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Apple: 8 Easy Steps to Beat
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                                                                                                 ..…….

                                                                    July 2010 • Apple Study      2
Table of contents

Introduction

Step #1: Believe in the simple
Step #2: Design a full experience
Step #3: Lock customers in
Step #4: Sell at a premium
Step #5: Cross-sell your product line
Step #6: Balance control vs. freedom
Step #7: Think different
Step #8: Assess risks and competition
Conclusion: happily ever after Apple?

Appendixes: Glossary




                                                                  ..…….

                                        July 2010 • Apple Study   3
Why and how did Apple beat
            Google & Microsoft?


                                                     Microsoft
                                                     Google
                                                     Apple




                    In 6 years, Apple’s market cap outweighed
                       both the new and old tech champions
                                                                                ..…….
Source: Bloomberg                                     July 2010 • Apple Study   4
Step #1: Believe in the simple




      Apple: the arrogance of simplicity




                                                            ..…….

                             June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0   5
What is Apple’s design process?

                        “When you first start off trying to solve a problem, the first solutions you come up with
                       are very complex, and most people stop there. But if you keep going, […] you can often
                                 times arrive at some very elegant and simple solutions.” Steve Jobs1




                                    Apple identifies needs and use cases to make
                                     decisions about function and technologies.        Vision
                                     Drops 20 % of non-required functionalities to
                                      perfectly design 80 % of key user needs.         Focus
                                    Attention to details leads to excellence in user
                                                      experience.                      Global




                                                                                                                      ..…….
1   Q&A: Jobs on iPod's Cultural Impact, Newsweek, 10/16/2010                               July 2010 • Apple Study   6
Case study: iMac (1998)
Simplicity & choices


                          Simplicity
                           All-in-one computer
                            Setup & go


                            Choices
                              No floppy disk
                               No extension stack




                                                            ..…….

                                  July 2010 • Apple Study   7
Case study: why does making choices
             implies constraint?
                      “It became an intense and almost religious argument about the purity of the system's
                               design versus the user's freedom to configure the system he liked.”
                                Christopher Espinosa (Apple employee #8) speaking about the Macintosh project, 1984




                                     No sign of upcoming blu-ray
                                                                               “YouTube now supports HD video.” Steve Jobs1
                                     support on Apple computers.



                                                                               “Other companies tried to do everything on the
                                     Music can only be managed
                                                                               device itself and made it so complicated that it
                                           through iTunes.
                                                                               was useless.” Steve Jobs2



                                                                               “We created an approval process [to] avoid
                                     App Store approval process
                                                                               applications that degrade the core experience of
                                       as a quality insurance.
                                                                               the iPhone.” Apple Answers the FCC’s Questions


                                                                                                                                  ..…….
1 Emailon 04/14/2010
2 Q&A: Jobs on iPod's Cultural Impact, Newsweek, 10/16/2010
                                                                                              July 2010 • Apple Study             8
Step #2: Design a full experience




                      Apple adopts a comprehensive
                                approach




                                                                      ..…….
UX: User experience                         July 2010 • Apple Study   9
Apple re-legitimize vertical integration

                  Customer-centric                Business design                               Focus

                  Apple goes against
                   the outsourcing                Apple adopts a                        Apple focuses on a
                        trend.                  holistic approach to                    very lean product
                                                    its business.                              line.
                Contrary to industrial
                 vertical integration,                  Products                        Risk management on
                   Apple uses it to                        UX                          technological choices
                 control the global                     Financial                      and consistency at all
                  experience of its                     Marketing                             layers
                     customers.


            App Store contributed to only     Apple advertisement are               “We’ve reviewed the road map of
            1 % in profit!1                   designed internally.                  new products and axed more
                                                                                    than 70 percent of them, keeping
            “Pure” financial management       Mobile carriers are only allowed      the 30 percent that were gems.”
            would have required it to be      to show their logo at the end.
            outsourced as soon as possible.                                         Steve Jobs upon his returning to
                                                                                    Apple in 1997
                                                                                                                       ..…….
1 Source:   Piper Jaffray                                                        July 2010 • Apple Study               10
Apple’s vertical integration offers three
competitive advantages
            “Our competitors, Dell and Compaq, are distribution companies […].
                                They don’t create anything.”
                                 Steve Jobs, Time, Oct 1999



     Simplicity                          Quality                          Innovation


                                                                       Apple does not
  Apple acts as an                                                      depend on its
 abstraction layer.              Thanks to hardware                  suppliers’ technical
                                  and software tight                   breakthroughs.
 Technical complexity            integration, Apple’s
  hidden behind slick            products offers great                It can innovate on
   and intuitive UI:                   quality.                          hardware and
seamless experience.                                                 software at its own
                                                                             pace.




                                                                                            ..…….

                                                              July 2010 • Apple Study       11
Case study: the digital music revolution
                 (2001-2004)

                                                                                                              •  Chose high-speed FireWire
                                                                                                              instead of USB1
                                                                                                              •  Game-changing click wheel
                                                                                                              •  Apple’s design guidelines applied




                                                                                                              •  iTunes software
                                                                                                              •  Available on Mac & PC
                                                                                                              •  Simple and reliable software




                                                                                                              •  Agreements with the music industry
                                                                                                              •  Distribution
                                                                                                              •  DRM1




                                               Apple provides a comprehensive music experience
                                                                                                                                                      ..…….
1 Digital   Rights Management (DRM): technologies used by content owners to control usage of music, movies…           July 2010 • Apple Study         12
Case study: Apple’s vertical integration
in hardware for consumer electronics




    Apple controls every step: it ensures that almost every hardware and
          software parts are customized to perfectly fit its needs.
                                                                                ..…….

                                                      July 2010 • Apple Study   13
Step #3: Lock customers in




   iTunes’ goal is to lock the consumer in




                                                         ..…….

                               July 2010 • Apple Study   14
iTunes revenues are insignificant




                                                             $6.6 bn
          Hardware                                                                                       iTunes Store
          Software
                                                                            37%                         Other software
                                      82%            18%
                                                                                   63%        $4.1 bn
                     $30 bn



                                                    Revenue Distribution in 2009




                               The iTunes Store represented only 11 % of Apple’s revenues in 2009.


                                                                                                                         ..…….
Source: Apple annual reports                                                        July 2010 • Apple Study              15
Case study: App Store revenues
            are a drop in the bucket



           $6.8 bn                                  Revenues generated by iPhone (hardware) sales in 2009
                                                    (22 % of Apple’s revenues)

                                $400 m              Revenues generated by App Store sales since its creation

                                           <   1%   App Store contribution to gross profit since its creation




                                 Apple authorizes and sometimes promotes apps competitors
                                              to its iTunes Store during keynotes.




                                                                                                                            ..…….
Source: Keynote WWDC 2010, Piper Jaffray                                                          July 2010 • Apple Study   16
Yet iTunes’ goal
             is to lock the consumer in




     iTunes-devices relationship is locked                                          Consumers lock themselves in

              One-way sync                                                                       $100
                      (Palm controversy)                                                  spent per device on av.1


                       FairPlay                                                                125 m
            DRM software invented by Apple,                                          iTunes accounts linked with credit
            protecting videos, eBooks, apps2                                         card (painless buying experience)




                                          Great customer loyalty (user retention/walled garden)
                                                                                                                          ..…….
1 Deutsche Bank.
2 There are no DRM on iTunes Music since 2009.
                                                                                    July 2010 • Apple Study               17
Step #4: Sell at a premium




      Apple’s revenues come from high
         margin hardware products




                                                       ..…….

                             July 2010 • Apple Study   18
Case study: Apple’s profit comes from
                margins in hardware (iPad)

                                  $499
                                             $110      + Apple margin
                                   Margin:
                                    40 %
                                                       Average industry margin
                                             $90       (approx. 30 %)

                                                       Cost of sales
                                             $70       (approx. 30 %)




                                                       Cost of materials and
                                             $230      manufacturing1




                                                                                 ..…….
1 Source:   iSuppli                                 July 2010 • Apple Study      19
Big picture: hardware drives
             Apple’s gross margin



                                                vs.

                                  iPod                 iPhone   iPhone 3G   iPad




                               Biggest gross margin growth in the industry

                                                                                                 ..…….
Source: Apple annual reports                                      June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0   20
Step #5: Cross-sell your product line




    Apple brand appeal drives its product
                   line




                                                         ..…….

                               July 2010 • Apple Study   21
Who is the iCustomer?
                    Product line covers all markets, all price ranges, all needs with an accurate segmentation.




                       Market leader             100m iPhones sold by 2011 (est.)        8 % market share




                + Product lifecycle: each new product implements appealing new features, strongly inducing the
                                          loyal iCustomer to buy new products (iPhone 3GS to iPhone 4)




                        The iCustomer needs all Apple products to maximize his user experience.

                                                                                                                  ..…….
1 Pricesfor entry-level models.
Source: Apple, Morgan Stanley, Gartner.                                                 July 2010 • Apple Study   22
Case study: iPod and iPhone
              drives Mac sales

                            Mac                       Mac (left axis)                                                                          iPod and
                        sales, m                                                                                                               iPhone
                                                                                                                                               sales, m
                                                      iPod (right axis)
                                                      iPhone (right axis)




                                        Halo effect1 + seamless experience with mobile devices requires a Mac




                               40 % of Apple revenues comes from Mac sales (desktop and laptop).

                                                                                                                                                          ..…….
1 Haloeffect: e.g. a product (the iPod) has positive effects on our perception of something else (the Apple brand)
Source: Apple annual reports, Oppenheimer                                                                            July 2010 • Apple Study              23
Integration reinforced by retail strategy

                        “We want to make the best buying experience in the world […]. It’s impossible to get
                         knowledge at the point of sale. We can’t thrive in that environment.” Steve Jobs, D2


                                         % revenue from Apple’s retail stores
                                         Number of Apple stores




                 Contribution to revenue starting to plateau (but profitability sacrificed to enhance buying
                 experience) but still Apple Stores are a place where the company can:
                 •  showcase a 100 % Apple environment (to appeal the iCustomer)
                 •  have a trained sales force selling its products.


                     Apple Stores fosters the brand appeal and consequently, the halo effect.
                                                                                                                ..…….
Source: Apple annual reports                                                         July 2010 • Apple Study    24
iCustomers will drive Apple’s sales

  Apple’s main focus is the consumer market where “every person votes for themselves”
                                     Steve Jobs, D8




  However, thanks to its thriving success in B2C, Apple will be able to raise its
                               market share in B2B

                                                                                        ..…….

                                                             July 2010 • Apple Study    25
How did Apple cross the chasm?
                        iPhone and iPod sales have enabled the Apple brand to cross the chasm.
                              Example: Amazon Kindle sold 3 m units in its first year. Apple’s iPad did the same in 80 days.




                                                                    Killer products                    Immediate
                                                                          +                            mainstream
                                                                   Brand leverage                       adoption




                                                                                                                               ..…….
Source: Apple, Electronista                                                                        July 2010 • Apple Study     26
Step #6: Balance control vs. freedom




         Apple needs an ecosystem




                                                        ..…….

                              July 2010 • Apple Study   27
Case study: how Apple failed in the 80’s
        “We weren’t so good at partnering with people […]. If Apple could have a little more of
             that in its DNA, it would have served it extremely well.” Steve Jobs, D5, 2007




1982: Steve Jobs forces Bill Gates to develop productivity software only for the
Mac
1985: Apple allows Microsoft to use Mac technologies in Windows in exchange of
a Word and Excel upgrade for Macintosh
1988-1995: 7-year legal battle lost by Apple
1995: Launch of Windows 95 has definitively dwarfed Apple’s share in the PC
market
                                                                                                  ..…….

                                                                      July 2010 • Apple Study     28
Lessons learned!
                              Copyright owners                                    Carriers

                  Apple:                                           Crucial to iPhone’s success:
                  •  understood their market                       •  AT&T first allowed Apple,
                  structure                                        which had no experience
                  •  gave them what they wanted                    in this market, to make the phone
                  most (DRM for music,                             they wanted
                  price control for publishers)                    •  Set a standard for others



                                Developers                                         Google

                  Contrary to the Mac, Apple has attracted
                                                                   Apple’s keeps partnering with its #1
                  developers on iOS
                                                                   competitor because it’s the best at
                  •  Ground breaking
                                                                   certain services (native apps on iOS):
                  revenue sharing
                                                                   •  Search
                  •  56 % of US mobile dev
                                                                   •  Maps
                  on iPhone
                                                                   •  YouTube
                  (90 % are single-platform)1




                                  Apple understood it needed to partner with other players.
                                                                                                            ..…….
1 Source:   Millenial Media                                                      July 2010 • Apple Study    29
Mobile application paradigms:
             Native Apps vs. Web Apps




                          Apple’s model put the emphasis on native apps (iPhone SDK), but also
                               promotes HTML5 (iAd, WebKit). Flash represents “the past”.


                                                                                                      ..…….
SaaS: Software as a service (see Wikipedia)                            June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0   30
Case study: What is Apple’s vision about
mobile applications?
  To Apple HTML5 is a complement to the curated App Store model, providing
              developers with liberty and an open architecture.




                                Near future


  Long-term vision: promoting open standards will prevent other players from
    excluding Apple, as Microsoft did with its Office proprietary formats.
                                                                                 ..…….

                                                       July 2010 • Apple Study   31
Step #7: Think different




                                       Apple uses the cloud to foster a
                                         new computing paradigm.




                                                                                                                                                   ..…….
From Wikipedia: “Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information
are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid.”                                  June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0   32
What was Apple’s vision of computing ?



                              Personal computer
                              = only digital hub




                             Applications and UX
                                    = glue




                               Devices = media
                             consumption/creation



                                                       ..…….

                             July 2010 • Apple Study   33
iPad embodies the transition
to post-PC era
    “We are scratching the surface on the kind of apps we can build for it. […] One can
                    create a lot of content on a tablet.” Steve Jobs, D8



                              New input        Progress in
                            technologies   +       UI




                          People will turn to a more intimate and
                             direct relationship with content




Personal computers                                                         Other devices,
  are trucks: most                                                      including tablets, will
people do not need                                                       be mainstream, just
 such an extensive                                                      as cars are great for
      interface.                                                            everyday life.

                                                                                                  ..…….

                                                                    July 2010 • Apple Study       34
To make it happen Apple is investing
                in cloud

                                  Differentiation                Independence


                       Without cloud computing, Apple
                                                           Without cloud computing, Apple
                        would lose ground before its
                                                            would fail to secure reliable
                                 competitors.
                                                                   infrastructure.
                              •  Mobile resources are
                                                              •  It would be dependent on
                         constraints (end of Moore’s
                                                              competitors (notably Google
                        law1, battery life), while cloud
                                                                       and Amazon)
                          computing enables speech
                                                           •  Entry barriers are increasing
                       recognition, unlimited storage…
                                                                  (experience maintaining
                           •  Competitors are already
                                                                  security and scalability)
                        differentiating: Google Voice,
                           Microsoft Office Online…




                                                                                              ..…….
1 Moore’s   Law: see Wikipedia.                                  July 2010 • Apple Study      35
Three upcoming features
                to build an Apple cloud
                                                             “We’re working on it”, Steve Jobs, D8, June 2010


                        MobileMe                                                       Streaming                          New glue

                                                                                  Streaming as a new
                                                                                                                    The cloud is the new
                                                                                  paradigm for media
                                                                                                                   glue that links all Apple
                                                                                     consumption
               Apple makes MobileMe                                                                                        devices
               free for all Apple users
                                                                             •  Streamlined UX: no
                                                                                                                  •  Unified storage (iDisk)
                                                                             more downloading/buying
                Devices will be synced                                                                            •  Streaming vs.
                                                                             •  Media & entertainment
                     wirelessly                                                                                   downloading
                                                                             as a service
                                                                                                                  •  Would greatly improve
                                                                             •  Monetisation: via
                                                                                                                  the iPad
                                                                             Quattro Wireless1




                                                                             Apple bought Lala (an online
                                                                             music store) in 2009,
                                                                             presumably to build up a
                                                                             cloud-based iTunes.com
                                                                                                                                               ..…….
1   Quattro Wireless is a mobile advertising agency bought by Apple in January 2010.                        July 2010 • Apple Study            36
Fostering a new Apple environment



                              Decentralisation




                             Glue = iTunes.com
                               and MobileMe




                             Variety of devices




                                                       ..…….

                             July 2010 • Apple Study   37
Step #8: Assess risks and competition




       Apple’s notion of control is the
         company’s greatest risk




                                                            ..…….

                             June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0   38
Overview of Apple, Microsoft and Google




                                                                       ..…….
Source: Google Finance, IPO             June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0   39
Will iOS vs Android be the revival of
 Macintosh vs. Windows?

       Apple: control and decide                    Microsoft & Google: dominate and divide

                                                                Focus on one strategic
              Tight control on all
                                                                        layer
                aspects of UX
                                                                  (Windows, Search)
          The firm cannot support
                                                               They create competition
          all development cost and
                                                               to let others innovate in
             must focus on a few
                                                                  all remaining layers
                  products.
                                                                   (hardware, web…)


Microsoft Office (at the beginning only available    1985: Bill Gates begs Apple to consider licensing
for the Macintosh platform) was instrumental in      the Macintosh: “Apple must make Macintosh a
fostering its sales.                                 standard”.

                                                     1996: “If we had licensed earlier, we would be
                                                     the Microsoft of today” (Apple executive VP Ian
                                                     W. Diery)

                                                     The same year, Apple reports $740 m loss.


                                                                                                         ..…….

                                                                 July 2010 • Apple Study                 40
Differences in business models
             explain why Google and Apple compete
                               Apple                                  Google




                                                                                                    Freely adapted from a comment by Dominique de Vito on affordance.info
                     Car dealer                                    Road Toll
             Apple sells “great products”.     Attacks   Monetises web streams via ads.

       Differentiation: strives on selecting             Volume: an Internet that is more
         the best technologies available                 open increases the traffic, which
        (Google’s when they’re the best).                 increases Google’s revenues.

        “I’ve always wanted to own the […]               “[We don’t want] a future with one
            technology in everything I do”                man, one company, one carrier”
                             Steve Jobs1                 Vic Gundotra, Google VP, Engineering2




                                                                                                 ..…….
1 BusinessWeek  Online, Oct. 12, 2004
2 Google I/O 2010
                                                          July 2010 • Apple Study                41
Worst-case scenario:
                 How could Android kill iOS?


            Technological value                        User base                  Complementary goods

             Android benefits from
                                                                                        Android Market
              open innovation.
                                                   Android supports a                 fosters developers’
                                                   variety of devices.                     freedom.
                Apple’s walled
               garden prevents
                                                  Only Apple products                 App Store approval
            others from innovating
                                                     can use iOS.                       process is not
               in input method,
                                                                                           flexible.
                  hardware…


         Swype, an alternative input           Ford, GM announced a line of       Developers’ opinion: Android best
         method replacing the Android          “Android cars”                     in the long term1
         keyboard


                         Apple’s vertical integration prevents partnerships: why would Apple let
                                           others compete with one of its layer?
                                                                                                                      ..…….
1 Appcelerator   study                                                        July 2010 • Apple Study                 42
What are Apple’s main short-term risks?



                           Product                                             Brand image                                     Steve Jobs

                  Apple’s strategy is a
                                                                          Apple’s strategy of strict                   Apple’s nightmare began
                limited number of high
                                                                         product control can come                      with Jobs’ departure and
                   quality products.
                                                                              across as evil.                           ended with his return.
               If a products had to be
                                                                         Developer lock-in: Xcode                      Its capacity to focus may
                   recalled, it would
                                                                         (only IDE3), Objective-C                       be significantly impeded
               dramatically impact the
                                                                             (only language)                                  without him
                        brand.


     Heating issue in Apple III released in                         “We have created for the first time in all     “Apple desperately needs a great day-to-
     1980, due to Steve Jobs’ insistence that                       history, a garden of pure ideology, where      day manager, visionary, leader and
     the computer should have no fans.                              each worker may bloom secure from the          politician. The only person who’s
                                                                    pests of contradictory and confusing           qualified to run this company was
     iPhone 4 antenna controversy                                   truths.”                                       crucified 2,000 years ago.”
                                                                                                                   Michael Murphy, San Francisco
                                                                    Steve Jobs speaking about the App              Chronicle, September 11, 1997
                                                                    Store?
                                                                    No. Dictator representing IBM in Apple’s
                                                                    famous “1984” ads. 2                                                                  ..…….
1 BusinessWeek
2 Apple’s   Mistake by Paul Graham 3Integrated Development Environment                                           July 2010 • Apple Study                  43
Conclusion: happily ever after Apple?




    Step #9: you can’t afford to make the
             slightest mistake?




                                                         ..…….

                               July 2010 • Apple Study   44
Appendix

1.  Glossary
2.  Acknowledgements
3.  Contact




                                                 ..…….

                       July 2010 • Apple Study   45
Glossary

•  Digital Rights Management (DRM): technologies used by content owners to
     control usage of contents
•    DX (D5, D8…): The Wall Street Journal’s D: All Things Digital conference
•    Halo effect: a product (the iPod) has positive effects on our perception of something
     else (the Apple brand)
•    Moore’s law: “The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an
     integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years.” (see Wikipedia)
•    IDE: integrated development environment (see Wikipedia)
•    iOS: iPhone OS (operating system)
•    SaaS: Software as a Service (see Wikipedia)
•    Software Development Kit (SDK): set of development tools that allows for the
     creation of applications (from Wikipedia)
•    UI: user interface
•    UX: user experience
•    Vendor lock-in: makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and
     services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs (see
     Wikipedia)
•    WWDC: Apple WorldWide Developers Conference
                                                                                             ..…….

                                                              July 2010 • Apple Study        46
Acknowledgements

•  Mr. Gilles Dounès (MacPlus)
•  Mr. Christophe Laporte (Mac Génération)
•  Dr. Christian Chabrerie (Founder and CEO of MobiNear, professor at École Centrale
  Paris)

•  To our faberNovel contributors:
     •    Sabrina Distinguin
     •    Estelle Specque
     •    Matthieu Lecomte
     •    Romain Perrier




                                                                                       ..…….

                                                         July 2010 • Apple Study       47
Stéphane Distinguin                                     Cyril Vart
                    Founder & CEO                     VP Strategy & Development
stephane.distinguin@fabernovel.com                     cyril.vart@fabernovel.com

                  Baptiste Benezet                           Clément Ravouna
             Senior Project Designer                            Project Analyst
  baptiste.benezet@fabernovel.com              clement.ravouna@fabernovel.com

                     Johan Ismaël                             Charles-Axel Dein
           Project Analyst Assistant                     Project Analyst Assistant
      johan.ismael@fabernovel.com              charles-axel.dein@fabernovel.com



                                       17, rue du faubourg du Temple 75010 Paris
                                                          Tél. : +33 1 42 72 20 04
                                                         Fax. : +33 1 42 72 20 03
                                                             www.fabernovel.com




                                                                                                        ..…….

                                                                              July 2010 • Apple Study   48

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Apple Study: 8 easy steps to beat Microsoft (and Google)

  • 1. Apple: 8 Easy Steps to Beat Microsoft (and Google) Paris, July 2010
  • 2. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons to allow for further contributions by other experts and web users in the coming months. To view a copy of this Attribution – NonCommercial – ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 1712nd Street, Suite300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 2
  • 3. Table of contents Introduction Step #1: Believe in the simple Step #2: Design a full experience Step #3: Lock customers in Step #4: Sell at a premium Step #5: Cross-sell your product line Step #6: Balance control vs. freedom Step #7: Think different Step #8: Assess risks and competition Conclusion: happily ever after Apple? Appendixes: Glossary ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 3
  • 4. Why and how did Apple beat Google & Microsoft? Microsoft Google Apple In 6 years, Apple’s market cap outweighed both the new and old tech champions ..……. Source: Bloomberg July 2010 • Apple Study 4
  • 5. Step #1: Believe in the simple Apple: the arrogance of simplicity ..……. June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0 5
  • 6. What is Apple’s design process? “When you first start off trying to solve a problem, the first solutions you come up with are very complex, and most people stop there. But if you keep going, […] you can often times arrive at some very elegant and simple solutions.” Steve Jobs1 Apple identifies needs and use cases to make decisions about function and technologies. Vision Drops 20 % of non-required functionalities to perfectly design 80 % of key user needs. Focus Attention to details leads to excellence in user experience. Global ..……. 1 Q&A: Jobs on iPod's Cultural Impact, Newsweek, 10/16/2010 July 2010 • Apple Study 6
  • 7. Case study: iMac (1998) Simplicity & choices Simplicity All-in-one computer Setup & go Choices No floppy disk No extension stack ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 7
  • 8. Case study: why does making choices implies constraint? “It became an intense and almost religious argument about the purity of the system's design versus the user's freedom to configure the system he liked.” Christopher Espinosa (Apple employee #8) speaking about the Macintosh project, 1984 No sign of upcoming blu-ray “YouTube now supports HD video.” Steve Jobs1 support on Apple computers. “Other companies tried to do everything on the Music can only be managed device itself and made it so complicated that it through iTunes. was useless.” Steve Jobs2 “We created an approval process [to] avoid App Store approval process applications that degrade the core experience of as a quality insurance. the iPhone.” Apple Answers the FCC’s Questions ..……. 1 Emailon 04/14/2010 2 Q&A: Jobs on iPod's Cultural Impact, Newsweek, 10/16/2010 July 2010 • Apple Study 8
  • 9. Step #2: Design a full experience Apple adopts a comprehensive approach ..……. UX: User experience July 2010 • Apple Study 9
  • 10. Apple re-legitimize vertical integration Customer-centric Business design Focus Apple goes against the outsourcing Apple adopts a Apple focuses on a trend. holistic approach to very lean product its business. line. Contrary to industrial vertical integration, Products Risk management on Apple uses it to UX technological choices control the global Financial and consistency at all experience of its Marketing layers customers. App Store contributed to only Apple advertisement are “We’ve reviewed the road map of 1 % in profit!1 designed internally. new products and axed more than 70 percent of them, keeping “Pure” financial management Mobile carriers are only allowed the 30 percent that were gems.” would have required it to be to show their logo at the end. outsourced as soon as possible. Steve Jobs upon his returning to Apple in 1997 ..……. 1 Source: Piper Jaffray July 2010 • Apple Study 10
  • 11. Apple’s vertical integration offers three competitive advantages “Our competitors, Dell and Compaq, are distribution companies […]. They don’t create anything.” Steve Jobs, Time, Oct 1999 Simplicity Quality Innovation Apple does not Apple acts as an depend on its abstraction layer. Thanks to hardware suppliers’ technical and software tight breakthroughs. Technical complexity integration, Apple’s hidden behind slick products offers great It can innovate on and intuitive UI: quality. hardware and seamless experience. software at its own pace. ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 11
  • 12. Case study: the digital music revolution (2001-2004) •  Chose high-speed FireWire instead of USB1 •  Game-changing click wheel •  Apple’s design guidelines applied •  iTunes software •  Available on Mac & PC •  Simple and reliable software •  Agreements with the music industry •  Distribution •  DRM1 Apple provides a comprehensive music experience ..……. 1 Digital Rights Management (DRM): technologies used by content owners to control usage of music, movies… July 2010 • Apple Study 12
  • 13. Case study: Apple’s vertical integration in hardware for consumer electronics Apple controls every step: it ensures that almost every hardware and software parts are customized to perfectly fit its needs. ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 13
  • 14. Step #3: Lock customers in iTunes’ goal is to lock the consumer in ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 14
  • 15. iTunes revenues are insignificant $6.6 bn Hardware iTunes Store Software 37% Other software 82% 18% 63% $4.1 bn $30 bn Revenue Distribution in 2009 The iTunes Store represented only 11 % of Apple’s revenues in 2009. ..……. Source: Apple annual reports July 2010 • Apple Study 15
  • 16. Case study: App Store revenues are a drop in the bucket $6.8 bn Revenues generated by iPhone (hardware) sales in 2009 (22 % of Apple’s revenues) $400 m Revenues generated by App Store sales since its creation < 1% App Store contribution to gross profit since its creation Apple authorizes and sometimes promotes apps competitors to its iTunes Store during keynotes. ..……. Source: Keynote WWDC 2010, Piper Jaffray July 2010 • Apple Study 16
  • 17. Yet iTunes’ goal is to lock the consumer in iTunes-devices relationship is locked Consumers lock themselves in One-way sync $100 (Palm controversy) spent per device on av.1 FairPlay 125 m DRM software invented by Apple, iTunes accounts linked with credit protecting videos, eBooks, apps2 card (painless buying experience) Great customer loyalty (user retention/walled garden) ..……. 1 Deutsche Bank. 2 There are no DRM on iTunes Music since 2009. July 2010 • Apple Study 17
  • 18. Step #4: Sell at a premium Apple’s revenues come from high margin hardware products ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 18
  • 19. Case study: Apple’s profit comes from margins in hardware (iPad) $499 $110 + Apple margin Margin: 40 % Average industry margin $90 (approx. 30 %) Cost of sales $70 (approx. 30 %) Cost of materials and $230 manufacturing1 ..……. 1 Source: iSuppli July 2010 • Apple Study 19
  • 20. Big picture: hardware drives Apple’s gross margin vs. iPod iPhone iPhone 3G iPad Biggest gross margin growth in the industry ..……. Source: Apple annual reports June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0 20
  • 21. Step #5: Cross-sell your product line Apple brand appeal drives its product line ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 21
  • 22. Who is the iCustomer? Product line covers all markets, all price ranges, all needs with an accurate segmentation. Market leader 100m iPhones sold by 2011 (est.) 8 % market share + Product lifecycle: each new product implements appealing new features, strongly inducing the loyal iCustomer to buy new products (iPhone 3GS to iPhone 4) The iCustomer needs all Apple products to maximize his user experience. ..……. 1 Pricesfor entry-level models. Source: Apple, Morgan Stanley, Gartner. July 2010 • Apple Study 22
  • 23. Case study: iPod and iPhone drives Mac sales Mac Mac (left axis) iPod and sales, m iPhone sales, m iPod (right axis) iPhone (right axis) Halo effect1 + seamless experience with mobile devices requires a Mac 40 % of Apple revenues comes from Mac sales (desktop and laptop). ..……. 1 Haloeffect: e.g. a product (the iPod) has positive effects on our perception of something else (the Apple brand) Source: Apple annual reports, Oppenheimer July 2010 • Apple Study 23
  • 24. Integration reinforced by retail strategy “We want to make the best buying experience in the world […]. It’s impossible to get knowledge at the point of sale. We can’t thrive in that environment.” Steve Jobs, D2 % revenue from Apple’s retail stores Number of Apple stores Contribution to revenue starting to plateau (but profitability sacrificed to enhance buying experience) but still Apple Stores are a place where the company can: •  showcase a 100 % Apple environment (to appeal the iCustomer) •  have a trained sales force selling its products. Apple Stores fosters the brand appeal and consequently, the halo effect. ..……. Source: Apple annual reports July 2010 • Apple Study 24
  • 25. iCustomers will drive Apple’s sales Apple’s main focus is the consumer market where “every person votes for themselves” Steve Jobs, D8 However, thanks to its thriving success in B2C, Apple will be able to raise its market share in B2B ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 25
  • 26. How did Apple cross the chasm? iPhone and iPod sales have enabled the Apple brand to cross the chasm. Example: Amazon Kindle sold 3 m units in its first year. Apple’s iPad did the same in 80 days. Killer products Immediate + mainstream Brand leverage adoption ..……. Source: Apple, Electronista July 2010 • Apple Study 26
  • 27. Step #6: Balance control vs. freedom Apple needs an ecosystem ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 27
  • 28. Case study: how Apple failed in the 80’s “We weren’t so good at partnering with people […]. If Apple could have a little more of that in its DNA, it would have served it extremely well.” Steve Jobs, D5, 2007 1982: Steve Jobs forces Bill Gates to develop productivity software only for the Mac 1985: Apple allows Microsoft to use Mac technologies in Windows in exchange of a Word and Excel upgrade for Macintosh 1988-1995: 7-year legal battle lost by Apple 1995: Launch of Windows 95 has definitively dwarfed Apple’s share in the PC market ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 28
  • 29. Lessons learned! Copyright owners Carriers Apple: Crucial to iPhone’s success: •  understood their market •  AT&T first allowed Apple, structure which had no experience •  gave them what they wanted in this market, to make the phone most (DRM for music, they wanted price control for publishers) •  Set a standard for others Developers Google Contrary to the Mac, Apple has attracted Apple’s keeps partnering with its #1 developers on iOS competitor because it’s the best at •  Ground breaking certain services (native apps on iOS): revenue sharing •  Search •  56 % of US mobile dev •  Maps on iPhone •  YouTube (90 % are single-platform)1 Apple understood it needed to partner with other players. ..……. 1 Source: Millenial Media July 2010 • Apple Study 29
  • 30. Mobile application paradigms: Native Apps vs. Web Apps Apple’s model put the emphasis on native apps (iPhone SDK), but also promotes HTML5 (iAd, WebKit). Flash represents “the past”. ..……. SaaS: Software as a service (see Wikipedia) June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0 30
  • 31. Case study: What is Apple’s vision about mobile applications? To Apple HTML5 is a complement to the curated App Store model, providing developers with liberty and an open architecture. Near future Long-term vision: promoting open standards will prevent other players from excluding Apple, as Microsoft did with its Office proprietary formats. ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 31
  • 32. Step #7: Think different Apple uses the cloud to foster a new computing paradigm. ..……. From Wikipedia: “Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid.” June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0 32
  • 33. What was Apple’s vision of computing ? Personal computer = only digital hub Applications and UX = glue Devices = media consumption/creation ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 33
  • 34. iPad embodies the transition to post-PC era “We are scratching the surface on the kind of apps we can build for it. […] One can create a lot of content on a tablet.” Steve Jobs, D8 New input Progress in technologies + UI People will turn to a more intimate and direct relationship with content Personal computers Other devices, are trucks: most including tablets, will people do not need be mainstream, just such an extensive as cars are great for interface. everyday life. ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 34
  • 35. To make it happen Apple is investing in cloud Differentiation Independence Without cloud computing, Apple Without cloud computing, Apple would lose ground before its would fail to secure reliable competitors. infrastructure. •  Mobile resources are •  It would be dependent on constraints (end of Moore’s competitors (notably Google law1, battery life), while cloud and Amazon) computing enables speech •  Entry barriers are increasing recognition, unlimited storage… (experience maintaining •  Competitors are already security and scalability) differentiating: Google Voice, Microsoft Office Online… ..……. 1 Moore’s Law: see Wikipedia. July 2010 • Apple Study 35
  • 36. Three upcoming features to build an Apple cloud “We’re working on it”, Steve Jobs, D8, June 2010 MobileMe Streaming New glue Streaming as a new The cloud is the new paradigm for media glue that links all Apple consumption Apple makes MobileMe devices free for all Apple users •  Streamlined UX: no •  Unified storage (iDisk) more downloading/buying Devices will be synced •  Streaming vs. •  Media & entertainment wirelessly downloading as a service •  Would greatly improve •  Monetisation: via the iPad Quattro Wireless1 Apple bought Lala (an online music store) in 2009, presumably to build up a cloud-based iTunes.com ..……. 1 Quattro Wireless is a mobile advertising agency bought by Apple in January 2010. July 2010 • Apple Study 36
  • 37. Fostering a new Apple environment Decentralisation Glue = iTunes.com and MobileMe Variety of devices ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 37
  • 38. Step #8: Assess risks and competition Apple’s notion of control is the company’s greatest risk ..……. June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0 38
  • 39. Overview of Apple, Microsoft and Google ..……. Source: Google Finance, IPO June 2010 • Apple Study v1.0 39
  • 40. Will iOS vs Android be the revival of Macintosh vs. Windows? Apple: control and decide Microsoft & Google: dominate and divide Focus on one strategic Tight control on all layer aspects of UX (Windows, Search) The firm cannot support They create competition all development cost and to let others innovate in must focus on a few all remaining layers products. (hardware, web…) Microsoft Office (at the beginning only available 1985: Bill Gates begs Apple to consider licensing for the Macintosh platform) was instrumental in the Macintosh: “Apple must make Macintosh a fostering its sales. standard”. 1996: “If we had licensed earlier, we would be the Microsoft of today” (Apple executive VP Ian W. Diery) The same year, Apple reports $740 m loss. ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 40
  • 41. Differences in business models explain why Google and Apple compete Apple Google Freely adapted from a comment by Dominique de Vito on affordance.info Car dealer Road Toll Apple sells “great products”. Attacks Monetises web streams via ads. Differentiation: strives on selecting Volume: an Internet that is more the best technologies available open increases the traffic, which (Google’s when they’re the best). increases Google’s revenues. “I’ve always wanted to own the […] “[We don’t want] a future with one technology in everything I do” man, one company, one carrier” Steve Jobs1 Vic Gundotra, Google VP, Engineering2 ..……. 1 BusinessWeek Online, Oct. 12, 2004 2 Google I/O 2010 July 2010 • Apple Study 41
  • 42. Worst-case scenario: How could Android kill iOS? Technological value User base Complementary goods Android benefits from Android Market open innovation. Android supports a fosters developers’ variety of devices. freedom. Apple’s walled garden prevents Only Apple products App Store approval others from innovating can use iOS. process is not in input method, flexible. hardware… Swype, an alternative input Ford, GM announced a line of Developers’ opinion: Android best method replacing the Android “Android cars” in the long term1 keyboard Apple’s vertical integration prevents partnerships: why would Apple let others compete with one of its layer? ..……. 1 Appcelerator study July 2010 • Apple Study 42
  • 43. What are Apple’s main short-term risks? Product Brand image Steve Jobs Apple’s strategy is a Apple’s strategy of strict Apple’s nightmare began limited number of high product control can come with Jobs’ departure and quality products. across as evil. ended with his return. If a products had to be Developer lock-in: Xcode Its capacity to focus may recalled, it would (only IDE3), Objective-C be significantly impeded dramatically impact the (only language) without him brand. Heating issue in Apple III released in “We have created for the first time in all “Apple desperately needs a great day-to- 1980, due to Steve Jobs’ insistence that history, a garden of pure ideology, where day manager, visionary, leader and the computer should have no fans. each worker may bloom secure from the politician. The only person who’s pests of contradictory and confusing qualified to run this company was iPhone 4 antenna controversy truths.” crucified 2,000 years ago.” Michael Murphy, San Francisco Steve Jobs speaking about the App Chronicle, September 11, 1997 Store? No. Dictator representing IBM in Apple’s famous “1984” ads. 2 ..……. 1 BusinessWeek 2 Apple’s Mistake by Paul Graham 3Integrated Development Environment July 2010 • Apple Study 43
  • 44. Conclusion: happily ever after Apple? Step #9: you can’t afford to make the slightest mistake? ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 44
  • 45. Appendix 1.  Glossary 2.  Acknowledgements 3.  Contact ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 45
  • 46. Glossary •  Digital Rights Management (DRM): technologies used by content owners to control usage of contents •  DX (D5, D8…): The Wall Street Journal’s D: All Things Digital conference •  Halo effect: a product (the iPod) has positive effects on our perception of something else (the Apple brand) •  Moore’s law: “The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years.” (see Wikipedia) •  IDE: integrated development environment (see Wikipedia) •  iOS: iPhone OS (operating system) •  SaaS: Software as a Service (see Wikipedia) •  Software Development Kit (SDK): set of development tools that allows for the creation of applications (from Wikipedia) •  UI: user interface •  UX: user experience •  Vendor lock-in: makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs (see Wikipedia) •  WWDC: Apple WorldWide Developers Conference ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 46
  • 47. Acknowledgements •  Mr. Gilles Dounès (MacPlus) •  Mr. Christophe Laporte (Mac Génération) •  Dr. Christian Chabrerie (Founder and CEO of MobiNear, professor at École Centrale Paris) •  To our faberNovel contributors: •  Sabrina Distinguin •  Estelle Specque •  Matthieu Lecomte •  Romain Perrier ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 47
  • 48. Stéphane Distinguin Cyril Vart Founder & CEO VP Strategy & Development stephane.distinguin@fabernovel.com cyril.vart@fabernovel.com Baptiste Benezet Clément Ravouna Senior Project Designer Project Analyst baptiste.benezet@fabernovel.com clement.ravouna@fabernovel.com Johan Ismaël Charles-Axel Dein Project Analyst Assistant Project Analyst Assistant johan.ismael@fabernovel.com charles-axel.dein@fabernovel.com 17, rue du faubourg du Temple 75010 Paris Tél. : +33 1 42 72 20 04 Fax. : +33 1 42 72 20 03 www.fabernovel.com ..……. July 2010 • Apple Study 48