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Sociology presentation


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Sociology presentation

  2. 2. SOCIALIZATION Presented by: • Kalpana Gurung • Purnima Timilsina • Rajesh Kumar Yadav • SAgun PAudel Public Health Students @LA grandee International collegeSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 2
  3. 3. SOCIALIZATION• It is the process of learning ,one’s own culture values &norms.• It is a kind of social & cultural training given by society & culture to an individual so that he or she may develop a balance personality in future.
  4. 4. CONT……..Different definition• According to Bogardus”socialization is the process of working together of developing group responsibility, or being guided by the welfare needs of others.• W.F Ogburn”socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group.
  5. 5. • According to Peter Worsely “socialization as the process of transmission of culture the process where by men learn the rules and practice of social group.
  6. 6. Agent or agencies of socialization1. Family & Parents :socialization process begins from the family. The parental &maternal influence in the is very great.2. Peers group:peers begin to be an influence at a very young age, as children form friendship with other children.
  7. 7. • The peer culture becomes more important & effective than the parental culture in the adolescent year of child.3. Teachers :it is in the school that the culture is formally transmitted & acquired .• The learning ,the science and art, of one generation is passed on to the next.
  8. 8. 4. Literature & mass media of communication: The civilization that we share is constructed of words or literature.• The media radio,TV,magazine newspaper gives the message in capsule form the premises of our culture its attitude & ideologies.
  9. 9. Stage of socialization1. The oral stage:• This stage begins with the birth of the child & continuous up to the completion of 1year .• Before the birth the child in the mother’s womb is in the foetal forms &is warm & comfortable.• By means of crying the child establishes its oral dependency . The child learns to give signals for his felt needs &involved in himself & his mother.
  10. 10. • The Anal stage:• This stage begins soon after 1 year of age of the child & continues up to the completion of 3 years.• The child is taught to do some tasks such as toileting, keeping clothes clean e.t.c• In this stage the mother plays the dual role which helps the child to participate in a more complex social system.
  11. 11. • The oedipal stage:• This stage mostly starts from the 4th year of child &extends up to the age of 12-13 years.• It is the stage the child becomes the member of the family .• The child has to identify himself with the social role ascribed to him on the basis of his sex.• According to Freud The boy develops the Oedipus complex The girl develops the Electra complex.
  12. 12. • The Adolescence stage:• This stage starts with the period of adolescence• During this stage the boys & girls try to becomes free from parental control but can’t completely escape from the dependence on their parents.• The parents encourage them to select their line of education their occupation &their life partners.
  13. 13. • The Adolescence stage:• This stage starts with the period of adolescence• During this stage the boys & girls try to becomes free from parental control but can’t completely escape from the dependence on their parents.• The parents encourage them to select their line of education their occupation &their life partners.
  15. 15. ACCULTURATION• When a cultural group or individuals adopt some parts of others culture, it is called acculturation.• According to Redfield “ acculturation comprehense those phenomenon which results when groups of individual having different cultures come into continuous first hand contact with subsequent changes in the original cultural pattern of either one or both groups.
  16. 16. Characteristics of acculturation1. Two way process2. Acculturation is both optional or force3. Cultural transmission process4. Based on the theory of selectivity5. Cultural contact or begins with cultural contact6. Process of cultural diffusion
  17. 17. For example• There is great change in dressing fooding & occupational pattern of neplease people due to western influence.• Acculturation refers to the changes that occurs when different cultural groups into intensive contect. As in diffusion, the source of new cultural items is the other society.-SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 17
  18. 18. ASSIMILATION• Assimilation is the fusion of one cultural group into another. youndAssimilation is a process were by a person or groups acquired the culture of another groups. Samuel KoenigSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 18
  19. 19. • Assimilation is the process by which minurities gradually adopt the pattern of dominant culture. j.johnIt is a kind of social interaction under which two different cultural groups fused into one.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 19
  20. 20. • Assimilation is the process where by persons and groups acquire the culture of other groups in which they come to live , by adopting its attitudes and values.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 20
  21. 21. Characteristics of assimilation it’s a social process ,slow but universal one.It’s impossible between two societies having high socio-economics disparities.Assimilation is a continuous process. The speed of assimilation is determine by level of tolerance.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 21
  22. 22. Factors favouring for assimilationLevel of educationLevel of toleranceEqual social & economical statusAbsence of discriminationAbsence of power and value conflictMigrationSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 22
  23. 23. ENCULTURATION Enculturation is a process similar to socialization where a group ,society or an individual acquire the socio cultural characteristics of a society . The human societies formulate the socio cultural values according to their interest and situation that’s why we find different types of cultural pattern in different society.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 23
  24. 24. Enculturation is a process of transmission of cultural pattern between various societies due to regular contact .SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 24
  25. 25. “Enculturation refers to the process where by individual members of a society acquire the characteristics of a give culture learning language and generally acquiring competence in the culture” millerSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 25
  27. 27. • Conflict means struggle between the two persons or groups having opposite ideology and interest.• Conflict is social process in which individual or group seek their ends by directly challenging the antagonist by violence or threat of violence .- Gillin &GillinSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 27
  28. 28. • Conflict mostly brings negative results. Its negative results outweigh its positive results.• Conflict is universal but not continuous .it is intermittent.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 28
  29. 29. • Conflict is a competition in its more occasional, personnel and hostile forms. It is a process of seeking to obtain rewards by eliminating or weakening the competitors.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 29
  30. 30. Causes of conflictSocial and culture differences.Group differences.Class of interest.Individual differences or interest.Social change &technology .SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 30
  31. 31. Types of conflict Political GenderSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 31
  32. 32. caste: a sense of “highness” and “lowness” of “superiority” and “inferiority” of “holy” and “unholy” which some caste group have developed have been responsible for caste conflictSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 32
  33. 33. Racial : racial conflict is mostly due to the physiological differences which are apparently seen among people .(e.g. conflict between whites &negroes) International conflict : it refers to conflict between two or more nation and group of nations .it may take place for politics ,religious, economics so on.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 33
  35. 35. Characteristics conflict is universal. Conflict is conscious action as its guided by strong human emotions and passions. Cast conflict in neplease societies where as racial conflict in USA. conflict may be personal or impersonal. Frustration and insecurity always promotes conflict.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 35
  37. 37. Difference between human &animal their activities and interests, humans and animals have several characteristics in common:  Animals eat. Human beings also have to eat.  Animals sleep. Human beings also need sleep.  Animals have sex to procreate. Humans also haveSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 37
  38. 38. There are many differences between human and animals.Language : language is the great thing that human being have but animals do not have their language through some symbolic signs were recognized by biologists.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 38
  39. 39. Civilization &culture :human beings are civilized and they do have culture but animals are neither civilized not they do have any sort of culture. Social awareness : man is a social animal and he is always aware of the society and culture .he obeys norms, values and traditions if his culture but animals do not have social awareness.SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 39
  40. 40. Rights &duties : human beings have their certain rights and duties to perform .but animals do not have any rights and duties. Consciousnesss : human being is always conscious. they think and do . They do not only “do”. But animals do not have high brain to be attractive and conscious. Human beings brain is flexible but animals do not have flexible PROCESSSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL brain. 40
  41. 41. • The distinction between the human form of life and the animal form of life is not that humans sleep on beds and animals sleep on the ground.• humans walk on two legs and many animals walk on four legs or many animal and almost all birds walk on two legs ( e.g. “animal "kangaroos ,”bird "parrots )SOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 41
  42. 42. REFERENCE• C.N shanker Rao,A text book of sociology• Google searchSOCIAL PROCESS SOCIAL PROCESS 42