• MAIN CONCEPT
• HIS DESIGN PRINCIPAL WITH EXAMPLE(MACRO LEVEL)
• HIS DESIGN PRINCIPALS (MICRO LEVEL)
• OTHER PRINCIPALS
LIST OF FEW FAMOUS TOWN PLANNERS
• Ebenezer Howard (Garden city)
• Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker (Letchworth city)
• Clarence Perry, Clarence Stein (The Neighborhood Unit, Rad burn)
• Patrick Geddes (Survey before plan)
• Patrick Abercrombie (Town and Country Planning)
• Frank Lloyd Wright (Broadacre City)
• Le Corbusier (Sector planning, Chandigarh)
• Soria-y-Mata (Linear city)
• CHARLES COREA (COMMUNITY HOUSING)
• Charles Mulford Robinson (Modern Civic Art)
• H.K. Mewada and P.M. Apte (Sector planning, Gandhinagar)
• Charles Correa, in full Charles Mark Correa
• Born in secundrabad, India in 1930.
• He is an Architect, planner, activist and theoretician, an international lecturer and
traveler,particularly noted for his sensitivity to the needs of the urban poor and for
his use of traditional methods and materials
• Kevin lynch , then in the process of developing his themes for image of the
city triggered Correa’s interest in urban issues
• Correa's work in India shows a careful development, understanding and adaptation
of Modernism to a non-western culture. Correa's early works attempt to explore a
local vernacular within a modern environment. Correa's land-use planning and
community projects continually try to go beyond typical solutions to third world
INTRODUCTION: EDUCATION AND CAREER
1946-1948 Inter-science. St. Xavier's college, university of Bombay.
1949-1953 B.Arch., University of Michigan.
1953-1955 M.Arch., Massachusetts institute of technology
1955-1958 Partner with G.M. BHUTA associates
1958 To date In private practice
1964-1965 Prepared master plan proposing twin city across the harbor from
1969-1971 invited by the govt. of Peru
1971-1975 Chief architect to CIDCO
1975-1976 Consultant to UN secretory-general for HABITAT
1975-1983 Chairman Housing Urban Renewal & Ecology Board
1985 Chairman Dharavi planning commission
INTRODUCTION: PROJECTS OF CHARLES CORREA
• The first important order of Correa is the memorial place for Mahatma Gandhi in Sangrahalaya with Ahmadabad (1958-63), an
accumulation of buildings, grouped loosely around a central water yard, which integrate Gandhi’s house
• Meeting buildings (1951-58) in Chandigarh .
• Administration building (1958-60) and the philosophical faculty (1959-60)
• The Vallabh Vidyanagar university in Anand.
• Twin houses in Bhavnagar (1959)
• The Hindustan Lever Pavillion (1961) on the exhibition sites of Delhi reveals all constructional possibilities of the concrete
• Tube house in Ahmadabad (1962)
• Cablenger township in Kota(1967)
• Patwardhan houses in Pune (1967)
• Kanchanjunga apartments in Bombay(1970)
• Navi Mumbai(1971)
• Suatter housing in Bombay (1973)
• Malbar cement in Kerala (1973)
• Tapa house in Delhi (19775)
• JNIDB in Hyderabad(1986)
• CCMB in Hyderabad (1986)
• JNC at IISC in Bangalore(1990)
1961 - Prize for low-income housing early
1972 - Correa was awarded the PadmaShri by the President of India
1980 - Correa was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of
1984 -He was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British
1985 - Prize for the Improvement in the Quality of Human Settlements
from the International Union of Architects.
1986 - Chicago Architecture Award.
1987 -the Gold Medal of the Indian Institute of Architects
1990 - the Gold Medal of the UIA (International Union of Architects)
1994 - the Premium Imperial from Japan society of art.
1999 -Aga khan award for vidhan sabha, bhopal
INTRODUCTION:HIS BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS
• Modernity and Community: Architecture in by Kenneth Frampton, Charles
Correa, David Robson, and Aga Khan Award for Architecture .
• Himalayan Vernacular by Carl Pruscha and Charles Correa .
• The New Landscape: Urbanization in the Third World by Charles Correa .
• Magellan's Voyage Around the World by Antonio Pigafetta, Maximilian of
Transylvania, Gaspar Correa, and Charles E. Nowell .
• Matematica Uso Diario Para Dummies by Charles Seiter and Maria Mercedes
• Housing & urbanisation by Charles Correa .
• The value of place: Urban stategies for California's Central Valley towns by
HIS MAIN CONCEPT SEEN IN MANY DESIGNS
OPEN TO SKY CONCPET
THE MACHINE FOR
WORK SPACES THE PATHWAYS
Gujarat Housing Board
EXAMPLE: NAVI MUMBAI
• the conceptual design of navi mumbai was developed at
a height of a modernism
• THE DESIGN PRINCIPALS:
1. decentralization by the design of self sufficient
2. Residential neighbourhood(sectors)
3. The total area of navi mumbai was divided into three
townships.each township has several sectors. Many
were residential in nature
4. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of
some income group
5. Ponds were created to accumulate excess runoff
NAVI MUMBAI – NEED FOR A
• TO REDUCE THE GROWTH OF POPULATION IN
MUMBAI CITY BY CREATING ATTRACTIVE URBAN
CENTRE WHICH WILL ABSORB THE IMMIGRANTS
WHO WILL OTHERWISE GO TO MUMBAI
• ATTRACT SOME OF THE MUMBAI’S PRESENT
POPULATION SO THAT OVERALL POPULATION
OF GREATER MUMBAI CAN BE CONTAINED IN
• UNHEALTHY AND INSANITARY CONDITIONS FOR
1 MILLION SLUM DWELLERS WAS THE RESULT
OF INADEQUATE HOUSING STOCK.
• TO PROVIDE PHYSICAL & SOCIAL SERVICES,
RAISING THE LIVING STANDARD & REDUCING
THE DISPARITIES IN THE AMENITIES AVAILABLE
TO THE POPULATION
NAVI MUMBAI - CREATION
• THE PROMINENT AUTHOR OF “TWIN CITY
CONCEPT” ARE CHARLES CORREA(CHIEF
ARCHITECT), SHIRISH PATEL AND PRAVINA
MEHTA WHO PRESENTED THE GOVERNMENT A
PROPOSAL FOR CONSTRUCTING NEW GROWTH
CENTRE ACROSS MUMBAI HARBOUR ON THE
• THE IMPLEMENTATION OCCURRED THROUGH
POLITICAL & BUREAUCRATIC CHANNEL IN 1969.
• THE SITE WAS FINALLY CHOOSEN ACROSS THE
HARBOUR FROM MUMBAI ISLAND.
• CITY AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
CORPORATION (CIDCO) WAS FORMED ON 17
MARCH 1971 TO PLAN & DEVELPO NAVI MUMBAI.
NAVI MUMBAI – THE BUILT FORM
• THE CBD LIES AT THE CENTRE WITH ALL THE MAJOR COMMERCIAL, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL
• THIS ZONE WAS SORROUNDED BY THE TRANSITION ZONE WHICH HAS FACTORIES AND WARE
• OLDER RESIDENTIAL AREAS BEING TAKEN OVER BY EXPANDING CBD
• THE NEXT ZONE HAD LOWER INCOME LEVELS AND SUCCESSIVE ZONES HAD HIGHER INCOME
CONCENTRIC ZONE THEORY- BURGES MODEL
FEATURES OF NAVI MUMBAI:
• 14 well-planned nodes, strung along mass transport corridors, effectively
serving civic needs (Airoli, Ghansoli,Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul,
CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, Kalamboli, New Panvel, Ulwe, Dronagiri
• 45% land reserved for green zones and open-to-sky activities.
• World-class infrastructure with excellent healthcare facilities in every node.
• Quality housing for every stratum of society.
• World-class education institutes in every node.
• Reasonably priced commercial and residential real estate.
• Direct access to any part of the country through road and rail.
• Quick access to Central Business District located in the head of the city.
• In close proximity to the most modern seaport - Jawaharlal Nehru Port.
• International airport and Special Economic Zone in the offing.
• Only Indian city to have commercial complex above railway stations.
• Asia's biggest wholesale market, APMC, is located here.
ARRANGING OF SPACES IN LOW HOUSING
• IIT GENERALLY HIERARCHIAL CONSISTING OF FOUR MAJOR ELEMENTS:
• SPACES NEEDED BY THE FAMILY FOR EXCLUSIVELY PRIVATE USE SUCH AS COOKING AND
• AREAS OF INTIMATE CONTACT i.e. THE FRONT DOOR STEP WHERE CHILDREN PLAY, THEY
MEETTHEIR NEIGHBOUR, ETC..
• NEIGHBOURHOOD PLACES e.g. THE CITY WATER TAP WHERE THEY BECOME PART OF THEIR
• THE PRINCIPAL URBAN AREA e.g. THE MAIDAN(OPEN SPACE) USED BY THE WHOLE CITY
HIERARCHY OF SPACES
• IN THE CROWDED CENTRES OF INDIAN
CITIES,PAVEMENTS ARE USED INTENSIVELY;
DURING THE DAY THEY ARE CROWDED WITH
HAWKERS SO THAT PEDESTRIANS ARE
FORCED ONTO THE ROAD BLOCKING THE
• IN ORDER TO OVER COME FROM THESE
PROBLEM, HE HAD PROPOSED A LINE OF
PLATFORMS 2 METERS WIDE AND 0.6M HIGH,
WITH WATER TAPS PLACED AT
APPROXIMATELY INTERVALS OF 30M
• DURING THE DAY THESE PLATFORMS WOULD
BE USED BY THE HAWKERS- THUS CLEARING
THE PAVEMENTS AND NIGHT TIME THEY CAN
USE IT TO SLEEP
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY: MICRO LEVEL
• INDIA IS A LAND OF “ABUNDANT SUN” AND “PLENTIFUL LABOR”
• “OPEN-TO-SKY” AND “TUBE DWELLING”
• COMBINATORIAL GAME OF CELLULAR HOUSING PATTERNS
• STEPPED INTERLOCKING OF SPACES AND DETAILS
• HIGHLY CLIMATIC RESPONSIVE BUILDINGS
• CATERS TO THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC NEEDS
• CORREA'S WORK IN INDIA SHOWS A CAREFUL DEVELOPMENT, UNDERSTANDING AND
ADAPTATION OF MODERNISM TO A NON-WESTERN CULTURE. CORREA'S EARLY WORKS
ATTEMPT TO EXPLORE A LOCAL VERNACULAR WITHIN A MODERN ENVIRONMENT.
• CORREA'S LAND-USE PLANNING AND COMMUNITY PROJECTS CONTINUALLY TRY TO
GO BEYOND TYPICAL SOLUTIONS TO THIRD WORLD PROBLEMS.
1.GANDHI SMARAK SANGRAHALAYA,
SABARMATI ASHRAM, AHMEDABAD – 1958-63
• Memorial museum erected in
sabarmati ashram –Dandi march
• Tiled roofs, brick walls, stone
floor and wooden doors, RCC
• No glass, Lighting and ventilation
through operable wooden louvers
• Typology analogous to Gandhiji‟s
thinking of villages
• Water courts, Meandering design
• Minimalist architecture
• Glow of spaces
MAIN PRINCIPLE: LOCAL VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE & HIGHLY CLIMATIC RESPONSIVE
2. KOVALAM BEACH RESORT, KERALA – 1969-74
• Cluster of detached units –
• Stepped terrace that leads
visually to the beach
• Subtle level changes having
a certain oriental character
• Highly articulated living
• Views to beach even from
• Highly responsive resort
with regional character
MAIN PRINCIPLE: STEPPED INTERLOCKING OF SPACES AND OPEN TO SKY
• Construction is in traditional vernacular of Kerala- Plaster walls with red tiled roofs
• Other pavilion consists of little Bamboo chhatries with coir matins on the floor and
local Kerala handicrafts.
SECTION (DETACHED UNIT)
SECTION( MAIN BLDG.)
3. KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENTS, BOMBAY - 1970-83
• Tower 1:4 Proportion – 21m X 84m – hosts 32 three or four bedroom luxury apartments.
• Ingenious cellular planning – interlock of one and a half storey,split-level units.
• Smaller displacement of levels differentiates external earth
filled terrace to interior elevated living volumes
• Effectively shields the effects of both Sun and Rain
• Tower with deep garden verandahs (Unite d habitation)
MAIN PRINCIPLE: MODERNISM AND LANDSCAPE IN VERENDAS/BALCONIES
MAIN PRINCIPLE:HERE CORREA SUBVERTS THE TRADITIONAL PRINCIPLES OF A BUNGALOW
VERANDAAND APPLIES THEM TO A HIGH-RISE, CREATING GENEROUS TWO-STOREY
TERRACES WITHIN GEOMETRICALLY-COMPLEX INTERLOCKING APARTMENTS.
3. KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENTS, BOMBAY - 1970-83
3. KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENTS, BOMBAY - 1970-83
• Its minimal unbroken surfaces are cut away to open up the double height terrace
gardens at the corners, thus revealing some hint of the complex spatial organization
of living spaces that lie within the tower.
4. JNIDB- HYDERABAD 1986-91
Simple pure geometry – humidified micro-
climate – numerous
courtyards – skillful play of color
1. Rooms laid out around the courtyard
2. Courtyard – Central Kund with stone
3. Creates focus in the center of complex
4. An ideal place for casual conversations
and also for formal events like concerts
MAIN PRINCIPLE: SIMPLICITY IN DESIGN AND COURTYARDS(OPEN TO SKY)
The new building for the British council houses a
number of diverse functions including a library, an
auditorium an art gallery and the head quarters of
their offices in India
6.BRITISH COUNCIL LIBRARY,NEW DELHI
The black stones design is representing
the shadows cast by a giant banyan
tree waving in the wind which is
showing the image of indian tree
Correas idea for the building was to
express the three basic cultural
identities that have shaped
contemporary India: Hindu, Muslim
At the farthest end is the axis mundi of hinduism, a spiral
symbolizing bindu: the centre of the cosmos. The next nodal
point is the main courtyard, centered around another mythical
inage: the traditonal islam char bagh. The third nodal point
along the axisis a european icon, inlaid in marble and granite
COX’S SCULPTURE SITS IN THE HINDU
COURT, AT THE POINT OF BINDU.
VIEW ACROSS THE INNER COURTYARDS,
WITH IN THE FOREGROUND AN
INTERPRETATION OF THE LAYOUT OF THE
ISLAMIC GARDEN OF PARADSE
EUROPEAN ICON, USED TO REPRESENT
THE AGE OF REASON, NCLUDING THE
MYTHIC VALUES OF SCIENCE AND
5. HUDCO HOUSING,JODHPUR
1. Hudco (housing and development
corporation) commissioned correa to
add 176 houses to an existing
2. Using the basic principles for the units
at belapur, the architect grouped the
units around a hierarchy of open
3. The houses are to cater to four income
categories, from lower to mid-level
4. Each unit Is independent from its
neighbour which allows incrementality
and upgrading as families become
MAIN PRINCIPLE: COMMUNITY HOUSING HAVING OPEN SPACES AT CENTRE
HIS OTHER PRINCIPLES
FEW CARDINAL PRINCIPLES IN HIS VAST BODY OF
Belapur housing being the one project where he has literally used these
Project demonstrates how high density housing (500 people per hectare) can
be achieved in a low-rise typology, while including OPEN TO SKY SPACES
and services, like schools, that the community requires
Overriding principle - to give each unit its own site to allow for expansion
Consequently, families do not share walls with their neighbors , allowing each
to expand his own house (PARTICIPATION)
Houses constructed simply and can be built by traditional masons and
craftsmen - generating employment for local workers (INCOME
several plans exist that cover the social spectrum, from squatters to upper
income families (PLURALISM)
Yet, the footprint of each plan varies little in size (from 45 sqm to 70 sqm),
maintaining EQUITY (FAIRNESS) in the community
• Scheme caters wide range from the lowest
budgets of Rs 20000
• Middle income groups Rs 30000-50000
• Upper income Rs 180000
• Though ratio of costs is 1:5 the variation of plot
is much smaller , from 45 to 75 square metres.
• Seven units are grouped of 8x8 meters
• 3 cluster combine to form a larger module of 21
houses surrounding space of 12x12 metres
• 3 such modules interlock to define the next scale
of community space approximately 20x20 metres
• The houses are structurally simple , can be built
and altered by local mistries
• THE IMPORTANT PART OF HIS WORK IS TO GET THE LOCALS INVOLVED, BY WORKING
WITH MATERIAL THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH AND BENEFITTING FROM THEIR
KNOWLEDGE ON HOW TO WORK WITH CERTAIN MATERIALS.
• HE COMBINES VERNACULAR AND MODERN CONCEPTS TO CREATE DESIGNS THAT
SUPPORT THE CULTURAL IDENTITY OF A PLACE AND COMMUNITY AND EVENTUALLY
LEAD TO SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE.
• IN HIS DESIGNS, WHICH RANGE FROM LOW-INCOME, HIGH DENSITY HOUSING TO
ENTIRE TOWNSHIPS, HE PAYS SPECIAL ATTENTION TO AIR VENTILATION AND TO
PROVIDE HUMANE LIVING ENVIRONMENTS. IN INDIA, THE URBAN POPULATION IS
INCREASING TWICE AS FAST AS IN ITS RURAL AREAS. HE TAKES ON THIS CHALLENGE
AND DESIGNS HOMES, BOTH FOR LOW AND HIGH INCOMES IN MUMBAI. BUT EVEN
WHILE DESIGNING SMALL SPACES WITHIN THIS HIGH DENSITY ENVIRONMENT, HE
INCORPORATES A HIGH LEVEL OF PRIVACY AND ALSO SHAPES AND CONTRIBUTES TO
THE COMMUNITY LIFE WITHIN AN APARTMENT BUILDING.
• THE NEW LANDSCAPE AND URBANIZATION BOOK – BY CHARLES CORREA
• CHARLES CORREA BOOK- BY HASSAN UDDIN KHAN