of Responsibility

Location:
  Nashville, TN
User:
  General Contractor
Feature:
  Date of photos used to 
  establish insurance 
  coverage dispute


                            72
Photos: Defective Work

           Location:
             Atlanta, GA
           User:
             Owner & General 
             Contractor
           Feature:
             Walk‐through photos 
             used to show defect 
             and standard
                Source: Multivista Construction Documentation

           73
Photos: Incomplete Work

Location:
  Atlanta, GA
User:
  General Contractor
Feature:
  Interior MEP photos 
  used to defend claim 
  by sub for additional $$
  Source: Multivista Construction Documentation




                                                  74
Photos: Recover Regulatory Fines

Location:
  Raleigh, NC
User:
  Owner
Feature:
  Pre‐construction site‐
  survey photos used to 
  identify responsible party 
  for local fines 
                                                       Not actual project photo
  Source: Multivista Construction Documentation




                                                  75
Photos: Proof of Delays

                          Location:
                            Pittsburg, PA
                          User:
                            Steel Contractor
                          Feature:
                            Aerial photos show staging 
                            area used by other trades 
                            and impacted schedule
                            Source: Duggan Rhodes Group

5/30/00




                     76
Photos: The Smoking Gun




(Bad photo if you are the blasting contractor!)
                       77
The Legal World

• Higgins Dev. Partners v. Skanska USA
  (Mont. 2009)
  – Email sufficient to support a finding of
    increased costs for change order
• Inland Construction Co. v. Cameron Park
  (N.C. Ct. App. 2007)
  – Email promising additional work not a
    “contract”
  – Lack of executed change order found to be
    without merit
                       78
The Legal World

• A-1 General Contracting v. River Market
  Communications (N.Y. 1995)
  – Handwritten notations on contract “should
    be ignored”
  – No agreement about payment schedule
• Klein Development v. Ellis K. Phelps & Co.
  (Fl. Ct. App. 2000)
  – Faxed release of lien binding?
  – Letter requesting original signature was
    contradictory evidence
                      79
The Legal World

• Bethlehem Area Sch. Dist. v. White Bros.
  Construction (Pa. Com. Pl. 2004)
  – Letter constituted a limited admission of
    damages (tiles and carpet, not mold)
• Raymond’s Building Supply v. Mattson
  (Conn. Super. 2007)
  – Photographs established that problems
    “were or should have been” evident at the
    time of termination
                      80
Future Issues

• Green Construction
  – LEED ® credit templates, worksheets and
    back-up documentation
  – Documentation of energy performance
• Social Media 2.0
  – Twitter
  – LinkedIn
  – Facebook


                     81
Questions?

       Matt DeVries
 Smith Cashion & Orr PLC
  231 Third Avenue North
    Nashville, TN 37201
   (615) 742-8577 direct
    (615) 354-3681 cell
mdevries@smithcashion.com




            82
What to Do When
          the Project Goes Bad?


•   Review all contracts to determine rights
•   Notify the proper persons
•   Document the impact
•   Reserve rights and proceed under protest
•   Prove the monetary loss due to impact
•   Negotiate resolution


                      83
Invoke Dispute Resolution If Necessary




                   84

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Best Practices: Project Documentation and Construction Management

  • 1. Construction Documentation and Record Management: Get it Right to Prevail in Disputes Presented by Matthew J. DeVries Smith Cashion & Orr PLC
  • 4. Tour de France Gone Wild! 4
  • 11. Who Are You? • Coast to Coast … Toronto … Vancouver • Presidents, VPs, PMs, OMs, PEs, COO – Public and Private Owners/Developers – Architects/Engineers – General contractors – Specialty subcontractors/suppliers – Insurance carriers – Consultants (PM and Forensic) – Bottom Feeders 11
  • 12. Who Am I? • Construction Attorney, LEED ® AP, Husband, Father of 5, Blogger, Author 12
  • 13. 1. Project Management Procedures 13
  • 14. 1. Project Management Procedures 2. Project Documentation 14
  • 15. 1. Project Management Procedures 2. Project Documentation 3. Critical / Non-Critical Documentation 15
  • 16. 1. Project Management Procedures 2. Project Documentation 3. Critical / Non-Critical Documentation 4. Legal Issues / Litigation Concerns 16
  • 17. 1. Project Management Procedures 2. Project Documentation 3. Critical / Non-Critical Documentation 4. Legal Issues / Litigation Concerns 5. Examples of Projects Gone Wild 17
  • 18. The Conclusion • To promote effective project management procedures 18
  • 19. The Conclusion • To promote effective project management procedures • Claim preservation – Notice of claim – Proof of liability – Document claim impact 19
  • 20. The Conclusion • To promote effective project management procedures • Claim preservation – Notice of claim – Proof of liability – Document claim impact • If you end up in court … – Minimize exposure – Prevail in your disputes 20
  • 21. Project Management Procedures • Establish standard management procedures – Processing of COs & extra work – Purchasing and receiving – Project documentation – Costs and accounting system – Scheduling 21
  • 22. Project Management Procedures • Establish lines of communication – Regular job meetings – Field coordination meetings – Design coordination meetings • Address changes • Address progress • Address quality 22
  • 23. Project Management Procedures • Establish procedures to manage, monitor and document work and progress – Ensures regular flow of information for project control and coordination – Contemporaneous, accurate and complete record of job conditions and problems including their impact to the project 23
  • 24. Project Documentation • Purpose – For proper planning and management – Notice and reservation of rights – Aiding in resolving claims and disputes • Can be overwhelming but is essential • Must be organized – Standardized with written procedures – Major classifications – Chronological filing 24
  • 25. Project Documentation • Why are proper records so essential for claims and disputes? (1) To establish causal connection to event (2) To establish reservation of rights/non-waiver (3) To properly identify actual costs and delays 25
  • 26. Critical Project Documentation • Correspondence – Establish responsibility for responding to/acting on – Used to comply with notice requirements – Used to confirm discussions in writing • Will help to clarify any misunderstandings 26
  • 27. Critical Project Documentation • Meeting minutes/notes – List participants – Subjects covered – Nature of discussions – Future action – Distribute to all participants or those affected – Use previous minutes as agenda for next meeting 27
  • 28. Critical Project Documentation • Daily reports/logs – Routine, contemporaneous description of work progress and problems – Create standard form for easier use by field personnel – Can be used to build as-built schedule 28
  • 29. Critical Project Documentation • Daily reports/logs (cont’d) – Information recorded briefly and concisely • Manpower by subcontractors • Equipment used or idle • Major work activities • Any delays or problems • Areas of work not available • Safety issues and accidents • Oral instructions and informal meetings • Weather summary 29
  • 30. Critical Project Documentation • Personal daily diaries – Prepared by foreman, superintendents, project engineers, project managers • Record site conditions • Record labor and equipment usage • Record impediments to work – Consistency is important for trustworthiness 30
  • 31. Critical Project Documentation • Time sheets – Document manpower • Number of manhours worked • Work performed • Accounting records – Must prove damages with reasonable certainty – Invoices 31
  • 32. Critical Project Documentation • Photographs – Monitor, depict and preserve conditions – Pictorial diary of project (weekly or monthly) – Document defective work or problem conditions Note pertinent information on back • Date, time, location, condition depicted, photographer • Create photo log 32
  • 33. Critical Project Documentation • Status/submittal logs – Shop drawings, field orders, change requests, change orders, authorizations to proceed, requests for information, drawing revisions, transmittals • CPM schedule – Realistic baseline • Input from subs for buy-in – Regular periodic updates 33
  • 35. Non-Critical Documentation Personal emails, IMs, or blog trails Inappropriate copies 35
  • 36. Non-Critical Documentation Personal emails, IMs, or blog trails Inappropriate copies Website traffic logs 36
  • 37. Non-Critical Documentation Personal emails, IMs, or blog trails Inappropriate copies Website traffic logs 37
  • 38. Project Management Software • Different software packages • Types of information track • Web based capabilities • Project management uses • Executive uses • Other project team member uses • Why do we need to know this? 38
  • 39. Software Packages • Prolog Manager/Proliance • Expedition • Plans and Specs • Bentley Systems Inc. • Microsoft Project – Self hosted – Application service provider environment 39
  • 40. Web Based Capabilities • Project team accesses same web based database • Access to design drawings, job site photos, schedules, and +400 reports • Document control is enhanced by tracking revisions, storing master files, streamlining review process • Compliance with corporate procedures 40
  • 41. Project Mgt. and Exec. Uses • Procurement control • Daily reports • Cost control • Contracts • Document • Integration with management SureTrak and • Field administration Primavera • Reports • Change orders • Correspondence • Purchase orders documents 41
  • 42. Why do we need to know this? • Step towards paperless project • Excellent audit trial – check in/out, IP address, version control • Consolidate project documentation • Integration problems with accounting software 42
  • 43. Legal Issues What is the “put it in writing” rule? What is hearsay? Non-hearsay? Exceptions? Email versus Letter versus Change Order? Can we shred documents at the end? What about paperless project? 43
  • 44. “Put it in Writing” Rule • What should you record? • For whom are you documenting? – General contractors/subcontractors – Business/legal purposes • Hearsay – What is the hearsay rule? – Exceptions 44
  • 45. Exceptions to “Hearsay” Rule – Business record exception – Author actually observed conditions – The records were prepared in the normal course of business – The records were prepared at the time of the event(s) or reasonably soon thereafter – There is no suggestion that the records were prepared for the specific purpose of use in litigation –“A less-guarded time.” 45
  • 46. The Paperless Project • Who owns the license to the program? • How much access do the parties have to the documents created in the program? • Who controls the server? • Will the parties be granted access to project documents during the project? • Is less formal communication (email) good or bad for the parties? 46
  • 47. Paperless Project (cont’d) • Would you still use letters? • Could emails to attorneys be retrieved by other parties? • Is a written instruction via email the same as a change order? • What type of information would you want protected? 47
  • 58. The Real World • “One look is worth a thousand words.” – Fred Barnard (Dec. 8, 1921 advertisement) • 畫意能達萬言 – The Home Book of Proverbs, Maxims and Familiar Phrases (Mar. 10, 1927) • "Un bon croquis vaut mieux qu'un long discours" – Napoloean Bonaparte • “As the Chinese say, 1001 words is worth more than a picture.” – John McCarthy, computer scientist 58
  • 59. E-mail: Not-So-Good To: John From: Paul Re: Project Delays John, I am going to have Drew send you some progress curve comparisons for us to start the delay status analysis. I think we need to begin the discussion with our management that we are late and tell them that we are analyzing how late. We also need to consult the claims team as how we tell our management that we are late. The schedule needs some serious work to be used as a float tool and everyone is going to be looking to get answers. 59
  • 60. E-Mail: Bad From: Contracts Manager about Upper Management People did not listen and act on previous recommendations in a timely manner and I am annoyed that those delays significantly impact the cost and schedule to this project. COMMITMENT from management means listening to the people who have to make things happen … Yes, I am annoyed, but more importantly I am concerned where we are going with this project if people do not listen and act quickly. How can we be successful with the schedule and cost if we do not have the resources to execute the job proactively and/or project management does not respond when we make recommendations? WE NEED HELP!!!! 60
  • 61. E-Mail: Worse From: Upper Management about Contracts Manager Guys, let’s get real. I have three simple questions: Is Bob the right person to be Contracts Manager on this project? If there is any hesitation, then take the necessary action to get the right person in place. Is there adequate support for the Contracts Manager at the site and/or back-up available? Are there any other projects in this deadlocked condition? 61
  • 62. E-Mail: The Worst From: Upper Management to Contracts Manager Bob, I understand your frustration about lack of support from back in the East. We are attempting to get the additional resources and assistance that you have requested. In the meantime, you need to continue with the team in place. If we are going to make the contractor look like they cannot do their job, we MUST look and act like we are doing ours!!! Rob 62
  • 63. E-Mail: Dirty Words Internal Correspondence Great! What the hell are we supposed to do now?!?! This invoice will now have to be made known to ABC Co., but not before our sailaway date of May 15th ******* I am sure that Mr. Smith and Mr. Jones will be involved here, but I would much rather have ABC Co. see this after our equipment has left the port and is on the High Seas on their vessels. 63
  • 64. E-Mail: Dirty Words Internal Correspondence Great! What the hell are we supposed to do now?!?! This invoice will now have to be made known to ABC Co., but not before our sailaway date of May 15th ******* I am sure that Mr. Smith and Mr. Jones will be involved here, but I would much rather have ABC Co. see this after our equipment has left the port and is on the High Seas on their vessels. Lesson Learned: Watch out for the four-letter words. 64
  • 65. Daily Report 4) MISLABLED PARTS STILL ONGOING. LOST TIME IS MOUNTING UP. LAYDOWN AREA HAVING A HARD TIME DUE TO MISLABELING. 65
  • 66. Deviation Report Description: Labor Availability Root Cause: Missed in the original estimate. 66
  • 67. Change Order Log No. Item Date Amount Pending Notes 1 Rebar masonry 3/14 $114,450 0 Missed quantity 2 Rebar 3/14 $92,896 0 Missed quantity 3 Curb 3/14 $58,905 0 Missed quantity 4 Additional pumps 5/7 $105,990 0 Engineer 5 Additional filters 5/7 $12,450 0 Engineer 6 Electrical 5/7 $311,412 $311,412 Engineer 67
  • 69. Photos: Assist in Project Administration Location: Nashville, TN User: Owner (out‐of‐town) Feature: Progression photos used  by project members  during construction Source: Multivista Construction Documentation 69
  • 70. Photos: Proof of Installed Quantities Location: Memphis, TN User: General Contractor Feature: Aerial photos used to  establish entitlement to  installed quantities 70
  • 71. Photos: Impeachment of Witness Location: Memphis, TN User: General Contractor Feature: Aerial photos used to  contradict witness  testimony on scope of  completion 71
  • 72. Photos: Proof of Responsibility Location: Nashville, TN User: General Contractor Feature: Date of photos used to  establish insurance  coverage dispute 72
  • 73. Photos: Defective Work Location: Atlanta, GA User: Owner & General  Contractor Feature: Walk‐through photos  used to show defect  and standard Source: Multivista Construction Documentation 73
  • 74. Photos: Incomplete Work Location: Atlanta, GA User: General Contractor Feature: Interior MEP photos  used to defend claim  by sub for additional $$ Source: Multivista Construction Documentation 74
  • 75. Photos: Recover Regulatory Fines Location: Raleigh, NC User: Owner Feature: Pre‐construction site‐ survey photos used to  identify responsible party  for local fines  Not actual project photo Source: Multivista Construction Documentation 75
  • 76. Photos: Proof of Delays Location: Pittsburg, PA User: Steel Contractor Feature: Aerial photos show staging  area used by other trades  and impacted schedule Source: Duggan Rhodes Group 5/30/00 76
  • 77. Photos: The Smoking Gun (Bad photo if you are the blasting contractor!) 77
  • 78. The Legal World • Higgins Dev. Partners v. Skanska USA (Mont. 2009) – Email sufficient to support a finding of increased costs for change order • Inland Construction Co. v. Cameron Park (N.C. Ct. App. 2007) – Email promising additional work not a “contract” – Lack of executed change order found to be without merit 78
  • 79. The Legal World • A-1 General Contracting v. River Market Communications (N.Y. 1995) – Handwritten notations on contract “should be ignored” – No agreement about payment schedule • Klein Development v. Ellis K. Phelps & Co. (Fl. Ct. App. 2000) – Faxed release of lien binding? – Letter requesting original signature was contradictory evidence 79
  • 80. The Legal World • Bethlehem Area Sch. Dist. v. White Bros. Construction (Pa. Com. Pl. 2004) – Letter constituted a limited admission of damages (tiles and carpet, not mold) • Raymond’s Building Supply v. Mattson (Conn. Super. 2007) – Photographs established that problems “were or should have been” evident at the time of termination 80
  • 81. Future Issues • Green Construction – LEED ® credit templates, worksheets and back-up documentation – Documentation of energy performance • Social Media 2.0 – Twitter – LinkedIn – Facebook 81
  • 82. Questions? Matt DeVries Smith Cashion & Orr PLC 231 Third Avenue North Nashville, TN 37201 (615) 742-8577 direct (615) 354-3681 cell mdevries@smithcashion.com 82
  • 83. What to Do When the Project Goes Bad? • Review all contracts to determine rights • Notify the proper persons • Document the impact • Reserve rights and proceed under protest • Prove the monetary loss due to impact • Negotiate resolution 83
  • 84. Invoke Dispute Resolution If Necessary 84