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# Electric Field, Electric Circuit and Electric Current

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How Electric Field is connected with electric circuit and electric current

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### Electric Field, Electric Circuit and Electric Current

1. 1. Electric Field, Electric Current and Electrical Circuit
2. 2. Electric Field • is a region in which an electric charge experiences a force. • it is represented by lines that indicate the direction of force. + Away from the positive charge - Towards the negative charge
3. 3. Two similar charges repel each other
4. 4. Closer field lines indicate a stronger electric field. Field lines that are further apart indicate a weaker electric field. Two opposite charges attract each other.
5. 5. Effect of an Electric Field + ++ + -- -- - + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - + - The flame is spread out more to the negative plate as the positive charges are heavier than the negative charges. + + +
6. 6. + - Air Molecule Ionisation Heat energy from flame + - Positive Charge Negative Charge Negative Plate Positive Charge
7. 7. Electric Current connecting wire electric cell filament flow of electrons Conductor Charge Cross-sectional area Definition: An electric current is the rate of flow of electric charges in a circuit.
8. 8. How does electricity flow? • The battery in a circuit gives energy to the electrons and pushes them around a circuit, from the negative terminal of the cell, round the circuit and back to the positive terminal of the cell.
9. 9. • The SI unit for electric current is ampere (A). • Smaller currents are measured in milliamperes (mA). • Different electrical components and appliances require different sizes of current to turn them on. How to Measure Current? 1 A = 1,000 mA 1 mA = 0.001 A
10. 10. Instrument to Measure Current • An ammeter is an instrument used for measuring electric current.
11. 11. Ammeter • It must be connected in series in the circuit. • Positive side of ammeter must be connected nearest to the positive terminal of the battery (electric cell), and vice versa.
12. 12. Electric Circuits • Electric circuits are made up of electrical components • These components must be joined together without any gap in between to form a closed circuit. connecting wires electric cell circuit boardlight bulb Note: Components refer to the light bulb, wires, battery
13. 13. Electric Circuits • Incomplete circuits are called open circuits. connecting wire is missing no source of electrical energy Both the circuits in the diagram are incomplete, hence they are known as “open circuits”.
14. 14. An electric current flows only when there is: • a source of electrical energy and • a closed circuit connecting wires electric cell circuit boardlight bulb
15. 15. How to draw Circuit Diagrams Component Symbol Component Symbol An electric cell Battery Light bulb (lamp) Switch Switch (open) Switch (closed) Connecting wires (not joined) Connecting wires (joined) + + Symbols are used to represent the various electrical components in circuits.
16. 16. Can you predict how this circuit would looked like in its schematic format?
17. 17. Switches A switch is used to open or close a circuit. Main switch used in buildings Switches used on circuit boards
18. 18. Series and Parallel There are 2 ways inwhichan electric circuit can be arranged: 1. Series 2. Parallel
19. 19. Series Circuit • A series circuit connects the components one after the other • A single loop is formed • A break in any part of a series circuit stops the flow of current in the whole circuit.
20. 20. Parallel Circuit • A parallel circuit divides into two or more branches. • The current divides and flows through each parallel branch. • If a component breaks or is removed, the other components remain on.
21. 21. Which of the following is a series circuit? Which is a parallel circuit? SeriesCircuit ParallelCircuit
22. 22. Draw the circuit diagram for the following set up and state whether it is a series or parallel circuit.
23. 23. Draw the circuit diagram for the following set up and state whether it is a series or parallel circuit.
24. 24. Which is brighter?
25. 25. Which of the following is a series circuit? Which is a parallel circuit? Series Circuit Parallel Circuit