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A Mixed Methods Look at
Self-Directed Online Learning:
MOOCs, Open Education, and
Beyond
Curtis J. Bonk,
Professor, Indiana University
cjbonk@indiana.edu
http://mypage.iu.edu/~cjbonk/

With help from colleagues:
Mimi Miyoung Lee, University of Houston
Xiaojing Kou, Indiana University
Shuya Xu, Indiana University
Feng-Ru Sheu, National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Taiwan
Part #1:

Learning is Changing…
Through Open Ed, OCW, &
MOOCs
1728: 1 st correspondence course advertised
Boston (learn shorthand from Caleb Phillips thru weekly mailed
lessons)

The First University Correspondence Course
(University of London, External Program, 1858)
1728-1990s – Generally postal system based
1930s – phonograph and radio
1950s and 1960s – television
1970s and 1980s – VHS tapes
1980s and 1990s – DVD
May 10, 2013

10 ed-tech tools of the 70s, 80s, and 90s
eSchool News, Meris Stansbury

http://www.eschoolnews.com/2013/05/10/10-ed-tech-tools-of-the-70s-80s-and-90s/print/
Looking to the Past…
Life as an accountant/CPA in a
high tech company in the 1980s…
Fast Forward 25+
Years…

“Anyone can now learn
anything from anyone at any
time.”
The Web of Learning
May 20, 2013

The New Greatest Generation: Why Millennials
will Save Us All, Time, Joel Stein
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2143001,00.html
Learning is Changing

New Technologies =
New Delivery Methods…
Learning is More Open

(80-Year-Old WGU Texas Grad Keeps His
Promise, November 30, 2012, Reeve Hamilton,
Texas Tribune)
Learning is More Massive
April 16, 2013 (NovoEd)

New MOOC Provider Says It Fosters Peer Interaction
Chronicle of Higher Education, Jake New
http://novoed.com/
Learning is Changing…

(i.e., it’s more informal, video-based,
ubiquitous, collaborative, self-directed,
global, mobile, open, massive, etc.)

Frank Basile, an aircraft technician,
took an MITx course on circuits and
electronics to increase his knowledge.

Joe Alfonso, a financial adviser
from Oregon, is taking the
online finance course as a
"refresher."
August 5, 2013

Free Online Higher Education: 5 Best MOOCs
By Kannan Sankaran, Epoch Times

http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/229640-5-best-moocs-for-free-online-higher-education/

MOOC at UPenn; Recession Fuels Explosion of Online Learning

http://on.aol.com/video/recession-fuels-explosion-of-online-learning-517885097
Audience Poll #1:

I. Who remembers where they were when they
found out that Steve Jobs died?
II. Who remembers what they were doing on 911?
III. Who remembers what they were doing on 441
(April 4, 2001)?
IV. Has this open educ. movement changed your
life?
Charles Vest (April 4, 2001)
http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2001/ocw.html

“This is about something bigger than MIT. I hope other
universities will see us as educational leaders in this
arena, and we very much hope that OpenCourseWare
will draw other universities to do the same. We would
be delighted if -- over time -- we have a world wide
web of knowledge that raises the quality of learning -and ultimately, the quality of life -- around the globe."
OpenCourseWare Consortium
MOOC Leadership Principle #1:
Form Strategic Relationships

April 18 and Sept 19, 2012: Coursera
(https://www.coursera.org/)
MOOC Leadership Principle #2:
Find Your Element

UW-Madison to expand distance learning with Massive Open
Online Courses, Kari Knutson, University of Wisconsin-Madison
News
http://www.news.wisc.edu/21520?utm_source=iUW&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=iUW2013-02-21
September 9, 2013

Creativity MOOC Draw 120,000 Students
(Penn State), Campus Technology, Leila Meyer
3 Student Profiles: Adventurers (committed);
Tourists (pick and choose); and Explorers (in
between)
http://campustechnology.com/articles/2013/09/09/creativity-mooc-draws-120000-students.aspx?=CTNU

Dr. Jack V. Matson, Dr. Darrell Velegol and Dr. Kathryn W.
Jablokow, Penn State University, Coursera
July 23, 2012

Coursera course on Internet History,
Technology, and Security, Chuck Severance
42,000+ sign up…
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzNHvmSv8TI
MOOC Leadership Principle #3:
Generate Media Attention
June 25, 2012

http://www.forbes.com/sites/georgeanders/2012/06/05/udacity-sebastian-thrun-disrupting-higher-education/
November 2, 2012

The Year of the MOOC,
New York Times, Laura Pappano,

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/04/education/edlife/massive-open-online-courses-are-multiplying-at-a-rapid-pace.html?
pagewanted=all

Clockwise, from top left: an online course in circuits and
electronics with an M.I.T. professor (edX); statistics, Stanford
(Udacity); machine learning, Stanford (Coursera); organic
chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana (Coursera).
July 16, 2013

”Golden Era of Learning”
Bill Gates Discusses MOOCs at
Microsoft Research’s Faculty Summit
http://chronicle.com/article/A-Conversation-With-Bill-Gates/132591/?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en
June 19, 2013

2013 is “ The Year of the Anti-MOOC”

George Siemens, UW-Madison Summit
http://globalhighered.wordpress.com/european-moocs-in-global-context/
MOOC Type #1.

Theory- or Trend-Driven
MOOC
MOOC Type #2.
Remedial Course
MOOC
MOOC Type #3.

Degree or Program Qualifier
or System Bottleneck MOOC
MOOC Type #4.

Professional Development (PD)
(practical) MOOC
MOOC Business Model
#1.
Course Assessment Fee
MOOC Business Model #2.
Certificate Fee (with
sticker)
https://twitter.com/drchuck/status/262423228717355009/photo/1
MOOC Business Model #3.
Free Entryway Course
February 24, 2013

Big (MOOC) Data, Inside Higher Education,
Dayna Catropa
http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/stratedgy/big-mooc-data
February 5, 2013

Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach,
Duke University’s First MOOC
http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/6216/Duke_Bioelectricity_MOOC_Fall2012.pdf
May 2013

MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013– Report #1
May 2013

MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013– Report #1
October 8, 2013

An Early Report Card on Massive Open
Online Courses, Recap of Canvas courses
Geoffrey A. Fowler, WSJ Online

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303759604579093400834738972.htm l#project%3DMOOCchrtPRINT% 26articleTabs%3Dinteractive
Video: http://online.wsj.com/artic le/SB 10001424052702303759604579093400834738972.html #project%3DM OOCchrtPRINT%26articleTabs% 3Dvideo
End of Part #1.
Audience Questions on
the State of Open
Education and MOOCs?
Part #2:

Research on Self-Directed
Learning of MIT OCW
Subscribers
Self-Directed Learners (SDL)
(Abdullah, 2001)

• Tend to be highly curious & generally enjoy
learning
• View problems as challenges
• Desire change, willing to try new things,
• Persistent, self-disciplined, goal oriented
• Independent, self-confident
• Make learning meaningful and relevant
• Self-monitor, evaluate, and regulate one’s
learning
Visual Representation of
Extreme Learning
HOPES: Humanity’s Open
Platform for the Exchange of
Stories
October 1, 2012: MOOC
Students

4 Massive Open Online Courses and How
They Work, Ben Gose, Chronicle of HE

http://chronicle.com/blogs/techtherapy/2012/10/03/episode-99-what-wearable-computers-could-mean-for-campuses/

Rajeev Bajpai, an airline pilot based in
Mumbai, took an online computerscience course to gain programming
DREAMS: Design Research for an
Engaging and Active Mobile System
MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW)
http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm
MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW)
http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm
MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW)
http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm
MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW)
Study


E-newsletter subscription 156,000
people
 1,429
 613

completed surveys
completed open ended items

 50%

over age 40
 76% males
 North America (44 percent); Asia (23
percent); Europe (14 percent); South
America (10 percent); Middle East (3
percent); Oz (2 percent).
 Top

countries in the MIT OCW subscriber list
were the United States, India, China, Brazil,
Nigeria, Pakistan, Iran, Canada, the UK, Taiwan,
Where conduct informal?
How access informal?
Reasons to explore?
Skills hoping to acquire?
Hoping to achieve?
Actual achievements?
Experience life change?
Factors leading to success or
personal change?
What obstacles faced?
Open-Ended Questions
(28) Can you describe your most interesting or successful
informal learning experience? What did you accomplish?
(30) Why did you want to do this learning activity or task?
What was your purpose or goals ? Please describe what
captured your interest.
(31) Has your life changed in a small or big way as a result
of this informal learning activity or experience? If so, how?
(32) What was the key moment when learning informally
with technology where you felt a personal change? If so,
please describe that moment, as best you can.
(34) Did you face any obstacles or challenges during this
time when learning informally with technology? If so, how
did you overcome them?
MIT Data:
Inspires and Changes Ed Systems
(18-20 year old male, Middle
East)
When i was 14 years old i found MIT OCW during my
search in..(physics) by Prof Walter Lewin looked really
interesting and i became interested in physics. To be
honest OCW changed my way of living and i found how
beautiful physics is …informal learning is interesting
because you can have access to some of the best
courses provided by the best universities in the
world…MIT OCW or Stanford open courses have also
changed the educational system in some poor
countries and have taught the teachers and professors
in those countries how to teach a subject in a modern
way.
MIT Data:
Self-Taught on Social Media

(21-30 year old unemployed female, North
America)

At first my purpose was to fulfill boredom … After
graduating with a MS, I was faced with unemployment .
I took the opportunity to read blogs, watch Youtube
videos, and more to learn about blogging and social
media. Since than I have become well versed in social
media and other business topics and started a
business… I decided not to pursue a PHD because I
am learning a more rapid pace . Instead of spending 5
years in school, I can be flexible and work on what I
am learning.
MIT Data:
Enhances Current Job Prospects
(31-40 year old male, Asia)
I learnt scheme from MIT OCW. Which helped in
learning elisp/lisp. The programming techniques
increased my software design knowledge. Algebra mit ocw course was very useful , it helped me to
refresh the basics of Digital signal processing. - I have
learnt a lot of "applying my knowledge " than just
learning the "theory" - Various online classes allow for
multiple perspectives of the same topic thus showing
us how the same thing can be applied in different
fields.
MIT Data:
Prepares to Reenter University
(41-50 year old male, Middle
East) of my own was
Most interesting experience

my use of MIT OCW to refresh on Calculus. I
purchased the textbook and followed one of
several calculus options on the site. This was
quite successful in re-introducing Calculus, as
a prep to re-entering college 28 years after
graduation - this time to study for a Master's.
MIT Data:

Builds Expertise and Expert Connections

(51-60 year old female, North
America)

I'm a virtual reference librarian…My friend and I have a blog
about music cognition, which is a little crazy because we
don't know anything about it. Nevertheless, we blog about
current articles, and one experience was especially
meaningful, where I tweeted a question to Daniel Levitin,
who answered. He's the guy who wrote The World in Six
Songs, among other things. The fact that you can
communicate with an expert in the field who will take the
time to give a thoughtful tweeted (and yes, 140 characters
can be thoughtful)--well, that's amazing… I think it was the
single most exciting learning moment I've experienced .
MIT Data:
Retiree Develops New Hobby
(65 year old male, North America)

I retired from education I became a lifestyle entrepreneur. I was
trying to learn software to develop a business website for our
sailing business. I discovered… Lynda.com. I was learning web
development, video editing and photoshop. I realized that I could
learn this software without going to a formal class and that was an
"eureka" moment.. My wife and I travelled and started a yacht
delivery and training business that has taken us all over the world.
We learned technology and social media as we travelled and ended
up with many fantastic experienced in some very exotic places. We
taught ourselves web development and have been figuring out
online learning as we went. Now at 65 years of age we are going
back to university to take a Computer Science Degree and start a
new tech business relating to interactive educational media and
games. All very exciting :-)
MIT Data:
Retiree Develops New Hobby
(70+ year old female, North America)

I'm am avid photographer and have developed
skills for developing my own website for display of
my photography and books I have written that
include my photographs…I've had multiple
careers, from science, to public administration,
and information technology. The development of
my art is a new and exciting experience.
End of Part #2.
Audience Questions on
the MIT OCW Research?
Part #3:

Research on Self-Directed
Learning of Blackboard
MOOC Participants
Blackboard MOOC and
Open Education Study
Blackboard (CourseSites) MOOC
http://events.blackboard.com/open
Blackboard MOOC Sample




Survey notice sent to 3,800 MOOC
participants
159 completed surveys
 49

 72%

completed open ended items

over age 40
 73% females
 North America (81 percent); Asia (2
percent); Europe (6 percent); South
America (1 percent); Middle East (2
percent); Australia/NZ (7 percent); Africa
(1 percent)
Blackboard Data

Figure 1. Devices used to learn informally with
technology
Blackboard Data

Figure 2. Places respondents engage in informal
learning with technology
Blackboard Data

Figure 3. Specific skills wanting to learn informally
online
Blackboard Data

Figure 4. Main reasons to informally explore the Web to
learn
Blackboard Data

Figure 5. Achievements from learning informally online
Blackboard Data

Figure 6. Factors leading to success or personal change
when learning informally online
Blackboard Data

Figure 7. Obstacles and challenges faced when learning
informally online.
Blackboard Data

Who typically supports your informal learning
experiences?
Experience life change?

(0 = not at all; 5 = moderately; 10 = significantly)
Has your life changed from informal learning on the Web?
Open-Ended Questions
Goals and Motivations
(Blackboard MOOC)

• Improve their job prospects
• Pursue personal interests or
hobbies
• Seeking certification of some type
• Information seeking
• Means to expand one’s formal
learning
Life Changing Example #1
“I grew in every possible way. Not only were my
own ideas validated but I was encouraged to go
beyond what I thought possible - maybe I would
call it "Extreme DOING" the other half of extreme
learning no? These bold steps have shaped my
personal and professional life to a profound
level.”
Life Changing Example #2
“Yes, I view the way I make choices, the way I
raise my children, the way I teach, the way I
negotiate international agreements fundamentally
different. There are no huge differences in the
decisions because the same set of values inform
the decisions, but the approach, the motivations,
the incentives are modified in substantial ways as
a result.”
Life Changing Example #3
Yes. I plan to focus my Ph.D.
research on alternative forms of
learning (informal DIY) and credit
(like open badges) and the changes
higher ed and employers will have to
make to accept these forms of credit.
Life Changing Example #4
It has made my job much easier and it's been
easier for me to execute certain tasks,
making me more willing to take on bigger
challenges. It was also shown me how
enjoyable it is to learn a computer language.
It opened my mind to considering possibilities
in this area. It also made my husband respect
my ability around computers a bit more.
Life Changing Example #5
Some of my friends tell me that they love the
nuggets of information that I share with them
when talking about things I learned during
short commutes, etc. They have started
listening to podcasts and share similar
nuggets about the fields that they care about.
Life Changing Example #6
My life has changed in a big way. I used
these new skills to create a small business
that supplements my income. I couldn't use
this income soley to support myself, but it
does pay some bills.
Life Changing Example #7
Without the opportunity to learn informally,
my options within my doctoral program would
be limited to the ideas and experience of the
three instructors in my program track. I would
be graduating with a firm grasp of 20-year old
dated ideas!
Life Changing Example #8
“Well, my life changed in that I thought I knew how
important place and stories where to indigenous people… I
learnt loads about indigenous culture and places and loads
about augmented reality so now I know I have to change the
project to allow students to have the same experience them creating the content not me which I knew but didn't
take it into consideration enough when planning the
project….I wanted to create a project that made students
(university) aware of how pervasive indigenous culture is
contemporary Australia - how important place is to
indigenous people and how their culture is so connected to
place through stories….”
Life Changing Example #9
My life has changed in a big way - as the
MOOC helped me to re-design one of the
educational approaches in my workplace
by providing a more interactive, innovative
learning experience.
Life Changing Example
#10

It has changed because I have learned new
things and got more creative in my own field …
The key moment was when I felt that the world is
now becoming open as Dr. bonk describes it. I
don't need to travel to different countries and
spend my time and money trying to get a new
idea or learn a new skill. I can have the access to
quality materials, novel ideas and experts
anywhere and any time.
Information Seekers
(DIYers): Personal Identity
“Today, we were trying to install a pool filter--we
got instructions off You Tube. I also just bought a
recumbent exercise bike--I looked at online
reviews before making a choice.” She then
added, “Knowing that I did not need to ask an
actual person for help was life changing . I am an
introvert by nature, and I prefer to figure things
on my own. Knowing that I can research
informally on the Web is reassuring .”
Information Seekers
(DIYers): Personal Identity
I have accomplished on my own.
It has been empowering and
rewarding to become a research
detective online.
Information Seekers
(DIYers): Personal Identity
“My informal learning experience did
influence my social life, as my travel buddy
for the convention thought that I was
incredibly smart and tremendously "with it,"
because I knew so much about the city, what
to see, and how to get places. It's nice (if not
slightly narcissistic) to be appreciated for
your knowledge.”
Joining a Learning
Community
“My key moment came when I discovered
a community of like-minded scholars from
around the world. I no longer felt isolated
or disconnected. This has become my
most valuable support network and I am
grateful.”
Joining a Learning
Community

(social and intellectual capital)
“Socially the impact was great as well
because now I have friends I can talk
technology with a lot.”
Joining a Learning
Community

(social and intellectual capital)
“Influenced my professional life - I
guess I have more social capital .”
Seeking Relevance
“I almost always listen to podcasts or .mp3 audio
books, etc. when biking. After one session of learning
some Korean language on a bike I was on my way
home and chose to stop into a store for some take-out
food. The conversation was almost identical to the
lesson I had just learned. Although the questions and
answers were simple and predictable small talk, it
really was surreal at just how closely the real-world
small talk conversation matched the mp3 that was
produced a few years ago. It really gave me
confidence that the audio recording method was not a
joke.”
Challenges and Issues
• Discern the quality of information
• Evaluate the quality
• Informal learning not taken
seriously by their superiors
• Certificates and badges may
reduce sense of fun and learning
enjoyment
MOOC Challenges:
Finding Appropriate Ones
“I think the hardest part is finding a MOOC
that would work. It is not like there is a
directory of MOOCs. You get out what you put
in - the more you put in - in terms of writing
and connecting the more you will get out of
the experience. While the experience is
informal - you need to give it more of a formal
importance in your daily schedule.”
More Challenges:

Ignore Documentation Errors
“Don't be too trusting of the
documentation. It's written by
humans and has the potential for
error. Move on, don't waste
time.”
Learning for Enjoyment Versus
Credentials and Badges
“Just play around with ideas for alternatives to
printed texts and don't be afraid to create your
own, even if they're amateurish…I think we need
to de-emphasise formal assessment and
accreditation and encourage our playful side to
see what is possible. Too much informal learning
wants to get itself 'badged' or validated too
quickly and this means its losing its genuine
amateur status.”
Informal Learner
Characteristics
• Strong intrinsic motivation, pride themselves being a
“self-directed learner” ---“my own pleasure” and values
autonomy, considers it empowering
• Considers sharing as important part of educ/learning
• Takes pride in creating and contributing
• Enjoys the community of people with similar interests--but not necessarily the human f2f interaction
Informal Learner Characteristics:
Values SDL
“I continue to research my interests for my
own pleasure, especially on sites like
Amazon for books and e-books, and have
ongoing email alerts for journal content. I
also use online sources for job hunting
and professional networking.”
Informal is now Formal:
Limited Assistance
“This MOOC was simply a different
way to "formally" learn informally.
No one was really a mentor or
helped me.”
Informal Learner Characteristics:
Self-Reliant
“Knowing that I did not need to ask an
actual person for help was life changing. I
am an introvert by nature , and I prefer to
figure out things on my own. Knowing that
I can research informally on the Web is
reassuring.”
Components of Successful
MOOC Learner
•
•
•
•

Self-motivated
Enjoys sense of creating
Shares their creation
Delights in wide range of info
resources
•
Takes pride in learning on their own
End of Part #3.

Audience Questions on the
Blackboard MOOC Research?
Part #4:

Some Recent MOOC News
and Research
August 19, 2013

Entrepreneurship Curriculum
NovoEd, Amin Saberi
https://novoed.com/courses/entrepreneurship
September 4, 2013
MOOC Course from Canvas
“The Walking Dead” (UC Irvine)
https://www.canvas.net/courses/the-walking-dead
September 16, 2013

Rwandan Degree Program Aims for a 'University in a
Box', Chronicle of Higher Education, Megan O’Neil
http://chronicle.com/article/Rwandan-Degree-Program-Aims/141631/

Students attend an orientation session at Kepler, a new hybrid
program in Kigali, Rwanda, which will use MOOCs and classroom
time to help students earn competency-based associate degrees.
September 18, 2013

MIT Will Offer MOOC Curricula, Not Just Single
Courses, on edX, Steve Kolowich, Chronicle of HE
http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/mit-will-offer-mooc-curricula-not-just-single-courses-on-edx/46715
October 31, 2013

U.S. Teams Up With Operator of Online Courses
to Plan a Global Network, Tamar Lewin, NY Times
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/01/education/us-plans-global-network-of-free-online-courses.html?hp&_r=3&

From Seoul, South Korea, to La Paz, Mexico, Coursera is
partnering with local institutions to create “Global Learning Hubs,”
the company announced Oct. 31.
October 31, 2013

The launch of OERu: Towards free
learning opportunities for all students
worldwide,
BC Campus (Canada)
http://bccampus.ca/2013/10/31/the-launch-of-oeru-towards-free-learning-opportunities-for-all-students-worldwide/
January 2014

Designing for Experiences: Principles for
Technology Transformation,
Aaron Doering, U of Minnesota
http://lt.umn.edu/nexted/
January 29, 2014

MOOCs and the Promise of
Internationalization,

The Chronicle of Higher Education, Christina C. Davidson
http://chronicl e.com/blogs/future/2014/01/29/m oocs-and-the-promise-of-internationalization/?cid=pm &utm _source=pm&utm_m edium=en
January 27, 2014

Coursera Support Center, Why is my
country blocked?
http://hel p.coursera.org/ customer/portal/articles/1425714-why-is-my-count ry-bl ocked-

Online education platform Coursera blocks
students in Syria and Iran , Wamba, by Nina Curley
http://www.wamda.com/2014/01/coursera-blocks-syria-and-iran-moocs-online-courses
July 8, 2013

"It is never too late to start again" - A
Syrian Doctor’s 25 Courses ,

Mahmud Angrini is a Syrian Medical Doctor, Coursera Blog
http:// blog.coursera.org/post/54893006665/it-is-never-too-late-to-s tart-again-a-s yri an

This is a picture of
my devastated
neighborhood in
Syria.
January 21, 2014

MITx Working Papers (research on
MOOCs)
http://odl.mit.edu/mitx-working-papers/
January 20, 2014

6.00x Introduction to Computer
Science and Programming MITx on
EdX Course Report - 2013 Spring
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2382322
January 20, 2014

6.00x Introduction to Computer
Science and Programming MITx on
EdX Course Report - 2013 Spring
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2382322
January 2014

Grade Change: Tracking Online Education in the
United States, 2013, The Sloan Consortium, I. Elaine Allen & Jeff
Seaman, 2013 Survey of Online Learning Report

http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/grade-change-2013
Direct connect: http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/gradechange.pdf
January 2014

Grade Change: Tracking Online Education in the
United States, 2013, The Sloan Consortium, I. Elaine Allen & Jeff
Seaman, 2013 Survey of Online Learning Report

http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/grade-change-2013
Direct connect: http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/gradechange.pdf
January 15, 2014

Doubts About MOOCs Continue to Rise,
Survey Finds
Chronicle of Higher Education, Steve Kolowich
http://chronicle.com/article/Doubts-About- MOO Cs-Continue-to/144007/

“A year later, there were more doubts
about the long-term prospects of teaching
free online courses. In 2012, 26 percent of
academic leaders disagreed that MOOCs
were "a sustainable method for offering
courses." In 2013 that number leapt to 39
percent.”
January 23, 2014

QuickWire:
Regent U. Creates a Christian MOOC,

Lawrence Biemiller, The Chronicle of Higher Education
http://chronicle. com /blogs/wiredcampus/ quickwire-regent-u-creates-a-christian-m ooc/49781?ci d=pm&utm_source=pm &utm_medium =en
January 27, 2014
What’s next for MOOCs?

TED talk, posted by Thu-Huong Ha
http://blog.ted.com/2014/01/27/whats-next-for-moocs/
December 13, 2013

Former MIT president Charles M. Vest dies at
72
As the Institute’s leader from 1990 to 2004, he
sparked a period of dynamism .
Steve Bradt, MIT News Office

http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2013/former-mit-president-charles-m-vest-dies-at-72-1213.html
End of Part 4: Any Questions?
Slides at: TrainingShare.com
Paper: PublicationShare.com
Books: http://worldisopen.com/
Email: curt@worldisopen.com
cjbonk@Indiana.edu

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A Mixed Methods Look at Self-Directed Online Learning: MOOCs, Open Education, and Beyond

  • 1. A Mixed Methods Look at Self-Directed Online Learning: MOOCs, Open Education, and Beyond Curtis J. Bonk, Professor, Indiana University cjbonk@indiana.edu http://mypage.iu.edu/~cjbonk/ With help from colleagues: Mimi Miyoung Lee, University of Houston Xiaojing Kou, Indiana University Shuya Xu, Indiana University Feng-Ru Sheu, National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Taiwan
  • 2. Part #1: Learning is Changing… Through Open Ed, OCW, & MOOCs
  • 3. 1728: 1 st correspondence course advertised Boston (learn shorthand from Caleb Phillips thru weekly mailed lessons) The First University Correspondence Course (University of London, External Program, 1858) 1728-1990s – Generally postal system based 1930s – phonograph and radio 1950s and 1960s – television 1970s and 1980s – VHS tapes 1980s and 1990s – DVD
  • 4. May 10, 2013 10 ed-tech tools of the 70s, 80s, and 90s eSchool News, Meris Stansbury http://www.eschoolnews.com/2013/05/10/10-ed-tech-tools-of-the-70s-80s-and-90s/print/
  • 5. Looking to the Past…
  • 6. Life as an accountant/CPA in a high tech company in the 1980s…
  • 7. Fast Forward 25+ Years… “Anyone can now learn anything from anyone at any time.”
  • 8. The Web of Learning
  • 9. May 20, 2013 The New Greatest Generation: Why Millennials will Save Us All, Time, Joel Stein http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2143001,00.html
  • 10. Learning is Changing New Technologies = New Delivery Methods…
  • 11. Learning is More Open (80-Year-Old WGU Texas Grad Keeps His Promise, November 30, 2012, Reeve Hamilton, Texas Tribune)
  • 12. Learning is More Massive April 16, 2013 (NovoEd) New MOOC Provider Says It Fosters Peer Interaction Chronicle of Higher Education, Jake New http://novoed.com/
  • 13. Learning is Changing… (i.e., it’s more informal, video-based, ubiquitous, collaborative, self-directed, global, mobile, open, massive, etc.) Frank Basile, an aircraft technician, took an MITx course on circuits and electronics to increase his knowledge. Joe Alfonso, a financial adviser from Oregon, is taking the online finance course as a "refresher."
  • 14. August 5, 2013 Free Online Higher Education: 5 Best MOOCs By Kannan Sankaran, Epoch Times http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/229640-5-best-moocs-for-free-online-higher-education/ MOOC at UPenn; Recession Fuels Explosion of Online Learning http://on.aol.com/video/recession-fuels-explosion-of-online-learning-517885097
  • 15. Audience Poll #1: I. Who remembers where they were when they found out that Steve Jobs died? II. Who remembers what they were doing on 911? III. Who remembers what they were doing on 441 (April 4, 2001)? IV. Has this open educ. movement changed your life?
  • 16. Charles Vest (April 4, 2001) http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2001/ocw.html “This is about something bigger than MIT. I hope other universities will see us as educational leaders in this arena, and we very much hope that OpenCourseWare will draw other universities to do the same. We would be delighted if -- over time -- we have a world wide web of knowledge that raises the quality of learning -and ultimately, the quality of life -- around the globe."
  • 18. MOOC Leadership Principle #1: Form Strategic Relationships April 18 and Sept 19, 2012: Coursera (https://www.coursera.org/)
  • 19. MOOC Leadership Principle #2: Find Your Element UW-Madison to expand distance learning with Massive Open Online Courses, Kari Knutson, University of Wisconsin-Madison News http://www.news.wisc.edu/21520?utm_source=iUW&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=iUW2013-02-21
  • 20. September 9, 2013 Creativity MOOC Draw 120,000 Students (Penn State), Campus Technology, Leila Meyer 3 Student Profiles: Adventurers (committed); Tourists (pick and choose); and Explorers (in between) http://campustechnology.com/articles/2013/09/09/creativity-mooc-draws-120000-students.aspx?=CTNU Dr. Jack V. Matson, Dr. Darrell Velegol and Dr. Kathryn W. Jablokow, Penn State University, Coursera
  • 21. July 23, 2012 Coursera course on Internet History, Technology, and Security, Chuck Severance 42,000+ sign up… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzNHvmSv8TI
  • 22. MOOC Leadership Principle #3: Generate Media Attention June 25, 2012 http://www.forbes.com/sites/georgeanders/2012/06/05/udacity-sebastian-thrun-disrupting-higher-education/
  • 23. November 2, 2012 The Year of the MOOC, New York Times, Laura Pappano, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/04/education/edlife/massive-open-online-courses-are-multiplying-at-a-rapid-pace.html? pagewanted=all Clockwise, from top left: an online course in circuits and electronics with an M.I.T. professor (edX); statistics, Stanford (Udacity); machine learning, Stanford (Coursera); organic chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana (Coursera).
  • 24. July 16, 2013 ”Golden Era of Learning” Bill Gates Discusses MOOCs at Microsoft Research’s Faculty Summit http://chronicle.com/article/A-Conversation-With-Bill-Gates/132591/?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en
  • 25. June 19, 2013 2013 is “ The Year of the Anti-MOOC” George Siemens, UW-Madison Summit http://globalhighered.wordpress.com/european-moocs-in-global-context/
  • 26. MOOC Type #1. Theory- or Trend-Driven MOOC
  • 27. MOOC Type #2. Remedial Course MOOC
  • 28. MOOC Type #3. Degree or Program Qualifier or System Bottleneck MOOC
  • 29. MOOC Type #4. Professional Development (PD) (practical) MOOC
  • 31. MOOC Business Model #2. Certificate Fee (with sticker) https://twitter.com/drchuck/status/262423228717355009/photo/1
  • 32. MOOC Business Model #3. Free Entryway Course
  • 33. February 24, 2013 Big (MOOC) Data, Inside Higher Education, Dayna Catropa http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/stratedgy/big-mooc-data
  • 34. February 5, 2013 Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach, Duke University’s First MOOC http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/6216/Duke_Bioelectricity_MOOC_Fall2012.pdf
  • 35. May 2013 MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013– Report #1
  • 36. May 2013 MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013– Report #1
  • 37. October 8, 2013 An Early Report Card on Massive Open Online Courses, Recap of Canvas courses Geoffrey A. Fowler, WSJ Online http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303759604579093400834738972.htm l#project%3DMOOCchrtPRINT% 26articleTabs%3Dinteractive Video: http://online.wsj.com/artic le/SB 10001424052702303759604579093400834738972.html #project%3DM OOCchrtPRINT%26articleTabs% 3Dvideo
  • 38. End of Part #1. Audience Questions on the State of Open Education and MOOCs?
  • 39. Part #2: Research on Self-Directed Learning of MIT OCW Subscribers
  • 40. Self-Directed Learners (SDL) (Abdullah, 2001) • Tend to be highly curious & generally enjoy learning • View problems as challenges • Desire change, willing to try new things, • Persistent, self-disciplined, goal oriented • Independent, self-confident • Make learning meaningful and relevant • Self-monitor, evaluate, and regulate one’s learning
  • 42. HOPES: Humanity’s Open Platform for the Exchange of Stories
  • 43. October 1, 2012: MOOC Students 4 Massive Open Online Courses and How They Work, Ben Gose, Chronicle of HE http://chronicle.com/blogs/techtherapy/2012/10/03/episode-99-what-wearable-computers-could-mean-for-campuses/ Rajeev Bajpai, an airline pilot based in Mumbai, took an online computerscience course to gain programming
  • 44. DREAMS: Design Research for an Engaging and Active Mobile System
  • 48. MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) Study  E-newsletter subscription 156,000 people  1,429  613 completed surveys completed open ended items  50% over age 40  76% males  North America (44 percent); Asia (23 percent); Europe (14 percent); South America (10 percent); Middle East (3 percent); Oz (2 percent).  Top countries in the MIT OCW subscriber list were the United States, India, China, Brazil, Nigeria, Pakistan, Iran, Canada, the UK, Taiwan,
  • 52. Skills hoping to acquire?
  • 56. Factors leading to success or personal change?
  • 58. Open-Ended Questions (28) Can you describe your most interesting or successful informal learning experience? What did you accomplish? (30) Why did you want to do this learning activity or task? What was your purpose or goals ? Please describe what captured your interest. (31) Has your life changed in a small or big way as a result of this informal learning activity or experience? If so, how? (32) What was the key moment when learning informally with technology where you felt a personal change? If so, please describe that moment, as best you can. (34) Did you face any obstacles or challenges during this time when learning informally with technology? If so, how did you overcome them?
  • 59. MIT Data: Inspires and Changes Ed Systems (18-20 year old male, Middle East) When i was 14 years old i found MIT OCW during my search in..(physics) by Prof Walter Lewin looked really interesting and i became interested in physics. To be honest OCW changed my way of living and i found how beautiful physics is …informal learning is interesting because you can have access to some of the best courses provided by the best universities in the world…MIT OCW or Stanford open courses have also changed the educational system in some poor countries and have taught the teachers and professors in those countries how to teach a subject in a modern way.
  • 60. MIT Data: Self-Taught on Social Media (21-30 year old unemployed female, North America) At first my purpose was to fulfill boredom … After graduating with a MS, I was faced with unemployment . I took the opportunity to read blogs, watch Youtube videos, and more to learn about blogging and social media. Since than I have become well versed in social media and other business topics and started a business… I decided not to pursue a PHD because I am learning a more rapid pace . Instead of spending 5 years in school, I can be flexible and work on what I am learning.
  • 61. MIT Data: Enhances Current Job Prospects (31-40 year old male, Asia) I learnt scheme from MIT OCW. Which helped in learning elisp/lisp. The programming techniques increased my software design knowledge. Algebra mit ocw course was very useful , it helped me to refresh the basics of Digital signal processing. - I have learnt a lot of "applying my knowledge " than just learning the "theory" - Various online classes allow for multiple perspectives of the same topic thus showing us how the same thing can be applied in different fields.
  • 62. MIT Data: Prepares to Reenter University (41-50 year old male, Middle East) of my own was Most interesting experience my use of MIT OCW to refresh on Calculus. I purchased the textbook and followed one of several calculus options on the site. This was quite successful in re-introducing Calculus, as a prep to re-entering college 28 years after graduation - this time to study for a Master's.
  • 63. MIT Data: Builds Expertise and Expert Connections (51-60 year old female, North America) I'm a virtual reference librarian…My friend and I have a blog about music cognition, which is a little crazy because we don't know anything about it. Nevertheless, we blog about current articles, and one experience was especially meaningful, where I tweeted a question to Daniel Levitin, who answered. He's the guy who wrote The World in Six Songs, among other things. The fact that you can communicate with an expert in the field who will take the time to give a thoughtful tweeted (and yes, 140 characters can be thoughtful)--well, that's amazing… I think it was the single most exciting learning moment I've experienced .
  • 64. MIT Data: Retiree Develops New Hobby (65 year old male, North America) I retired from education I became a lifestyle entrepreneur. I was trying to learn software to develop a business website for our sailing business. I discovered… Lynda.com. I was learning web development, video editing and photoshop. I realized that I could learn this software without going to a formal class and that was an "eureka" moment.. My wife and I travelled and started a yacht delivery and training business that has taken us all over the world. We learned technology and social media as we travelled and ended up with many fantastic experienced in some very exotic places. We taught ourselves web development and have been figuring out online learning as we went. Now at 65 years of age we are going back to university to take a Computer Science Degree and start a new tech business relating to interactive educational media and games. All very exciting :-)
  • 65. MIT Data: Retiree Develops New Hobby (70+ year old female, North America) I'm am avid photographer and have developed skills for developing my own website for display of my photography and books I have written that include my photographs…I've had multiple careers, from science, to public administration, and information technology. The development of my art is a new and exciting experience.
  • 66. End of Part #2. Audience Questions on the MIT OCW Research?
  • 67. Part #3: Research on Self-Directed Learning of Blackboard MOOC Participants
  • 68. Blackboard MOOC and Open Education Study
  • 70. Blackboard MOOC Sample   Survey notice sent to 3,800 MOOC participants 159 completed surveys  49  72% completed open ended items over age 40  73% females  North America (81 percent); Asia (2 percent); Europe (6 percent); South America (1 percent); Middle East (2 percent); Australia/NZ (7 percent); Africa (1 percent)
  • 71. Blackboard Data Figure 1. Devices used to learn informally with technology
  • 72. Blackboard Data Figure 2. Places respondents engage in informal learning with technology
  • 73. Blackboard Data Figure 3. Specific skills wanting to learn informally online
  • 74. Blackboard Data Figure 4. Main reasons to informally explore the Web to learn
  • 75. Blackboard Data Figure 5. Achievements from learning informally online
  • 76. Blackboard Data Figure 6. Factors leading to success or personal change when learning informally online
  • 77. Blackboard Data Figure 7. Obstacles and challenges faced when learning informally online.
  • 78. Blackboard Data Who typically supports your informal learning experiences?
  • 79. Experience life change? (0 = not at all; 5 = moderately; 10 = significantly) Has your life changed from informal learning on the Web?
  • 80. Open-Ended Questions Goals and Motivations (Blackboard MOOC) • Improve their job prospects • Pursue personal interests or hobbies • Seeking certification of some type • Information seeking • Means to expand one’s formal learning
  • 81. Life Changing Example #1 “I grew in every possible way. Not only were my own ideas validated but I was encouraged to go beyond what I thought possible - maybe I would call it "Extreme DOING" the other half of extreme learning no? These bold steps have shaped my personal and professional life to a profound level.”
  • 82. Life Changing Example #2 “Yes, I view the way I make choices, the way I raise my children, the way I teach, the way I negotiate international agreements fundamentally different. There are no huge differences in the decisions because the same set of values inform the decisions, but the approach, the motivations, the incentives are modified in substantial ways as a result.”
  • 83. Life Changing Example #3 Yes. I plan to focus my Ph.D. research on alternative forms of learning (informal DIY) and credit (like open badges) and the changes higher ed and employers will have to make to accept these forms of credit.
  • 84. Life Changing Example #4 It has made my job much easier and it's been easier for me to execute certain tasks, making me more willing to take on bigger challenges. It was also shown me how enjoyable it is to learn a computer language. It opened my mind to considering possibilities in this area. It also made my husband respect my ability around computers a bit more.
  • 85. Life Changing Example #5 Some of my friends tell me that they love the nuggets of information that I share with them when talking about things I learned during short commutes, etc. They have started listening to podcasts and share similar nuggets about the fields that they care about.
  • 86. Life Changing Example #6 My life has changed in a big way. I used these new skills to create a small business that supplements my income. I couldn't use this income soley to support myself, but it does pay some bills.
  • 87. Life Changing Example #7 Without the opportunity to learn informally, my options within my doctoral program would be limited to the ideas and experience of the three instructors in my program track. I would be graduating with a firm grasp of 20-year old dated ideas!
  • 88. Life Changing Example #8 “Well, my life changed in that I thought I knew how important place and stories where to indigenous people… I learnt loads about indigenous culture and places and loads about augmented reality so now I know I have to change the project to allow students to have the same experience them creating the content not me which I knew but didn't take it into consideration enough when planning the project….I wanted to create a project that made students (university) aware of how pervasive indigenous culture is contemporary Australia - how important place is to indigenous people and how their culture is so connected to place through stories….”
  • 89. Life Changing Example #9 My life has changed in a big way - as the MOOC helped me to re-design one of the educational approaches in my workplace by providing a more interactive, innovative learning experience.
  • 90. Life Changing Example #10 It has changed because I have learned new things and got more creative in my own field … The key moment was when I felt that the world is now becoming open as Dr. bonk describes it. I don't need to travel to different countries and spend my time and money trying to get a new idea or learn a new skill. I can have the access to quality materials, novel ideas and experts anywhere and any time.
  • 91. Information Seekers (DIYers): Personal Identity “Today, we were trying to install a pool filter--we got instructions off You Tube. I also just bought a recumbent exercise bike--I looked at online reviews before making a choice.” She then added, “Knowing that I did not need to ask an actual person for help was life changing . I am an introvert by nature, and I prefer to figure things on my own. Knowing that I can research informally on the Web is reassuring .”
  • 92. Information Seekers (DIYers): Personal Identity I have accomplished on my own. It has been empowering and rewarding to become a research detective online.
  • 93. Information Seekers (DIYers): Personal Identity “My informal learning experience did influence my social life, as my travel buddy for the convention thought that I was incredibly smart and tremendously "with it," because I knew so much about the city, what to see, and how to get places. It's nice (if not slightly narcissistic) to be appreciated for your knowledge.”
  • 94. Joining a Learning Community “My key moment came when I discovered a community of like-minded scholars from around the world. I no longer felt isolated or disconnected. This has become my most valuable support network and I am grateful.”
  • 95. Joining a Learning Community (social and intellectual capital) “Socially the impact was great as well because now I have friends I can talk technology with a lot.”
  • 96. Joining a Learning Community (social and intellectual capital) “Influenced my professional life - I guess I have more social capital .”
  • 97. Seeking Relevance “I almost always listen to podcasts or .mp3 audio books, etc. when biking. After one session of learning some Korean language on a bike I was on my way home and chose to stop into a store for some take-out food. The conversation was almost identical to the lesson I had just learned. Although the questions and answers were simple and predictable small talk, it really was surreal at just how closely the real-world small talk conversation matched the mp3 that was produced a few years ago. It really gave me confidence that the audio recording method was not a joke.”
  • 98. Challenges and Issues • Discern the quality of information • Evaluate the quality • Informal learning not taken seriously by their superiors • Certificates and badges may reduce sense of fun and learning enjoyment
  • 99. MOOC Challenges: Finding Appropriate Ones “I think the hardest part is finding a MOOC that would work. It is not like there is a directory of MOOCs. You get out what you put in - the more you put in - in terms of writing and connecting the more you will get out of the experience. While the experience is informal - you need to give it more of a formal importance in your daily schedule.”
  • 100. More Challenges: Ignore Documentation Errors “Don't be too trusting of the documentation. It's written by humans and has the potential for error. Move on, don't waste time.”
  • 101. Learning for Enjoyment Versus Credentials and Badges “Just play around with ideas for alternatives to printed texts and don't be afraid to create your own, even if they're amateurish…I think we need to de-emphasise formal assessment and accreditation and encourage our playful side to see what is possible. Too much informal learning wants to get itself 'badged' or validated too quickly and this means its losing its genuine amateur status.”
  • 102. Informal Learner Characteristics • Strong intrinsic motivation, pride themselves being a “self-directed learner” ---“my own pleasure” and values autonomy, considers it empowering • Considers sharing as important part of educ/learning • Takes pride in creating and contributing • Enjoys the community of people with similar interests--but not necessarily the human f2f interaction
  • 103. Informal Learner Characteristics: Values SDL “I continue to research my interests for my own pleasure, especially on sites like Amazon for books and e-books, and have ongoing email alerts for journal content. I also use online sources for job hunting and professional networking.”
  • 104. Informal is now Formal: Limited Assistance “This MOOC was simply a different way to "formally" learn informally. No one was really a mentor or helped me.”
  • 105. Informal Learner Characteristics: Self-Reliant “Knowing that I did not need to ask an actual person for help was life changing. I am an introvert by nature , and I prefer to figure out things on my own. Knowing that I can research informally on the Web is reassuring.”
  • 106. Components of Successful MOOC Learner • • • • Self-motivated Enjoys sense of creating Shares their creation Delights in wide range of info resources • Takes pride in learning on their own
  • 107. End of Part #3. Audience Questions on the Blackboard MOOC Research?
  • 108. Part #4: Some Recent MOOC News and Research
  • 109. August 19, 2013 Entrepreneurship Curriculum NovoEd, Amin Saberi https://novoed.com/courses/entrepreneurship
  • 110. September 4, 2013 MOOC Course from Canvas “The Walking Dead” (UC Irvine) https://www.canvas.net/courses/the-walking-dead
  • 111. September 16, 2013 Rwandan Degree Program Aims for a 'University in a Box', Chronicle of Higher Education, Megan O’Neil http://chronicle.com/article/Rwandan-Degree-Program-Aims/141631/ Students attend an orientation session at Kepler, a new hybrid program in Kigali, Rwanda, which will use MOOCs and classroom time to help students earn competency-based associate degrees.
  • 112. September 18, 2013 MIT Will Offer MOOC Curricula, Not Just Single Courses, on edX, Steve Kolowich, Chronicle of HE http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/mit-will-offer-mooc-curricula-not-just-single-courses-on-edx/46715
  • 113. October 31, 2013 U.S. Teams Up With Operator of Online Courses to Plan a Global Network, Tamar Lewin, NY Times http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/01/education/us-plans-global-network-of-free-online-courses.html?hp&_r=3& From Seoul, South Korea, to La Paz, Mexico, Coursera is partnering with local institutions to create “Global Learning Hubs,” the company announced Oct. 31.
  • 114. October 31, 2013 The launch of OERu: Towards free learning opportunities for all students worldwide, BC Campus (Canada) http://bccampus.ca/2013/10/31/the-launch-of-oeru-towards-free-learning-opportunities-for-all-students-worldwide/
  • 115. January 2014 Designing for Experiences: Principles for Technology Transformation, Aaron Doering, U of Minnesota http://lt.umn.edu/nexted/
  • 116. January 29, 2014 MOOCs and the Promise of Internationalization, The Chronicle of Higher Education, Christina C. Davidson http://chronicl e.com/blogs/future/2014/01/29/m oocs-and-the-promise-of-internationalization/?cid=pm &utm _source=pm&utm_m edium=en
  • 117. January 27, 2014 Coursera Support Center, Why is my country blocked? http://hel p.coursera.org/ customer/portal/articles/1425714-why-is-my-count ry-bl ocked- Online education platform Coursera blocks students in Syria and Iran , Wamba, by Nina Curley http://www.wamda.com/2014/01/coursera-blocks-syria-and-iran-moocs-online-courses
  • 118. July 8, 2013 "It is never too late to start again" - A Syrian Doctor’s 25 Courses , Mahmud Angrini is a Syrian Medical Doctor, Coursera Blog http:// blog.coursera.org/post/54893006665/it-is-never-too-late-to-s tart-again-a-s yri an This is a picture of my devastated neighborhood in Syria.
  • 119. January 21, 2014 MITx Working Papers (research on MOOCs) http://odl.mit.edu/mitx-working-papers/
  • 120. January 20, 2014 6.00x Introduction to Computer Science and Programming MITx on EdX Course Report - 2013 Spring http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2382322
  • 121. January 20, 2014 6.00x Introduction to Computer Science and Programming MITx on EdX Course Report - 2013 Spring http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2382322
  • 122. January 2014 Grade Change: Tracking Online Education in the United States, 2013, The Sloan Consortium, I. Elaine Allen & Jeff Seaman, 2013 Survey of Online Learning Report http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/grade-change-2013 Direct connect: http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/gradechange.pdf
  • 123. January 2014 Grade Change: Tracking Online Education in the United States, 2013, The Sloan Consortium, I. Elaine Allen & Jeff Seaman, 2013 Survey of Online Learning Report http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/grade-change-2013 Direct connect: http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/gradechange.pdf
  • 124. January 15, 2014 Doubts About MOOCs Continue to Rise, Survey Finds Chronicle of Higher Education, Steve Kolowich http://chronicle.com/article/Doubts-About- MOO Cs-Continue-to/144007/ “A year later, there were more doubts about the long-term prospects of teaching free online courses. In 2012, 26 percent of academic leaders disagreed that MOOCs were "a sustainable method for offering courses." In 2013 that number leapt to 39 percent.”
  • 125. January 23, 2014 QuickWire: Regent U. Creates a Christian MOOC, Lawrence Biemiller, The Chronicle of Higher Education http://chronicle. com /blogs/wiredcampus/ quickwire-regent-u-creates-a-christian-m ooc/49781?ci d=pm&utm_source=pm &utm_medium =en
  • 126. January 27, 2014 What’s next for MOOCs? TED talk, posted by Thu-Huong Ha http://blog.ted.com/2014/01/27/whats-next-for-moocs/
  • 127. December 13, 2013 Former MIT president Charles M. Vest dies at 72 As the Institute’s leader from 1990 to 2004, he sparked a period of dynamism . Steve Bradt, MIT News Office http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2013/former-mit-president-charles-m-vest-dies-at-72-1213.html
  • 128. End of Part 4: Any Questions? Slides at: TrainingShare.com Paper: PublicationShare.com Books: http://worldisopen.com/ Email: curt@worldisopen.com cjbonk@Indiana.edu