Systems Development       Planning       Lifecycle
Systems Development: Some Key          Questions• How does an organization ensure that its IT resources  support its busin...
Systems Lifecycle•   Investigation•   Design•   Construction                     All of these activities•   Testing       ...
Strategic Planning• Based upon businesses multiyear strategic plan• Identify IT components or requirements within  the bus...
Steps in IS Planning                       IdentifyStrategic Plan                       Projects                     Prior...
Example3-Year Business Plan          3-Year IS Plan1. Accelerate product intro   1. Engineering automation:   process to 4...
ExampleThe objectives of this plan must be time sequenced and  budgeted            Engineering Automation                 ...
Architecture• Many firms have developed “systems  architectures”   – A high-level roadmap which maps business     function...
Discussion: The benefits of an            architecture• Situation                          9
Systems Development Model• Traditional• Alternatives   – Prototyping   – Rapid Application Development   – CASE-based   – ...
Benefits of Methodology• Various models are often called “methodology”  – A system of methods• Provide common language and...
Traditional Software Development         Lifecycle (SDLC)  • Often called Waterfall Model Investigation                 De...
Traditional SDLC• From four to 12 phases• One phase completed before beginning next  phase• Emphasis on documentation and ...
Example of SDLCPhase and Deliverable• Pre-investigation   – Project proposal and recommendation• Investigation   – Investi...
Example of SDLCPhase and Deliverable• Design   – Logical design   – Technical design   – Test plans   – Revised cost and b...
Pros and Cons of SDLC• Advantages  – Lends itself to good control  – Phase deliverables well defined     • Facilitates con...
Pros and Cons of SDLC• Disadvantages  – Time and cost estimation difficult  – Can be very slow  – Requires that requiremen...
Improvements to Traditional SDLC• Dedicated project teams   – Full time end-user designers• JAD workshops   – Joint Applic...
Time Box Approach• Identify objectives• Create project team• Set time period (6 weeks)• Team cycles through all phases of ...
Advantages of Time Box Approach• Advantages  – Eliminates gap between system on paper and    “real” system  – Immediate de...
Disadvantages of Time Box             Approach• Disadvantages  – Longer commitment may be needed to get    results  – Dang...
Prototyping• Aim: Quickly create something that shows how  the system (or a portion of it) will work• Allow hands out inte...
Prototyping• Nonoperational prototypes  – Mockups that don’t really work  – Limited to input and output (reports, screens)...
CASE Tools• Computer Aided Software Engineering   – Toolsets to speed software development and     improve quality• Upper ...
CASE Tools• Repository   – Database containing all development objectives      • Data elements and definitions      • Requ...
Rapid Application Development• Trendy term for many of these alternative  methods used is some combination   – CASE   – JA...
Project Management• Project Management  – Identification of tasks to be completed  – Understanding of relationship between...
Risk Assessment• Many projects predictably fail do to risk profile• Major risk factors  – Scope  – Timeline  – Experience ...
End User Development• Easy-to-use tools encourage end-user  development• So does IT department resource constraints• Advan...
IT Organization vs. End-User           Development• Source of tension• Users: “It is too slow and don’t know our  business...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Sysdev

279 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
279
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sysdev

  1. 1. Systems Development Planning Lifecycle
  2. 2. Systems Development: Some Key Questions• How does an organization ensure that its IT resources support its business plan?• How do we ensure compatibility and interoperability across different system development efforts?• How does a systems project get authorized?• How is a project controlled and reviewed? 2
  3. 3. Systems Lifecycle• Investigation• Design• Construction All of these activities• Testing comprise system• Implementation development and form a lifecycle• Maintenance• Enhancement• Retirement 3
  4. 4. Strategic Planning• Based upon businesses multiyear strategic plan• Identify IT components or requirements within the business plan – Include IT inhibitors as well as IT-based breakthroughs• Create rough plan of major IT initiatives• This should form a baseline IT plan as well as human resources plan 4
  5. 5. Steps in IS Planning IdentifyStrategic Plan Projects Prioritize and Select Determine resources required (people, $, time) Create planning document 5
  6. 6. Example3-Year Business Plan 3-Year IS Plan1. Accelerate product intro 1. Engineering automation: process to 4 months implement e-only design2. Move manufacture of process mature products to 2. Extend corporate Mexico network to offshore3. Expand e-commerce manufacturing partners capabilities to direct 3. Create internet sales site online selling and and custom catalog custom catalogs framework 6
  7. 7. ExampleThe objectives of this plan must be time sequenced and budgeted Engineering Automation True South Flexible E-selling 1H 2002 2H 2002 1H 2003 2H 2003Qtrly $ 225 225 400 125 150 150 200 150 7
  8. 8. Architecture• Many firms have developed “systems architectures” – A high-level roadmap which maps business functions to present and future systems – And shows relationships between systems – Does not specific timeframe – Must be updated regularlyl• Specific investment decisions and priorities can be made within this framework 8
  9. 9. Discussion: The benefits of an architecture• Situation 9
  10. 10. Systems Development Model• Traditional• Alternatives – Prototyping – Rapid Application Development – CASE-based – Time-boxing 10
  11. 11. Benefits of Methodology• Various models are often called “methodology” – A system of methods• Provide common language and expectation• Allow for standard management reviews• Create standards for documentation and testing• Almost impossible to be credible without one 11
  12. 12. Traditional Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) • Often called Waterfall Model Investigation Design Construction Implement 12
  13. 13. Traditional SDLC• From four to 12 phases• One phase completed before beginning next phase• Emphasis on documentation and checkpoints• Detailed planning and budgeting at each phase 13
  14. 14. Example of SDLCPhase and Deliverable• Pre-investigation – Project proposal and recommendation• Investigation – Investigation Report – Analysis of alternatives – Cost and benefit analysis – Schedule – Recommendation• Requirements Analysis – Detailed system requirements – Revised cost and benefits analysis – Revised schedule 14
  15. 15. Example of SDLCPhase and Deliverable• Design – Logical design – Technical design – Test plans – Revised cost and benefits analysis – Revised schedule• Construction & Testing – System elements – Implementation plans – Contingency plans – End user training materials – Maintenance plan – Operations plans• Implementation – Cutover / Phase in 15
  16. 16. Pros and Cons of SDLC• Advantages – Lends itself to good control – Phase deliverables well defined • Facilitates contracting – Clear checkpoints makes reviews easy – Creates detailed documentation which is valuable for maintenance 16
  17. 17. Pros and Cons of SDLC• Disadvantages – Time and cost estimation difficult – Can be very slow – Requires that requirements are defined abstractly, without interaction with “system” – Overall ownership usually on “systems” people 17
  18. 18. Improvements to Traditional SDLC• Dedicated project teams – Full time end-user designers• JAD workshops – Joint Application Design – Facilitated workshops • 1 to 5 days • Scribes • Perhaps prototype tools – Requirements definition or design 18
  19. 19. Time Box Approach• Identify objectives• Create project team• Set time period (6 weeks)• Team cycles through all phases of lifecycle very quickly, sometimes in parallel• Fast development tools very useful• Review takes place at end of time period – Continue project for another period? – Cancel all-together? – Implement current system? 19
  20. 20. Advantages of Time Box Approach• Advantages – Eliminates gap between system on paper and “real” system – Immediate demonstration of technical feasibility – Limits investment risks – Developers prefer it 20
  21. 21. Disadvantages of Time Box Approach• Disadvantages – Longer commitment may be needed to get results – Danger of implementing unstable or poorly- maintainable product – Without discipline to focus on objectives, can be wasteful 21
  22. 22. Prototyping• Aim: Quickly create something that shows how the system (or a portion of it) will work• Allow hands out interaction with system to test requirements and key design features• Problem: How do you build something quickly? – Use 4GL (fast development, poor performance), recode later – Reduce feature set (no editing of data) – Create key modules only 22
  23. 23. Prototyping• Nonoperational prototypes – Mockups that don’t really work – Limited to input and output (reports, screens)• Operational prototypes – Working systems or portions of systems – Possibly 4GL based 23
  24. 24. CASE Tools• Computer Aided Software Engineering – Toolsets to speed software development and improve quality• Upper CASE – Focus on investigation, analysis and design• Lower CASE – Design, code generation and testing• Integrated CASE include both 24
  25. 25. CASE Tools• Repository – Database containing all development objectives • Data elements and definitions • Requirements • Code modules – Enables a team to work on the CASE project• Data model – Dictionary and schema• Code generation – Product 3GL or 4GL code 25
  26. 26. Rapid Application Development• Trendy term for many of these alternative methods used is some combination – CASE – JAD – Prototyping – Time Boxing 26
  27. 27. Project Management• Project Management – Identification of tasks to be completed – Understanding of relationship between tasks – Tracking of task ownership and status – Adjustment of resources and plans in reaction to events – Task tracking and accountability – Management reporting and escalation 27
  28. 28. Risk Assessment• Many projects predictably fail do to risk profile• Major risk factors – Scope – Timeline – Experience of team – Organizational change – Geographic scope 28
  29. 29. End User Development• Easy-to-use tools encourage end-user development• So does IT department resource constraints• Advantages – Good knowledge of business needs – Control of resources and priorities• Disadvantages – Lack of technical expertise – Lack of planning 29
  30. 30. IT Organization vs. End-User Development• Source of tension• Users: “It is too slow and don’t know our business”• IT: “Users produce poor systems and leave us with maintenance”• How should IT respond to this? – Ignore – Outlaw and drive underground – Offer assistance and consultation 30

×