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Association cortices
Motor Sensory Association
Somato Sensory Pathway
Sensory Cortex Receptive Field

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This document discusses parietal lobe tumors. It begins with the anatomy of the parietal lobe and its functions, which include body image representation, tactile discrimination, visual spatial properties, and more. It then discusses the clinical features, investigations, and management of parietal lobe tumors. Key points include that parietal lobe tumors can cause affective or psychotic symptoms. Investigations include CT, MRI, EEG, and lumbar puncture. Management involves treating any psychiatric sequelae, and approaches to the tumor such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy.

9. cerebral cortex-08-09
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The document summarizes the structure and functions of the cerebral cortex. It discusses the six layers of the cerebral cortex and how they are arranged. It also describes the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex - the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes - and some of their functions. Additionally, it covers the limbic system and its role in emotion, motivation and memory. It notes that in most individuals, the left hemisphere is dominant for language and precise motor skills.

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1. The document describes the boundaries, sulci, gyri, functions, and tests related to the parietal lobe. 2. Key areas of the parietal lobe discussed include the postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus. 3. Deficits from lesions to different parietal lobe areas are outlined, such as ideomotor apraxia, conduction aphasia, Gerstmann's syndrome, alexia, and agraphia.

Two Point Discrimination
Columnar organization of somatosensory cortex
Sensory Cortex
                            Area 5 integrates tactile
                          information from mechanoreceptors
                          in the skin with proprioceptive
                          inputs from the underlying muscles
                          and joints.
                            This region also integrates
                          information from the two hands.
                            Area 7 receives visual as well as
                          tactile and proprioceptive inputs,
                          allowing integration of stereognostic
                          and visual information.
                            The posterior parietal cortex
                          projects to the motor areas of the
                somatic   frontal lobe and plays an important
Proprioceptiv
                          role in sensory initiation and
e
                          guidance of movement.
Association Cortex Information Flow

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1. The temporal lobe is involved in auditory and visual processing, memory formation, and emotional regulation. 2. Damage to different areas can cause deficits like hearing loss, visual field cuts, language problems, or memory impairment depending on the location within the temporal lobe. 3. Bitemporal damage can result in a syndrome like Kluver-Bucy, characterized by emotional changes, hypersexuality, and reacting to all stimuli without recognition.

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Pathways to the somatosensory, visual, and auditory association areas
Visual Pathway
AIT = anterior inferior temporal area; CIT = central inferior temporal area; LIP = lateral
intraparietal area; Magno = magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus; MST =
medial superior temporal area; MT = middle temporal area; Parvo = parvocellular layers of the
lateral geniculate nucleus; PIT = posterior inferior temporal area; VIP = ventral intraparietal
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The document provides an overview of the structure and function of the human brain. It describes the four major lobes of the cerebrum - frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. Each lobe is associated with different functions. The document also identifies and describes various cortical regions within each lobe and their roles in sensory processing, motor control, language, and other cognitive functions. It discusses the case of Phineas Gage to illustrate how damage to the frontal lobe can impact personality and behavior.

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The document summarizes the major structures and functions of the human brain. It describes that the brain is divided into left and right hemispheres which have different specialized functions. It also outlines the four main lobes of the brain - frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital - and describes what functions each controls. Additionally, it identifies and explains key structures like the brainstem, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala and hippocampus.

brainap psychology
Left Hemisphere

         Cortical Sensory Loss
         Disorder of language
               Fluent aphasia, alexia
         Gerstman’s syndrome (Angular gyrus)
               acalculia,
               finger agnosia,
               left/right disorientation,
               agraphia
         Tactile agnosia (bimanual asteriognosis)
         Bilateral Ideomotor & ideational apraxia
Right hemisphere

       Cortical Sensory Loss

       Topographic disorientation

       Topographic memory loss

       Anosognosia /dressing apraxia

       Constructional apraxia

       Hemi-inattention

       Apraxia of eye opening

       Confusion
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The parietal lobe is involved in sensory processing, spatial awareness, and motor coordination. Unilateral lesions can cause sensory deficits, visual field cuts, and neglect of the opposite side of space. Bilateral lesions are associated with Balint's syndrome of simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, and ocular apraxia. Dominant parietal lesions may induce Gerstmann syndrome, alexia, or conduction aphasia, while nondominant lesions can result in anosognosia, topographic disorientation, and blepharospasm.

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Temporal Lobe
Either Temporal dysfunction

 Auditory
    –   Threshold of brief auditory stimuli elevated
    –   Spoken words less clear
    –   Distorted words are less clear
    –   Difficulty in equalizing sound presented to both ear
    –   Rapidly presented words and number in both ear difficult to
        perceiving
 Hallucination
    – Auditory,
    – visual,
    – olfactory and
    – gustatory
 Emotional and behavioral changes
 Delirium
Left temporal dysfunction


Auditory deficits (right ear)
   –   Intracranial localization of sound is impaired.
   –   Increased threshold for perception of short bursts of sound.
   –   Increased threshold for some frequencies.
   –   Failure to perceive brief simultaneous auditory stimulation.
Visual deficit (both eyes)
   –   Upper right quadrantanopsia.
Other complex sensory deficits
   –   Right hand tactile performance difficulty.
   –   Right hand finger agnosia.

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Here are the answers to your questions: 1a) A transection on the left side at T4 would impair fine touch, proprioception and vibration sense on the right side of the body below the level of the lesion. 1b) A transection on the left side at T4 would impair pain, temperature and crude touch sensation on the left side of the body below the level of the lesion. 2) In response to an increase in temperature from 35oC to 40oC: Cold receptors would increase their firing rate initially but then adapt to the new temperature. Warm receptors would increase their firing rate initially and maintain an elevated firing rate as long as the temperature is sustained at 40oC. Both receptor

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Left temporal dysfunction

Language deficits
   –   Decoding of speech sounds (phonemes) is impaired.
   –   Problems with verbal repetition.
   –   Problems with auditory comprehension of speech.
   –   Receptive aphasia (deficits in all language qualities).
   –   Impairment of dichotic listening to verbal material.
   –   Intellectual impairment on verbally mediated intellectual
       processes.
Memory impaired for verbal material.
Emotional disturbances
   –   Perceptual distortions, alterations of mood, obsessional
       thinking, psychosis, temper outbursts, hypo and hypersexuality
Right Temporal dysfunction
Right temporal lesion effects tend to be      3.   Auditory analysis (nonverbal)
     notable statistically but of less             –   Impairment of short-term auditory
     clinical significance.                            memory.
1.Visual analysis (nonverbal primarily)            –   Perception of short sounds
    –    Impairment of simple and complex              impaired.
         visual analysis, but some negative        –   Impaired recognition of familiar
         findings.                                     sounds.
    –    Impairment of short-term
                                                   –   Impaired tonal discriminations,
         nonverbal memory.
                                                       timbre discriminations, and
    –    Impaired perception of
                                                       amplitude discriminations.
         tachistoscopically-presented
         letters.                                  –   Amusia.
    –    Prosopoagnosia (especially with           –   Impairment of contralateral ear
         anterior lesions).                            input in dichotic listening.
    –    Impaired recognition of objects
         seen from unusual angles
Right Temporal dysfunction

4.   Constructional tasks                 6.   Psychometric findings
     –   Visual construction impairment        –   Temporary decline in
         proportional to tissue loss.              Performance IQ following
     –   Impairment in maze learning               lobectomy.
         (visual and proprioceptive            –   Impairment on WAIS Picture
         feedback).                                Arrangement.
     –   Enlarged left-hand margin in          –   Impairment on Binet Memory
         dictation.                                for Designs
5.   Psychiatric personality                   –   Possible impairment of WAIS
     phenomena with right temporal                 Block Design?.
     epilepsy                             7.   Persistence in maintaining a
     –   Personality changes.                  hypothesis even after being
     –   Psychiatric symptoms.                 informed it was not correct.
     –   Deja vue.
     –   Metamorphopasias.
Bitemporal dysfunction


 Human bitemporal lesion
     – Kluver bucy like + aphasia, amnesia and bulimia
 Bilateral inferior and medial temporal lesion
     – Sham rage like
     – React to every stimuli with extreme belligerence, screaming, cursing ,
       biting and spiting
 Bilateral post cortical lesion
     –   Cortical deafness – unaware of deafness
 Korsakoff amnesic defect

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The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the brain containing most of the visual cortex. It contains the primary visual cortex (V1) and several extrastriate areas involved in more complex visual tasks. Lesions can cause visual field defects, cortical blindness, visual agnosias or hallucinations depending on the location and extent of damage. Balint's syndrome and simultanagnosia involve bilateral lesions disrupting global visual perception while preserving local details.

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11e posterior association cortex
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11e posterior association cortex

The document discusses several key areas of the brain involved in sensory processing and integration. It describes how the somatosensory cortex integrates tactile and proprioceptive information, and how the posterior parietal cortex projects to motor areas. It also discusses pathways to visual, auditory and association areas, and how unimodal inputs converge on multimodal areas, allowing for comprehension, cognition and consciousness.

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This document summarizes information about the parietal and occipital lobes of the brain. It discusses the anatomical structures, functions, and clinical effects of lesions to these areas. Key points include that the parietal lobe is involved in somatosensory processing, visual-spatial functions, and language abilities depending on lateralization. Lesions can cause syndromes like neglect or Gerstmann syndrome. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center and lesions can result in visual field deficits or conditions like Balint's syndrome.

Selective activation of face cells in the inferior temporal cortex of a
rhesus monkey
Prosopognosia
Occipital Lobe
Unilateral occipital lesion

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      central (spitting the macula or peripheral
      Homonymous hemiachromatopsia
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Explaining various psychiatric disorders and normal psychological and neurological functions as a function of various lobes of cortex

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This document discusses higher cortical functions and the neuroanatomy that supports them. It describes how different areas of the cerebral cortex are involved in functions like memory, language, reasoning and more. It discusses the primary and association areas, and how they communicate to allow for complex functions. It also summarizes different types of agnosias that can occur from damage to various cortical areas, disrupting abilities like object recognition, face recognition, and spatial attention.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is strategically located between other lobes and has a greater variety of clinical manifestations than other parts of the brain. It is involved in somatosensory processing, spatial awareness, language, praxis, and more. Damage can cause syndromes like Gerstmann syndrome, apraxia, agraphia, acalculia, hemispatial neglect, and others, depending on whether the left or right lobe is affected. The parietal lobe works in conjunction with other brain regions to carry out its diverse functions.

Left occipital lesion

          Right homonymous hemianopia

          Alexia and color naming defect with deep white matter or

          splenium of corpus callosum involved

          Visual object agnosia
Right occipital lesion

    Left homonymous hemianopia

    Visual illusion, (metamorphopsias), and hallucinations

    Loss of topographic memory and visual orientation
Bilateral occipital lesions

                Cortical blindness
                Anton syndrome
                Loss of perception of color
                Prosopognosia and simultagnosia
                Balint syndrome
Balint Syndrome (Bilateral parietooccipital region)

   An inability to look voluntarily into the peripheral field, with normal
   eye movements (psychic paralysis of fixation gaze)
   A failure to precisely grasp or touch an object under visual
   guidance, hand and eyes in- coordinated (optic ataxia)
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   Failure to properly direct occulomotor function in the exploration of
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The document summarizes research on language lateralization and processing in the left and right hemispheres of the brain. It discusses how damage to different areas like Broca's area and Wernicke's area can cause different language deficits. It also covers split-brain patients and research showing the hemispheres can function independently. Functional brain imaging research suggests language activation is widespread and varied rather than localized to specific areas.

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Biological basis of behaviour based on Neuron. To learn more about this topic, click on the link- https://youtu.be/qRdc_Z8xTjM

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The document discusses the functions of different areas of the cortex. It describes how the cortex is divided into lobes and specialized areas for functions like sensory processing, motor control, language, and higher cognitive functions. It provides examples of disorders that can result from lesions in different association cortices, including agnosias like prosopagnosia and aphasias. It also discusses localization of functions important for language, memory, and prefrontal cortex functions like planning and decision making.

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07b posterior association cortex

  • 6. Columnar organization of somatosensory cortex
  • 7. Sensory Cortex Area 5 integrates tactile information from mechanoreceptors in the skin with proprioceptive inputs from the underlying muscles and joints. This region also integrates information from the two hands. Area 7 receives visual as well as tactile and proprioceptive inputs, allowing integration of stereognostic and visual information. The posterior parietal cortex projects to the motor areas of the somatic frontal lobe and plays an important Proprioceptiv role in sensory initiation and e guidance of movement.
  • 10. Pattern of Vibration of the Basilar Membrane
  • 12. Discrimination of Sound “Patterns” by the Auditory Cortex
  • 13. Pathways to the somatosensory, visual, and auditory association areas
  • 15. AIT = anterior inferior temporal area; CIT = central inferior temporal area; LIP = lateral intraparietal area; Magno = magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus; MST = medial superior temporal area; MT = middle temporal area; Parvo = parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus; PIT = posterior inferior temporal area; VIP = ventral intraparietal area.) (Based on Merigan and Maunsell 1993.)
  • 16. Pathways to the somatosensory, visual, and auditory association areas
  • 17. Unimodal sensory inputs converge on multimodal association areas
  • 18. Interaction Among Association Areas Leads to Comprehension, Cognition, and Consciousness
  • 21. Left Hemisphere Cortical Sensory Loss Disorder of language Fluent aphasia, alexia Gerstman’s syndrome (Angular gyrus) acalculia, finger agnosia, left/right disorientation, agraphia Tactile agnosia (bimanual asteriognosis) Bilateral Ideomotor & ideational apraxia
  • 22. Right hemisphere Cortical Sensory Loss Topographic disorientation Topographic memory loss Anosognosia /dressing apraxia Constructional apraxia Hemi-inattention Apraxia of eye opening Confusion
  • 23. “Attention Neurons” in the Monkey Parietal Cortex
  • 24. Attention activity of Right Parietal Cortex in Normal
  • 27. Either Temporal dysfunction Auditory – Threshold of brief auditory stimuli elevated – Spoken words less clear – Distorted words are less clear – Difficulty in equalizing sound presented to both ear – Rapidly presented words and number in both ear difficult to perceiving Hallucination – Auditory, – visual, – olfactory and – gustatory Emotional and behavioral changes Delirium
  • 28. Left temporal dysfunction Auditory deficits (right ear) – Intracranial localization of sound is impaired. – Increased threshold for perception of short bursts of sound. – Increased threshold for some frequencies. – Failure to perceive brief simultaneous auditory stimulation. Visual deficit (both eyes) – Upper right quadrantanopsia. Other complex sensory deficits – Right hand tactile performance difficulty. – Right hand finger agnosia.
  • 29. Left temporal dysfunction Language deficits – Decoding of speech sounds (phonemes) is impaired. – Problems with verbal repetition. – Problems with auditory comprehension of speech. – Receptive aphasia (deficits in all language qualities). – Impairment of dichotic listening to verbal material. – Intellectual impairment on verbally mediated intellectual processes. Memory impaired for verbal material. Emotional disturbances – Perceptual distortions, alterations of mood, obsessional thinking, psychosis, temper outbursts, hypo and hypersexuality
  • 30. Right Temporal dysfunction Right temporal lesion effects tend to be 3. Auditory analysis (nonverbal) notable statistically but of less – Impairment of short-term auditory clinical significance. memory. 1.Visual analysis (nonverbal primarily) – Perception of short sounds – Impairment of simple and complex impaired. visual analysis, but some negative – Impaired recognition of familiar findings. sounds. – Impairment of short-term – Impaired tonal discriminations, nonverbal memory. timbre discriminations, and – Impaired perception of amplitude discriminations. tachistoscopically-presented letters. – Amusia. – Prosopoagnosia (especially with – Impairment of contralateral ear anterior lesions). input in dichotic listening. – Impaired recognition of objects seen from unusual angles
  • 31. Right Temporal dysfunction 4. Constructional tasks 6. Psychometric findings – Visual construction impairment – Temporary decline in proportional to tissue loss. Performance IQ following – Impairment in maze learning lobectomy. (visual and proprioceptive – Impairment on WAIS Picture feedback). Arrangement. – Enlarged left-hand margin in – Impairment on Binet Memory dictation. for Designs 5. Psychiatric personality – Possible impairment of WAIS phenomena with right temporal Block Design?. epilepsy 7. Persistence in maintaining a – Personality changes. hypothesis even after being – Psychiatric symptoms. informed it was not correct. – Deja vue. – Metamorphopasias.
  • 32. Bitemporal dysfunction Human bitemporal lesion – Kluver bucy like + aphasia, amnesia and bulimia Bilateral inferior and medial temporal lesion – Sham rage like – React to every stimuli with extreme belligerence, screaming, cursing , biting and spiting Bilateral post cortical lesion – Cortical deafness – unaware of deafness Korsakoff amnesic defect
  • 33. Selective activation of face cells in the inferior temporal cortex of a rhesus monkey
  • 36. Unilateral occipital lesion Contralateral (congruent) homonymous hemianopia, may be central (spitting the macula or peripheral Homonymous hemiachromatopsia Elementry unformed hallucination – irritative lesions
  • 37. Left occipital lesion Right homonymous hemianopia Alexia and color naming defect with deep white matter or splenium of corpus callosum involved Visual object agnosia
  • 38. Right occipital lesion Left homonymous hemianopia Visual illusion, (metamorphopsias), and hallucinations Loss of topographic memory and visual orientation
  • 39. Bilateral occipital lesions Cortical blindness Anton syndrome Loss of perception of color Prosopognosia and simultagnosia Balint syndrome
  • 40. Balint Syndrome (Bilateral parietooccipital region) An inability to look voluntarily into the peripheral field, with normal eye movements (psychic paralysis of fixation gaze) A failure to precisely grasp or touch an object under visual guidance, hand and eyes in- coordinated (optic ataxia) Visual inattention affecting mainly the periphery of the visual field, attention to other sensory stimuli being intact Failure to properly direct occulomotor function in the exploration of space (amorphosynthesis)