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Transportation Engineering – II (Town Planning)
1/7/2018
Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 1
.
Course Learning Outcomes:
• At the end of this session, the student will be
able to principles of Town Planning during
ancient India Era
Ancient India Vedic & Buddha Period
Prof. (Dr.) Sachin Kishor Patil
B.E. Civil, M.E. Civil Environmental Engineering, Ph.D. (IIT, Bombay)
❑ Professor & Head of Department
❑ Department of Civil Engineering
❑ AMGOI, Vathar, Kolhapur, MH, India.
1/7/2018
Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 2
Disclaimer and acknowledgment
The study material presented by Prof. S K Patil is licensed under
The study material presented herewith is web sourced made
available for community use under Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 unported License.
If you feel the ownership of some of the content, I can acknowledge
or remove as the case may be. Permissions beyond the scope of this
license can be requested at www.skpatil.com
TP in Vedic Period
3
 Upto 400 BC
 Book - “Viswa Karmaprakash” – States principle as “Layout
First then Plan Houses”
 Manasara SilpaSastram
 Ancient building code Vastu Sasthram,
 designing houses,
 planning cities and communities
 Deals with architecture and spatial organisation of
residential quarters.
 Soil Study
 Climate
 Topography
 Orientation
 Layouts of towns
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
Ancient Layouts of Town in Vedic Period
4
 1. Dandaka (dMDk )
 2. Sarvathobhadra (sava-taoBad/)
 3. Nandyavarta (naMdyava-t)
 4. Padmaka (pdmak )
 5. Swastika (svaistk )
 6. Prastara (p/str )
 7. Karmuka (kama-uK )
 8. Chaturmukha (catu-mauK )
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
1. Dandaka (दंडक )
5
 Dandaka type of town plan provides for two main entrance gates
 Generally adopted for small towns and villages,
 The village offices being located in the east.
 The female deity of the village or the chamadevata will generally
be located outside the village
 The male deities in the northern portion.
 Grid road
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
2. Sarvathobhadra (सर्वतोभद्र
6
 This type of town plan is
applicable to larger villages
and towns, which have to be
constructed on a square site.
 According to this plan, the
whole town should be fully
occupied by houses of
various descriptions and
inhabited by all classes of
people.
 The temple dominates the
village.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
3. Nandyavarta (Flower Type)
(नन्द्यार्तव)7
 This plan is commonly used for
the construction of towns and not
for villages.
 It is generally adopted for the sites
either circular or square in shape,
with not less than three thousand
houses, but not more than four
thousand.
 The streets run parallel to the
central adjoining streets with the
temple of the presiding deity in the
center of the town.
 “Nandyavarta” is the name of a
flower, the form of which is
followed in this layout.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
4. Padmaka (Lotus Flower) (पद्मक)
8
 This type of plan was
practiced for building of
the towns with fortress
all round.
 The pattern of the plan
resembles the petals of
lotus radiating outwards
from the center.
 The city used to be
practically an island
surrounded by water,
having no scope for
expansion
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
5. Swastika (स्र्स्स्तक)
9
 Swastika type of plan
contemplates some diagonal
streets dividing the site into
certain triangular plots.
 The site need not be marked
out into a square or rectangle
and it may be of any shape.
 A rampart wall surrounds the
town, with a moat at its foot
filled with water.
 Two main streets cross each
other at the center, running
south to north and west to
east.
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
 The characteristic feature of this plan is that the site may be either
square or rectangular but not triangular or circular.
 The sites are set apart for the poor, the middle class, the rich and the
very rich
 The sizes of the sites increasing according to the capacity of each to
purchase or build upon.
 The main roads
are much wider
compared to those
of other patterns.
 The town may or
may not be surrounded
6. Prastara (प्रस्तर)
10
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
 This plan is suitable for the place where the site of the town is in
the form of a bow or semi-circular or parabolic.
 Mostly applied for towns located on the seashore or riverbanks.
 The main streets of the town run from north to south or east to
west and the cross streets run at right-angles to them, dividing the
whole area into blocks.
 The presiding deity,
commonly a female deity,
is installed in the temple
build in any convenient
place.
7. Karmuka (कार्मवक )
11
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
8. Chaturmukha (चतमर्मवख )
12
 Chaturmukha type of plan is applicable to all towns starting from the
largest town to the smallest village.
 The site may be either square or rectangular having four faces.
 The town is laid out east to west lengthwise, with four main streets.
 The temple of the presiding deity will be always at the center
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
TP in Buddhist Period (320-185 BC)
13
 Chanakya (Kautilya)
 Regulation by zoning
 Rajmarga (main road) min width 30 ft
 Roads - Grid iron pattern
 Eg. Patali-putra, Taksa-Sila, Nalanda
 Sectoral arrangement (clubbing) – Nos. 16
 Houses- with Garden, ponds & Wells
 Under-ground drainage
 City – 16X3.5 Km
 City surrounded by deep moat (180 m)
 Surrounded by Gates and watch towers
1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com

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1.4 town planning ancient india vedic buddha period

  • 1. Transportation Engineering – II (Town Planning) 1/7/2018 Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 1 . Course Learning Outcomes: • At the end of this session, the student will be able to principles of Town Planning during ancient India Era Ancient India Vedic & Buddha Period
  • 2. Prof. (Dr.) Sachin Kishor Patil B.E. Civil, M.E. Civil Environmental Engineering, Ph.D. (IIT, Bombay) ❑ Professor & Head of Department ❑ Department of Civil Engineering ❑ AMGOI, Vathar, Kolhapur, MH, India. 1/7/2018 Prof. S.K. Patil, www.skpatil.com 2 Disclaimer and acknowledgment The study material presented by Prof. S K Patil is licensed under The study material presented herewith is web sourced made available for community use under Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 unported License. If you feel the ownership of some of the content, I can acknowledge or remove as the case may be. Permissions beyond the scope of this license can be requested at www.skpatil.com
  • 3. TP in Vedic Period 3  Upto 400 BC  Book - “Viswa Karmaprakash” – States principle as “Layout First then Plan Houses”  Manasara SilpaSastram  Ancient building code Vastu Sasthram,  designing houses,  planning cities and communities  Deals with architecture and spatial organisation of residential quarters.  Soil Study  Climate  Topography  Orientation  Layouts of towns 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 4. Ancient Layouts of Town in Vedic Period 4  1. Dandaka (dMDk )  2. Sarvathobhadra (sava-taoBad/)  3. Nandyavarta (naMdyava-t)  4. Padmaka (pdmak )  5. Swastika (svaistk )  6. Prastara (p/str )  7. Karmuka (kama-uK )  8. Chaturmukha (catu-mauK ) 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 5. 1. Dandaka (दंडक ) 5  Dandaka type of town plan provides for two main entrance gates  Generally adopted for small towns and villages,  The village offices being located in the east.  The female deity of the village or the chamadevata will generally be located outside the village  The male deities in the northern portion.  Grid road 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 6. 2. Sarvathobhadra (सर्वतोभद्र 6  This type of town plan is applicable to larger villages and towns, which have to be constructed on a square site.  According to this plan, the whole town should be fully occupied by houses of various descriptions and inhabited by all classes of people.  The temple dominates the village. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 7. 3. Nandyavarta (Flower Type) (नन्द्यार्तव)7  This plan is commonly used for the construction of towns and not for villages.  It is generally adopted for the sites either circular or square in shape, with not less than three thousand houses, but not more than four thousand.  The streets run parallel to the central adjoining streets with the temple of the presiding deity in the center of the town.  “Nandyavarta” is the name of a flower, the form of which is followed in this layout. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 8. 4. Padmaka (Lotus Flower) (पद्मक) 8  This type of plan was practiced for building of the towns with fortress all round.  The pattern of the plan resembles the petals of lotus radiating outwards from the center.  The city used to be practically an island surrounded by water, having no scope for expansion 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 9. 5. Swastika (स्र्स्स्तक) 9  Swastika type of plan contemplates some diagonal streets dividing the site into certain triangular plots.  The site need not be marked out into a square or rectangle and it may be of any shape.  A rampart wall surrounds the town, with a moat at its foot filled with water.  Two main streets cross each other at the center, running south to north and west to east. 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 10.  The characteristic feature of this plan is that the site may be either square or rectangular but not triangular or circular.  The sites are set apart for the poor, the middle class, the rich and the very rich  The sizes of the sites increasing according to the capacity of each to purchase or build upon.  The main roads are much wider compared to those of other patterns.  The town may or may not be surrounded 6. Prastara (प्रस्तर) 10 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 11.  This plan is suitable for the place where the site of the town is in the form of a bow or semi-circular or parabolic.  Mostly applied for towns located on the seashore or riverbanks.  The main streets of the town run from north to south or east to west and the cross streets run at right-angles to them, dividing the whole area into blocks.  The presiding deity, commonly a female deity, is installed in the temple build in any convenient place. 7. Karmuka (कार्मवक ) 11 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 12. 8. Chaturmukha (चतमर्मवख ) 12  Chaturmukha type of plan is applicable to all towns starting from the largest town to the smallest village.  The site may be either square or rectangular having four faces.  The town is laid out east to west lengthwise, with four main streets.  The temple of the presiding deity will be always at the center 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com
  • 13. TP in Buddhist Period (320-185 BC) 13  Chanakya (Kautilya)  Regulation by zoning  Rajmarga (main road) min width 30 ft  Roads - Grid iron pattern  Eg. Patali-putra, Taksa-Sila, Nalanda  Sectoral arrangement (clubbing) – Nos. 16  Houses- with Garden, ponds & Wells  Under-ground drainage  City – 16X3.5 Km  City surrounded by deep moat (180 m)  Surrounded by Gates and watch towers 1/15/2018Prof.S.K.Patil,www.skpatil.com