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Transportation Engineering – II (Town Planning)
1/7/2018
Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 1
.
Course Learning Outcomes:
• At the end of this session, the student will be able to explain
causes of slum developments and ways of rehabilitation
Slum Rehabilitation
Prof. (Dr.) Sachin Kishor Patil
B.E. Civil, M.E. Civil Environmental Engineering, Ph.D. (IIT, Bombay)
❑ Professor & Head of Department
❑ Department of Civil Engineering
❑ AMGOI, Vathar, Kolhapur, MH, India.
1/7/2018
Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 2
Disclaimer and acknowledgment
The study material presented by Prof. S K Patil is licensed under
The study material presented herewith is web sourced made
available for community use under Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 unported License.
If you feel the ownership of some of the content, I can acknowledge
or remove as the case may be. Permissions beyond the scope of this
license can be requested at www.skpatil.com
Slums
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
3
Slum
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
4
 A slum is predominantly an over crowded area which is in
advanced state of decay where dwellings are unfit for
human habitation.
 It is an area which lacks the basic amenities like water
supply & drainage for standard living and where an
unsanitary condition prevails & diseases flourish.
 Slum is a poverty-stricken area where there is high birth
rate, infant morality, illegitimacy, juvenile crime,
delinquency & death, thus represent the state of hell on
the surface of earth.
Causes of slums and squatter settlements
5
1. RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION:
 The Industrial growth and employment opportunities in towns
and cities have acted as powerful magnets to attract the rural
population to cites.
 the workers employed in the in these factories & industrial
areas generally make their habitation as near as possible to
the place of work.
 They are low waged persons and cannot afford daily traveling
from the distant places in the city.
 Hence in a short time the available land or open space is
occupied by them buildings without any proper planning.
 This gives rise to the formation of slums.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Causes of slums and squatter settlements
6
2.POPULATION GROWTH:
 There is a great demand/supply gap between the tremendous
growth of population and the construction of houses.
 These shortages manifest themselves in creating slums.
3. LACK OF ZONING:
 If zoning regulations are not enforced in the early development
of town, there are chances for industrial area to encroach upon
residential areas.
 Thus very soon there emerges overcrowding with the
formation of slums.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Causes of slums and squatter settlements
7
4. PHYSICAL & SOCIAL DECENTRALIZATION:
 One of the major reasons for slum development is the physical and
social decentralization in which the rich and middle class people
move out to the extension areas of city by leaving the poor in the
overcrowded part of the town to make it more unsanitary.
 As a result the slum colonies start mushrooming at a fast rate within
city.
5.LACK OF EDUCATION:
 If the inhabitants are lacking in education, they may not pay
attention to improve the living conditions, and lose the civic interest
and neighbourhood spirit.
 They are therefore easily attracted by social evils, and delinquency.
As a “every thing goes” approach emerges in people and they
make slums.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Causes of slums and squatter settlements
8
6. POVERTY:
 One of the main causes for the slum formation can be described in one word
as “poverty”.
 The meagre and unsteady income leaves the family with no other choice but
to direct all the energies in earning their daily bread and butter with some
minimal clothing.
 It is difficult for them to pay heavy rent for a decent living. They therefore
move in slum move in slum areas, for nobody with black money builds decent
houses for the slum-dwellers.
7. REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE:
 There is nothing wrong with old houses if they are looked after from time to
time. But in India, repair and maintenance are the foreign words.
 Hence most of these buildings remain in a state of decay to favour the
formation of slums.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Causes of slums and squatter settlements
9
8. INADEQUATE POWERS:
 Lack of adequate powers and enforcing the same by the local
authorities for the proper development of the town are also the
reasons for the formation of slums.
 If preventive measures are not taken in time, the decent
localities of the town will be the slums of tomorrow.
 Even Chandigarh which is a planned capital is growing beyond
the bounds of rigid planning in suburbs and slums.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Effects of slums on town-life:
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
10
1. People’s health:
 Unhealthy conditions are created due to absence of public facilities like water supply,
drainage, sanitation and light etc.
 The sub-human conditions of the slums considerably affect the health and life of the people.
2. Lack of socio cultural life:
 There is complete absence of social and cultural life due to slum formation in the city.
3. People’s moral conduct:
 The mental outlook of the slum dweller is affected due to his physical environment.
 He develops low moral character as such he is easily attracted by vice, delinquency, crime
and clandestine activities in bootlegging, narcotics, drugs, adulteration, etc.
4. People’s performance & efficiency:
 The overcrowding area is full of noise, smoke and congestion.
 This affects considerably on the working conditions of the people in offices, schools, hospitals
etc.
Effects of slums on town-life:
11
5. ACCELERATION OF ACCIDENTS:
 Due to slum development the road trend to become congested i.e. children
play on roads so there is a danger from traffic accidents.
6. LACK OF PUBLIC PLACES:
 With the development of slums all open areas being attacked and there
emerge no open space for recreation, pure air etc.
7. LACK OF CIVIC SENSE:
 A slum dweller loses his ambition, civic interest as well as wholesome
neighbourhood spirit.
 In short a slum as such forms a black spot and spoils the healthy
environment of the city as a whole.
 Thus it becomes an object need to improve the physical, social & cultural life
of city. And preventive measures shall be taken to avoid formation of slums.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Precaution against formation of slums:
12
 The slums in the towns gradually grow & develop to
prevent them. Slums are health hazards to the cities which
later on create serous socio-economic and political
problems.
 Thus ‘Nip in the bud’ or ‘Prevention is better than cure’ are
the watch words against the formation.
 First of all, the authorities should make provision for
healthy conditions of living and working.
 The subsidized cheap housing in sufficient number should
be provided for the workers, Labourers, and poor people
with all civic amenities and utility services.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Precaution against formation of slums:
13
 They should have power to control the rents under Rend
Restriction Act.
 They should arrest the sub-standard and unauthorized
constructions on vacant lands.
 Proper wages should be provided to the labours to
improve their standard of living.
 The labourers in return should maintain and carry out
repairs whenever required so as to keep the existing
buildings in a good condition.
 The labourers should be properly educated to take care of
health, cleanliness and general welfare of their families.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Resettlement and Rehabilitation
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
14
Slum clearance
15
 Even after taking precautions if the slums develop.
 then there emerges only one option for authorities and
that is slum clearance.
 The process of slum clearance is done with two basic
methods.
 Improvement Method
 Complete Removal Method.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
slum clearance by improvement method:
16
 One method of not aggravating the housing shortage is to
take up slum-improvement scheme.
 This method has an added advantage of not causing
much disturbance to the slum dwellers.
 As the slums are developed due to poor drainage system
and unhealthy conditions.
 Hence the drainage arrangement is modified and
improved.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
slum clearance by improvement method:
17
Cont…
 Public utility services like water, drainage, electricity, gas may
be provided in the affected area.
 In slum area the housing conditions are also fairly good and
only a few houses need some improvement to make them
slightly more habitable.
 Further, any impending structures coming in the way may be
removed.
 Low portions of the old slums like ditches, or swamps may be
filled up and then the existing roads may be widened.
 With proper planning and improvement works it is possible to
make the slums slightly more habitable at the minimum cost.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
slum clearance by Complete removal :
18
 In this method area may be completely cleared out of the
existing locality.
 In this case only such buildings which are really in good
condition are retained and all other dilapidated structures are
pulled down.
 Transit Camps in the form of temporary buildings near the
slum areas should be constructed to accommodate those
displaced in the process of slum clearance.
 Any stinking factory that occurs in slum areas may be shifted
to some other more suitable place.
 The areas thus cleared up may be used as open spaces and
as sites for new buildings; part of it may also be used for
widening the streets.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
slum clearance by Complete removal
19
Cont..
 Care should be taken to keep the density within amenities
such as water supply, drainage, sanitary arrangements,
electricity, gas etc.
 Lastly the legal aspects of this scheme while shifting the
population should also receive due attention.
 The legal aspect include publication of the slum clearance
scheme; acquiring the land, paying compensation for the
acquired land, making accommodation for the displaced
persons in the process of slums clearance etc.
 The slum eradication by this method proves to be very costly,
but it is certainly worth-while to bear it in the interest of the
community of the city.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Slum clearance Schemes: Financial Assistance
20
 In India the scheme (1956) allows the grant of financial
assistance by the Central Government to State
Government and Union Territories.
 The main principles of the scheme are given below.
 There should be minimum dislocation of the slum dwellers.
 They should be re-housed in nearby area of the existing sites.
 To keep down rent within paying capacity of the slum dwellers
and emphasis is given on the provision of minimum standards
on environmental hygiene and utility services rather than on
construction of costly structures.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Slum clearance Schemes: Financial Assistance
21
 The government of India provides financial assistance to the
state government in the form of block grants and block loans
and the state governments are free to make its use as per
their requirements.
 The state government and local bodies can provide dwelling
units viz. open developed plots, skeletal house, pucca
tenements, hostel dormitory type and night shelters, to slum
dwellers.
 These units will be provided with independent lavatory, pucca
bath, and washing platforms connected with drains and taps.
 The cost of these dwelling units ranges from Rs. 1850 to Rs.
8750 per units and the subsidized rental ranges from Rs. 6 to
Rs. 39 per months, depending upon the type and place of
construction.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Legal Framework
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
22
The Maharashtra Slum Areas Act 1971: for notifying the slums and for
fixing the eligibility criteria of slum dweller
LAAct 1894: for compulsory acquisition of land for public purposes.
MRTP Act, 1966: for preparation of Development Plans to designate
land for public purposes, which can be acquired under LAAct
DC Regulations for Greater Mumbai 1991: provides for an alternative to
acquisition under LA Act 1894 by way of Transfer of Development
Rights (TDR)
The Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act 1960: provides for
establishing, registering and administering the cooperative societies
Conclusions and recommendations
23
 The major issue regarding provision of housing to poor is land,
which is pure gold as far as squatter and private sector institutions
are concerned.
 As the land in urban area is considered a commodity through which
money can be made. So appropriate land management is an
objective need of the time and provision of land to poor by formal
sector initiatives can not be avoided.
 As the population influx to urban areas reached to its zenith the
scarcity of land is a grave reality and access to land is required by
poor communicated through any means.
 As the poor people can not have access to the land through formal
sector initiatives, therefore they opt for informal sector processes &
occupy the governments land & make slums & squatter settlements.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Conclusions and recommendations
24
 It is also a reality that in some cases the formal sector it self involved in
making squatter settlements due to there failures in provision of housing to
poor.
 Once the slums & squatter settlements develop the major issue which
requires immediate attention is the provision of services & infrastructures
which is usually obtained by squatter at a very high cost.
 Furthermore it is a bitter reality that population influx to urban centres
continues and shall continue & it can not be eliminated & through formal
sector processes housing can not be provided to poor urban communities.
 Thus what options & strategies are available to formal sector? This is the
question which needs to be answered in an appropriate manner.
 For that matter policies regarding slums & squatter settlements by different
countries & the solutions given by different institutions should be analyzed.
On the basis of which recommendations can be made.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com

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2.6 slum rehabilitation

  • 1. Transportation Engineering – II (Town Planning) 1/7/2018 Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 1 . Course Learning Outcomes: • At the end of this session, the student will be able to explain causes of slum developments and ways of rehabilitation Slum Rehabilitation
  • 2. Prof. (Dr.) Sachin Kishor Patil B.E. Civil, M.E. Civil Environmental Engineering, Ph.D. (IIT, Bombay) ❑ Professor & Head of Department ❑ Department of Civil Engineering ❑ AMGOI, Vathar, Kolhapur, MH, India. 1/7/2018 Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 2 Disclaimer and acknowledgment The study material presented by Prof. S K Patil is licensed under The study material presented herewith is web sourced made available for community use under Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 unported License. If you feel the ownership of some of the content, I can acknowledge or remove as the case may be. Permissions beyond the scope of this license can be requested at www.skpatil.com
  • 4. Slum 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com 4  A slum is predominantly an over crowded area which is in advanced state of decay where dwellings are unfit for human habitation.  It is an area which lacks the basic amenities like water supply & drainage for standard living and where an unsanitary condition prevails & diseases flourish.  Slum is a poverty-stricken area where there is high birth rate, infant morality, illegitimacy, juvenile crime, delinquency & death, thus represent the state of hell on the surface of earth.
  • 5. Causes of slums and squatter settlements 5 1. RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION:  The Industrial growth and employment opportunities in towns and cities have acted as powerful magnets to attract the rural population to cites.  the workers employed in the in these factories & industrial areas generally make their habitation as near as possible to the place of work.  They are low waged persons and cannot afford daily traveling from the distant places in the city.  Hence in a short time the available land or open space is occupied by them buildings without any proper planning.  This gives rise to the formation of slums. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 6. Causes of slums and squatter settlements 6 2.POPULATION GROWTH:  There is a great demand/supply gap between the tremendous growth of population and the construction of houses.  These shortages manifest themselves in creating slums. 3. LACK OF ZONING:  If zoning regulations are not enforced in the early development of town, there are chances for industrial area to encroach upon residential areas.  Thus very soon there emerges overcrowding with the formation of slums. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 7. Causes of slums and squatter settlements 7 4. PHYSICAL & SOCIAL DECENTRALIZATION:  One of the major reasons for slum development is the physical and social decentralization in which the rich and middle class people move out to the extension areas of city by leaving the poor in the overcrowded part of the town to make it more unsanitary.  As a result the slum colonies start mushrooming at a fast rate within city. 5.LACK OF EDUCATION:  If the inhabitants are lacking in education, they may not pay attention to improve the living conditions, and lose the civic interest and neighbourhood spirit.  They are therefore easily attracted by social evils, and delinquency. As a “every thing goes” approach emerges in people and they make slums. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 8. Causes of slums and squatter settlements 8 6. POVERTY:  One of the main causes for the slum formation can be described in one word as “poverty”.  The meagre and unsteady income leaves the family with no other choice but to direct all the energies in earning their daily bread and butter with some minimal clothing.  It is difficult for them to pay heavy rent for a decent living. They therefore move in slum move in slum areas, for nobody with black money builds decent houses for the slum-dwellers. 7. REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE:  There is nothing wrong with old houses if they are looked after from time to time. But in India, repair and maintenance are the foreign words.  Hence most of these buildings remain in a state of decay to favour the formation of slums. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 9. Causes of slums and squatter settlements 9 8. INADEQUATE POWERS:  Lack of adequate powers and enforcing the same by the local authorities for the proper development of the town are also the reasons for the formation of slums.  If preventive measures are not taken in time, the decent localities of the town will be the slums of tomorrow.  Even Chandigarh which is a planned capital is growing beyond the bounds of rigid planning in suburbs and slums. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 10. Effects of slums on town-life: 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com 10 1. People’s health:  Unhealthy conditions are created due to absence of public facilities like water supply, drainage, sanitation and light etc.  The sub-human conditions of the slums considerably affect the health and life of the people. 2. Lack of socio cultural life:  There is complete absence of social and cultural life due to slum formation in the city. 3. People’s moral conduct:  The mental outlook of the slum dweller is affected due to his physical environment.  He develops low moral character as such he is easily attracted by vice, delinquency, crime and clandestine activities in bootlegging, narcotics, drugs, adulteration, etc. 4. People’s performance & efficiency:  The overcrowding area is full of noise, smoke and congestion.  This affects considerably on the working conditions of the people in offices, schools, hospitals etc.
  • 11. Effects of slums on town-life: 11 5. ACCELERATION OF ACCIDENTS:  Due to slum development the road trend to become congested i.e. children play on roads so there is a danger from traffic accidents. 6. LACK OF PUBLIC PLACES:  With the development of slums all open areas being attacked and there emerge no open space for recreation, pure air etc. 7. LACK OF CIVIC SENSE:  A slum dweller loses his ambition, civic interest as well as wholesome neighbourhood spirit.  In short a slum as such forms a black spot and spoils the healthy environment of the city as a whole.  Thus it becomes an object need to improve the physical, social & cultural life of city. And preventive measures shall be taken to avoid formation of slums. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 12. Precaution against formation of slums: 12  The slums in the towns gradually grow & develop to prevent them. Slums are health hazards to the cities which later on create serous socio-economic and political problems.  Thus ‘Nip in the bud’ or ‘Prevention is better than cure’ are the watch words against the formation.  First of all, the authorities should make provision for healthy conditions of living and working.  The subsidized cheap housing in sufficient number should be provided for the workers, Labourers, and poor people with all civic amenities and utility services. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 13. Precaution against formation of slums: 13  They should have power to control the rents under Rend Restriction Act.  They should arrest the sub-standard and unauthorized constructions on vacant lands.  Proper wages should be provided to the labours to improve their standard of living.  The labourers in return should maintain and carry out repairs whenever required so as to keep the existing buildings in a good condition.  The labourers should be properly educated to take care of health, cleanliness and general welfare of their families. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 15. Slum clearance 15  Even after taking precautions if the slums develop.  then there emerges only one option for authorities and that is slum clearance.  The process of slum clearance is done with two basic methods.  Improvement Method  Complete Removal Method. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 16. slum clearance by improvement method: 16  One method of not aggravating the housing shortage is to take up slum-improvement scheme.  This method has an added advantage of not causing much disturbance to the slum dwellers.  As the slums are developed due to poor drainage system and unhealthy conditions.  Hence the drainage arrangement is modified and improved. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 17. slum clearance by improvement method: 17 Cont…  Public utility services like water, drainage, electricity, gas may be provided in the affected area.  In slum area the housing conditions are also fairly good and only a few houses need some improvement to make them slightly more habitable.  Further, any impending structures coming in the way may be removed.  Low portions of the old slums like ditches, or swamps may be filled up and then the existing roads may be widened.  With proper planning and improvement works it is possible to make the slums slightly more habitable at the minimum cost. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 18. slum clearance by Complete removal : 18  In this method area may be completely cleared out of the existing locality.  In this case only such buildings which are really in good condition are retained and all other dilapidated structures are pulled down.  Transit Camps in the form of temporary buildings near the slum areas should be constructed to accommodate those displaced in the process of slum clearance.  Any stinking factory that occurs in slum areas may be shifted to some other more suitable place.  The areas thus cleared up may be used as open spaces and as sites for new buildings; part of it may also be used for widening the streets. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 19. slum clearance by Complete removal 19 Cont..  Care should be taken to keep the density within amenities such as water supply, drainage, sanitary arrangements, electricity, gas etc.  Lastly the legal aspects of this scheme while shifting the population should also receive due attention.  The legal aspect include publication of the slum clearance scheme; acquiring the land, paying compensation for the acquired land, making accommodation for the displaced persons in the process of slums clearance etc.  The slum eradication by this method proves to be very costly, but it is certainly worth-while to bear it in the interest of the community of the city. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 20. Slum clearance Schemes: Financial Assistance 20  In India the scheme (1956) allows the grant of financial assistance by the Central Government to State Government and Union Territories.  The main principles of the scheme are given below.  There should be minimum dislocation of the slum dwellers.  They should be re-housed in nearby area of the existing sites.  To keep down rent within paying capacity of the slum dwellers and emphasis is given on the provision of minimum standards on environmental hygiene and utility services rather than on construction of costly structures. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 21. Slum clearance Schemes: Financial Assistance 21  The government of India provides financial assistance to the state government in the form of block grants and block loans and the state governments are free to make its use as per their requirements.  The state government and local bodies can provide dwelling units viz. open developed plots, skeletal house, pucca tenements, hostel dormitory type and night shelters, to slum dwellers.  These units will be provided with independent lavatory, pucca bath, and washing platforms connected with drains and taps.  The cost of these dwelling units ranges from Rs. 1850 to Rs. 8750 per units and the subsidized rental ranges from Rs. 6 to Rs. 39 per months, depending upon the type and place of construction. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 22. Legal Framework 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com 22 The Maharashtra Slum Areas Act 1971: for notifying the slums and for fixing the eligibility criteria of slum dweller LAAct 1894: for compulsory acquisition of land for public purposes. MRTP Act, 1966: for preparation of Development Plans to designate land for public purposes, which can be acquired under LAAct DC Regulations for Greater Mumbai 1991: provides for an alternative to acquisition under LA Act 1894 by way of Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) The Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act 1960: provides for establishing, registering and administering the cooperative societies
  • 23. Conclusions and recommendations 23  The major issue regarding provision of housing to poor is land, which is pure gold as far as squatter and private sector institutions are concerned.  As the land in urban area is considered a commodity through which money can be made. So appropriate land management is an objective need of the time and provision of land to poor by formal sector initiatives can not be avoided.  As the population influx to urban areas reached to its zenith the scarcity of land is a grave reality and access to land is required by poor communicated through any means.  As the poor people can not have access to the land through formal sector initiatives, therefore they opt for informal sector processes & occupy the governments land & make slums & squatter settlements. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 24. Conclusions and recommendations 24  It is also a reality that in some cases the formal sector it self involved in making squatter settlements due to there failures in provision of housing to poor.  Once the slums & squatter settlements develop the major issue which requires immediate attention is the provision of services & infrastructures which is usually obtained by squatter at a very high cost.  Furthermore it is a bitter reality that population influx to urban centres continues and shall continue & it can not be eliminated & through formal sector processes housing can not be provided to poor urban communities.  Thus what options & strategies are available to formal sector? This is the question which needs to be answered in an appropriate manner.  For that matter policies regarding slums & squatter settlements by different countries & the solutions given by different institutions should be analyzed. On the basis of which recommendations can be made. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com