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History & Town Planning of Delhi

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History and town planning concepts of Delhi, India. Useful for architects and planners :)

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History & Town Planning of Delhi

  1. 1. -Shruti Bhatia -Arundhati Kumar TOWN PLANNING: DELHI
  2. 2. Delhi is located at 28.61°N 77.23°E, and lies in Northern India. It borders the Indian states of Haryana on the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh (UP) to the east. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,484 km2
  3. 3. STATUS OF URBANIZATION IN THE CAPITAL CITY OF DELHI • The pace was accelerated during 1941-51 when the country was partitioned and refugees started coming and settling in Delhi. • With rapid urbanization, the urban area in Delhi territory has increased from 22% in 1961 to 62.5% of the total area in 2001. • In 2001, about 702 sqkm of area was estimated to have been built up, accommodating about 13.8 million population. • In 2011,total population of Delhi was 16.75 million with 97.5 % urban population. • In 2021, about 978 sqkm of total urbanisable area will be available for accommodating 23 million population in Delhi. Population Growth of Delhi Census Pop. %± 1901 405,819 — 1911 413,851 2.0% 1921 488,452 18.0% 1931 636,246 30.3% 1941 917,939 44.3% 1951 1,744,072 90.0% 1961 2,658,612 52.4% 1971 4,065,698 52.9% 1981 6,220,406 53.0% 1991 9,420,644 51.4% 2001 13,782,976 46.3% 2011 16,753,235 21.6% † Huge population rise in 1951 due to large scale migration after Partition of India in 1947. Urbanization has increased rapidly in Delhi since 1911 when Delhi became the capital of the country. 57.5 % of Population was urbanised in 1911.
  4. 4. Master Plans for Delhi The First Master Plan for Delhi,1961- 81, was published by DDA in 1962, envisaged development of urbanisable area of 448sqkm by 1981, catering to an urban population of 4.6 million. To accomodate the 12.2 million urban population by the year 2001, the Second Master Plan envisaged expanding the urbanisable area of delhi to 688 sqkm. Third Master Plan of Delhi, projected population of 23 million by the year 2021 on about 978sqkm of total urbanisable area.
  5. 5. Delhi~ down the line … HIGHIGHTING IMPORTANT CHRONOLOGICAL EVENTS 1638-48: Shahjahanabad – Shahjahan as Emperor. Red Fort, Jama Masjid built. 1803: British East India Company Invasion. 1911-31: Sir Edwin Lutyens designs New Delhi 1912: Capital shifted from Kolkata to New Delhi. 1931: New Delhi Capital inaugurated and Delhi Improvement Trust constituted. 1947: Independence and partition of the country. Immigration of half million population to Delhi. 1948: Rehabilitation townships planned. 1957: DDA constituted. 1962: First Delhi Master Plan passed.
  6. 6. The Town Planning Concept Shahjahanabad
  7. 7. DELHI – THE MUGHAL CAPITAL Delhi is a city that has seen both glory and destruction in its long. It has been plundered, ruined time and again only to spring from its ashes to become the capital of powerful dynasties. Fortunately, the resilient and enduring culture and heritage has withstood the test of time and the city continues to live. The heart of Delhi can be found in Old Delhi, 350 yrs old. Its many- branched arteries are narrow with age and congested. No city reflects the endless drama of change better.
  8. 8. Introduction - SHAHJAHANABAD  By the time the emperor Shah Jahan (1928-58) came to the throne, the Mughal empire had ruled continuously over northern India for almost a century and the artistic tradition of Mughals had reached a stage of maturity and refinement. During Shah Jahan’s rein the architectural development was remarkable due to his interest and patronage of architecture. His buildings were characterized by sensitivity and delicateness.
  9. 9. Background  The Mughal period from Akbar ( 1566- 1605) to Shah Jahan was comparatively long and peaceful; it was marked by the development of cities. Shah Jahan established residences in Lahore, Agra and Delhi. In 1638, he laid the foundations of new capital, centered around Lal Qila or Red Fort.  The site for the new capital in Delhi was ideally suited as a convergence point of land routes, being centrally located geographically. The site was situated on the western bank of river Yamuna where a natural projection formed a triangle with the land and the river.
  10. 10. Spatial Structure  Urban spatial structure of Shahjahanabad was different from that of the other Mughal Capitals, because it was planned and built by one concentrated planning effort.  The shurafa usually were situated to the west of the palace, along one of the two boulevards at Chandni Chowk, & originated from the emperor’s palace, thus furnishing the city with an unequivocal structure.  Those professional groups delivering fresh agrarian products to the city must have settled along the southern and south-south-western rim of the city walls (Delhi gate & Turkman gate): this is where institutions , such as Masjid gadarion (shephered’s mosque), Masjid kasai (butcher’s mosque) were located. They all represent “low ranking traders”.  The closer to the core of the city the more socially recognized are the professional settled there: weavers, producers of wool, traders of saddle- horses, oil- extractors & manufacturers of straw goods, each of them represented by their respective mosques.  Further, in the direction of Chandni Chowk, mostly representative of the trading professions, e.g. traders of fabrics, fish, meats and luxury goods, but also some of the professional groups processing goods, e.g. producers of water pipes can be found, all of them are characterized by the spatial proximity to the imperial house.
  11. 11. Planning of Shahjahanabad  The city was planned according to hindu planning principles of shilpashastra from vastushastra.  The site was placed on a high land as in the shastra and was kamukha or bow shaped, for this ensured its prosperity.  The arm of the archer was Chandni Chowk.  The string was Yamuna river.  The junction of the two main axes is the most auspicious point in the whole region and was therefore the red fort.
  12. 12. The city form- morphology elements • The urban infrastructure was laid out in a geometric pattern. • Shows traces of both Persian and Hindu traditions of town planning and architecture with the Persian influence largely accounting for the formalism and symmetry of the palaces gardens and boulevards.  The designed infrastructure of Shahjahanabad comprised- • The fort • The Friday mosque(jama masjid). • The other major mosques • The bazaars around the Friday mosque. • The elaborate system of water channels. • The major gardens and the city wall. • The arrangement of these planned elements was influenced by certain site features, which precluded absolute geometry.
  13. 13. The Fort & The Mosque  The Red Fort and Jama Masjid were thorough fares that framed the city.  From Lahore Gate ran a broad avenue with a covered arcade designed and paid for by Jahan Ara- that housed over 1500 shops. Today known as Chatta Bazaar.  The remainder of Shahjahanabad took shape within the city walls with its havelis mansions, mosques, temples, Sikh shrines and the gardens of the nobility.
  14. 14. The Red Fort (Palace Complex)  The plan of the fort was made by Shah Jahan and two Muslim architects. The foundation stone of the fortified place was laid in 1638. Construction work began in 1639 and was complete in just nine year. The palace complex, located along the western river front was built as an ideal residence for the emperor, it was conceived and designed as a paradise on Earth. The layout of the fort was drawn on a formal geometrical plan actually an irregular octagon with two long sides on east and west. It had two gates, that on the west was called the Lahori Darwaza, while that on the south was the Delhi Darwaza. Bearing on the cardinal points, the elements of the fort were arranged in the geometrical pattern that reflected the life and customs of Mughal court.
  15. 15. Jami Masjid  The Jami Masjid was the principal mosque of the capital, the congregational centre and one of the most important institutions for the Muslims in Shahjahanabad. Shah Jahan commenced building the mosque in 1650, and completed it 6years later. It was located at the central part of the city and on a raised foundation at the top of a hill 9mts above the street level.  The mosque dominated the walled city as a visual as well as a spiritual symbol of supreme god. Its architectural design followed by traditional style, but improvements were made here as well. Te courtyard was large and was enclosed by pillared corridors. Its layouts, having a main entrance on the east, was geometric and the whole mosque faced west towards Mecca. Muslim urban life was closely evolved around the Jami Masjid.
  16. 16. Major Streets  The streets in Mughal capital were usually narrow and crooked. However, the major streets in the new capital were designed as wide and straight.  The east-west street called Chandni Chowk connected the Lahori Darwaza of the fort to the Lahori Darwaza of the city wall. It ran in a straight line forming a wide boulevard with broad vista. The Fort was visible from any place on the street. This perspective view marked a new concept of town planning for the Mughal capital. Chandni Chowk is 1.4km in length and jogged right at the Fatehpuri Begum Mosque. It was built as the central axis of the city.  Another main street the Faiz Bazaar or Akkarabadi Bazaar, was also wide and straight. It had a north-south axis and connected Delhi gate of the fort with the city walls Delhi gate and is about 1km in length. These major two streets developed as processional routes, as well as commercial arteries. The streets also assumed importance for ritual events.
  17. 17. Five Main Streets  The basic network of the five main streets extended from Chandni Chowk and Faiz Bazaar to other gates and to different part of the walled city. The streets were built as the spines of major activities and developed as commercial thorough affairs. They connected the Ajmeri Darwaza with the Jami Masjid and Turkman and Lahori Darwazas. Their intersections formed a landmark. Important buildings were located on these arteries. The other streets were less significant and were mainly built as access roads to the residential areas. MAHALLA / KATRA  There was a tendency of the cities' population to settle by ethnic affiliations and to live in the same neighborhoods. The urban community and the Mughal capital was formed by such districts or wards, known as mahallas and katras. There were 36 mahallas in the walled city. Each katra had an enclosed space created between residential and commercial buildings having entry to a katra made through a gate.  These courtyards were environmentally sound and acted as main ventilation shafts in a hot and arid climate. Communal open space was conspicuously absent as it is so today. There was not much need felt for communal open space, other than for worship which is why the Jami Masjid was provided with a spacious courtyard.  Thus, it is clear that planning of a residential area in the Mughal capital did not provide for social units.
  18. 18. Streetscapes  There emerges a hierarchy of streets in the layout of the city.  The secondary streets were the ones which entered the south of the city from Chandni Chowk. (thus they were perpendicular for some distance and then assumed an organic form once deep in the city).  The secondary street structure also includes the streets that are parallel to the city walls- forming a concentric ring so to say, in the southern part of the city. They then intermingle at chowks with the third layering of streets, which derive their character from the fact that they are perpendicular to the main mosque, Jama Masjid.
  19. 19. Bagh  The north area of Chandni Chowk was occupied by a bagh called the Jahanara Begumi’s Garden. It was laid out in a planned fashion, in addition to the road planning of Chandni Chowk. CITY WALLS  The layout o the city walls was based on a geometrical planning; i.e. to say, a polygonal plan with gateways. The four main gates were Delhi Darwaza on south, the Ajmeri Darwaza on the south-west, the Lahori Darwaza on the west and the Kashmiri Darwaza on the north. These important gates were positioned according to the basic network of the city, being laced on the cardinal points. The graphic representation of the city was indicated geometric planning and the geometric placement of the main gates.
  20. 20. Conclusion  The new Mughal capital and the fort were designed as an ideal city and a paradise on Earth.  The design and planning methods were geometric and provided for green areas (gardens) and water facilities.  Principal elements in the town planning were the fort, the Jami Masjid, two major streets, city wall and gates, the Bagh, the Id-gah and the Karawan Sarai.  The Red fort was designed as a symbol of Muslim power and as an ideal living space on a formal geometrical plan.  The Jami Masjid was designed as a symbol of Muslim power and of the capital.  Two major streets were developed as the central axis and as processional routes and they were new elements in the capital; the design and the planning method was a new concept in town planning in the Mughal capital.  Planning in the capital did not provide planning of residential areas.  The city wall and gateways were drawn on a geometrical plan.  Urban forms and patterns developed on there own in response to the emperor’s basic need and idea and little attention was paid to the social planning.
  21. 21.  Old Delhi, the Medieval capital built by Shahjahan in 1638 remained one of the most beautiful cities in the Orient till the arrival of the British in 1803.  The British and the natives lived in the Walled City in harmony until the War of 1857 after which one-third of the city was razed to ground.  The city came to be seen as a Useless maze; unhealthy and congested.  The transfer of Capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1912 furthered the devaluation of the Walled City. FATE OF THE WALLED CITY
  22. 22. LUTYEN’S DELHI (1914)
  23. 23. Lutyen’s Delhi In order to understand the imagability of Lutyens Delhi, it is imperative to know its history and why the site was chosen. History: The primary concern for the transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi was to locate a more durable and subtle public opinion: the intention was to express the achievements possible under the British Raj and as a stamp of the autocratic rule. Criteria for Site Selection: The committee which was setup to choose a site recommended that if the imperial capital is to be favorably situated to present an effective appearance, it should be approached along a line of rising ground. Lord Harding chose the Raisina Hill for locating the viceroy’s palace because:  It was a well drained.  Constituted of slopes and plains between the ridge and the river.  Its eastern and southern margins were studded with monuments of vanished empires.  A broad crescent from Shahjahanabad and Kotla Firoz Shah, south to Tughlaqabad and the Qutub with tombs of Safdarjung and Lodhis as well as Jantar Mantar in the foreground could be viewed from the site.
  24. 24. Site location:  Shahjahanabad was towards the north.  On the west of the site, the natural limit was the ridge.  The river formed the eastern limit.  On south a line drawn from a point on the ridge, west of Talkatora to Safdarjung tomb and then due east to the river marks the southern limit. The tract between the line and the Qutub is designated for further expansion.
  25. 25. Image source: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi
  26. 26. 1911 – Foundation stone for New Delhi at Delhi Darbar On December 15, 1911, King George V and Queen Mary laid the foundation stone for New Delhi, at a Darbar under a purposely built Shah Jahani dome. The message was clear: the British were the legitimate successors of the Mughals and their new capital was intended to express the power of the Raj, just as Shah Jahan’s capital had expressed the authority of the Mughals. Image Source: http://www.iicdelhi.nic.in/publications/uploads_diary_files/491816November112011_IIC%20Occasional%20Publication%2032
  27. 27. Lutyens had initially designed Delhi with all the streets crossing at right angles, much like in New York. However, Lord Hardinge told him of the dust storms that sweep the landscape in these parts, insisting on roundabouts, hedges and trees to break their force, giving him the plans of Rome, Paris and Washington to study and apply to Delhi. Image Source: http://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/wmf_article/pg_38- 43_new_delhi.pdf The initial design of New Delhi
  28. 28. Image source: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi
  29. 29. The layout of Lutyens Delhi was governed by three major visual corridors, linking the government complex with : • Jama Masjid • Indraprastha • Safdarjungs Tomb Image Source (Image 1 and Image 2): http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi Intentions of the Layout: Lutyens’ Delhi was planned on the most spacious garden city lines with the great avenues decorated with classical buildings with lush landscape. Image 1 Image 2
  30. 30. Features 1. The plan reflects Lutyens’ “transcendent fervour for geometric symmetry,” which is expressed through amazing sequences of triangles and hexagons, through sightlines and axes. 2. Lutyens’ plan is also remarkable for the generous green spaces, lawns, watercourses, flower and fruit- bearing trees, and their integration with the parks developed around monuments. 3. The attempt was to include all natural and historical wonders in the new city. Image Source: http://www.srmuniv.ac.in/downloads/townplaning.pdf
  31. 31. The Road Network  Besides the major Pathway, there were extremely wide avenues. The original design of the road network was capable of accommodating 6000 vehicles, however these avenues, had the potential of increasing their carriageway-the reason why the road layout has survived till today.  In general the road network consisted of diagonals and radials, at 30 degree/ 60 degree angles to the main axis, forming triangles and hexagons. Image source: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi
  32. 32. Lutyens’ Delhi - Zoning GOVERNME NT COMPLEX BUNGLOW ZONE COMMERCI AL DISTRICT
  33. 33. GOVERNMENT COMPLEX Image source: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi
  34. 34. Image source: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi
  35. 35. Image source: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi
  36. 36. 1. Lutyens laid out the central administrative area of the city. 2. At the heart of the city was the impressive Rashtrapati Bhawan, located on the top of Raisina Hill. The Rajpath connects India Gate to Rashtrapati Bhawan, while Janpath, which crosses it at a right angle, connects South end with Connaught Place. 3. The Secretariat Building, which houses various ministries of the Government of India including Prime Minister's Office are beside the Rashtrapati Bhawan and were designed by Herbert Baker. 4. Also designed by Baker was the Parliament House, located on the Sansad Marg, running parallel with the Rajpath. Image Source: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi The Government Complex/ Administrative area
  37. 37. Lutyen's grandiose Government House (Rashtrapati Bhawan) - located on Raisina Hill, and one of New Delhi's major thoroughfares, Rajpath, connects it to the Purana Qila Lord Hardinge chose the Raisina Hill for locating the viceroy’s palace because: The Rashtrapati Bhawan • It was a well drained. • Constituted of slopes and plains between the ridge and the river. • Its eastern and southern margins were studded with monuments of vanished empires. A broad crescent from Shahjahanabad and Kotla Firoz Shah, south to Tughlaqabad and the Qutub with tombs of Safdarjung and Lodhis as well as Jantar Mantar in the foreground could be viewed from the site. Image Source (Image 1 and Image 2): http://www.indiansecretsrevealed.com/rashtrapati-bhavan-trip/ Image 1 Image 2 Image 2
  38. 38. Image Source: http://www.indiansecretsrevealed.com/rashtrapati-bhavan-trip/
  39. 39. The Secretariat  The Secretariat Building was designed by architect Herbert Baker in Indo-Sarcenic Revival architecture.  Much of the building is in classical architectural style, yet it incorporated Mughal and Rajasthani architecture style and motifs in its architecture.  These are visible in the use of Jali.  Another feature of the building is a dome-like structure known as the Chatri. Image Source (Image 1 and Image 2): http://www.indiansecretsrevealed.com/secratariat-building-trip/ Image Source (Image 3): http://www.postcolonialweb.org/india/art/architecture/colonial/seccomplex/column1.html • The style of architecture used in Secretariat Building is unique to Raisina Hill. In front of the main gates on buildings are the four "dominion columns", given by Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Image 1 Image 2 Image 3
  40. 40. Image Source (Image 3): http://www.postcolonialweb.org/india/art/architecture/colonial/seccomplex/column1.html
  41. 41. The Parliament House  The Parliament Hous was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker.  It was built with indigenous materials and by Indian labour and the architecture of the building bears a close imprint of the Indian tradition.  The layout of fountains both inside and outside the building, the use of Indian symbols, the "Chhajjas” and the varied forms of "Jali" in marble are reminders of the story of the craftsmanship displayed in ancient monuments and memorials.
  42. 42. JALIS JALIS JALI S COMMON FEATURES BUDDHIST DOME BUDDHIST DOME http://monuments-in-india.blogspot.in/2009/12/rashtrapati- bhavan.html http://www.hindustantimes.com/The-Budget-s-journey-through- Parliament/Article1-1056413.aspx http://www.indiansecretsrevealed.com/secratariat-building- THICK BAND THICK BAND THICK BAND
  43. 43. • In this whole process almost no attention was paid to the problems of Old Delhi. Due to the creation of New Delhi, Old Delhi experienced a 28% surge in population from 1916-1926 resulting in the spilling over of the population from inside the walled city to the Paharganj area, whose restructuring was later abandoned by Lutyens due to resource constraints. • Also, no provision of housing was premeditated for the large no. of skilled and unskilled workers which immigrated in for the construction work of New Delhi. • This negligence of the planners towards Old Delhi resulted in its transformation to a large slum area through deterioration and dilapidation. Drawbacks Image Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Lutyens'_p rojected_Imperial_Delhi,_from_the_Encyclopedia_Britanni
  44. 44. The sprawl of rehabilitation townships  The partitioning of India brought its own problems.  Delhi witnessed one of the largest immigration in human history. Approximately half a million sought refuge in Delhi; which was not prepared for doubling of its population in just 2months.  A total of 36 rehabilitation townships were planned and developed on all 4sides of Delhi.  These included Nizamuddin, Lajpat Nagar, Malviya Nagar, Patel Nagar, etc.
  45. 45. The sprawl of rehabilitation townships  These townships were planned on the basis of 80 sq.yards (66msq) plots for each family; modest single story asbestos cement sheet roofed houses.  These houses were offered at a subsidized price of Rs.2000 to 10,000 with facilities of long term payments.  These were emergency projects with no time available for immaculate planning.  A national emergency was met with immediate action.  Delhi started expanding in all directions without any overall plan; the congestion continued and the city grew haphazardly.
  46. 46. THE SPRAWL OF URBAN TOWNSHIPS  The partitioning of India brought its own problems.  Delhi witnessed one of the largest immigration in human history. Approximately half a million sought refuge in Delhi; which was not prepared for doubling of its population in just 2months.  A total of 36 rehabilitation townships were planned and developed on all 4sides of Delhi.  These included Nizamuddin, Lajpat Nagar, Malviya Nagar, Patel Nagar, etc.
  47. 47.  These townships were planned on the basis of 80 sq.yards (66msq) plots for each family; modest single story asbestos cement sheet roofed houses.  These houses were offered at a subsidized price of Rs.2000 to 10,000 with facilities of long term payments.  These were emergency projects with no time available for immaculate planning.  A national emergency was met with immediate action.  Delhi started expanding in all directions without any overall plan; the congestion continued and the city grew haphazardly. THE SPRAWL OF URBAN TOWNSHIPS
  48. 48.  The Delhi Improvement Trust Committee suggested setting up of a single planning and controlling authority for the development of Delhi.  It also suggested developing of the city under the frame of a Master Plan.  Hence the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) was set up by the Government in 1955; its objective being “to promote and secure the development of Delhi according to plan.” THE SPRAWL OF URBAN TOWNSHIPS
  49. 49. DELHI TODAY  A fundamental premise of the Master Plan had been based on the western concept of ‘zoning’. It implied segregation of land uses, physical uniformity and segregation of residential components from undesirable land uses.  The Old city was predominantly marked for residential use.
  50. 50.  Unlike most cities of the West, the spatial growth of Indian cities have been polynucleated and multifunctional processes.  Delhi today is an amalgam of historical and modern, traditional and contemporary.  Three distinct cityscapes dominate the metropolis: 1)The walled city of Shahjahanabad- traditional organic housing replaced by apartment blocks. 2)New Delhi- The Anglo-Indian Rome of Sir Edwin Lutyens (last phase of British Raj). 3)The Post independence Master plan Delhi and currently growing areas. DELHI TODAY
  51. 51. References Books: David Gordon (2006) Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities, : Routledge. Robert Byron (1997) New Delhi, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. Lucy Peck (n.d.) Delhi: a thousand years of building. Websites: ARCHITECTURE OF DELHI - Delhi-city in conflict. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://delhi- architecture.weebly.com/delhi-city-in-conflict.html. [Accessed 12 October 2013]. Princes and Painters in Mughal Delhi » Design of Delhi: Edwin Lutyens. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://sites.asiasociety.org/princesandpainters/design-of-delhi-edwin-lutyens/. [Accessed 11 October 2013]. Changing Image of Lutyens Delhi | Archinomy. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi. [Accessed 12 October 2013]. New Delhi. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://archnet.org/library/places/one- place.jsp?place_id=2722&order_by=title&showdescription=1. [Accessed 15 October 2013].
  52. 52. THANKYOU

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