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  1. 1. Socialization 1 QUESTION: Just how did you learn to be who you are right now? 3 Min Write REV 10-2015
  2. 2. Genie 2
  3. 3. Charles Darwin 1809-1882 3
  4. 4. Darwin’s Study: Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872 Wikipedia
  5. 5. Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 5
  6. 6. Conditional Reflexes 6
  7. 7. J. B.Watson 1878-1950 7 Influenced by Pavlov
  8. 8. (From Wikipedea)  His first assumption was Evolutionary Continuism. This implied that laws of behavior applied to both humans and animals. Because of this we can study animals as simple models of complex human responses. 8
  9. 9.  The second assumption was called reductionism. This said that all behaviors can be linked to physiology. This means that we are biological organisms responding to outside influences. 9
  10. 10.  The third assumption is Determinism. This states that we don't act freely but rather we respond in a programmed way to outside stimuli. 10
  11. 11.  Fourth is Empiricism. This states that psychology should involve the study of observable (overt) behavior and not introspection or self analysis.  [No more psychoanalysis] 11
  12. 12. Little Albert Experiment (1920) 12
  13. 13. 9 month old Association with white rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, masks, cotton wool, burning newspapers etc. Showed no fear. Stimulated with loud noise. Predictable outcome. 3 min video: LyE 13
  14. 14. So what happened to little Albert? The attributes of [a child named] Douglas and his mother matched virtually everything that was known about Albert and his mother. Like Albert's mother, Douglas's mother worked at a pediatric hospital on campus called the Harriet Lane Home. Like Albert, Douglas was a white male who left the home in the early 1920s and was born at the same time of year as Albert. What's more, a comparison of a picture of Albert with Douglas' portrait revealed facial similarities.Sadly, the team also discovered that Douglas died at age 6 of acquired hydrocephalus, and was unable to determine if Douglas' fear of furry objects persisted after he left Hopkins. (APA January 2010, Vol 41, No. 1 ) 14
  15. 15. B. F. Skinner 1904-1990 15 “Give me a child and I’ll shape him into anything.”
  16. 16. 16 Skinner focused on the concept of conditioning through the use of reinforcements and punishments. “Socialization occurs when a person’s behavior is shaped by the reinforcing and punishing activities of other people and groups.” (Hughes and Kroehler)
  17. 17. Skinner’s “Air Crib” sound proofed and temperature controlled. 17
  18. 18. Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 18
  19. 19. Stages of Development by Freud  Oral (from birth to 18 months) birth; oral cavity/breast feeding/sensory pleasure to weaning.  Anal (18 months to 3 years old) toilet training/obsession with erogenous zones/can become anally retentive (OC/authoritarian)  Phallic (4 to 5 years old) Oedipus and Electra complex/castration anxiety/then identifies with father  Latency (5 Years to puberty) libido goes into non- sexual pursuits such as school, work, sports, same sex friendships.  Genital (from puberty on) returns to sex/adult sexual relationships. 19
  20. 20. Personality Stages per Freud
  21. 21. Components of the personality  Id  Ego  Superego 22
  22. 22. Id: Primitive, asocial pleasure principle of gratification. Think of babies and young kids. 23
  23. 23. Ego: The reality principle; understands other’s needs; meets need and the demands of the id and the superego. 24
  24. 24. Superego: The moral part of our existence. Ethical restraints; having a conscience. Guilt and anxiety. 25
  25. 25. The ego resides in the conscious mind and the id and superego are in our unconscious. 26
  26. 26. Freud’s id, ego and superego model 27
  27. 27. 28 Posted by Najib Saaee, Oct 24, 2009
  28. 28. Erik Erickson Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was a pupil of Sigmund Freud and the first child psychoanalyst in Boston. After extensive study of children from various cultural backgrounds and areas he began to compile this information to form his theories on development, personality, and what forms our identity. 29
  29. 29. Infancy (Birth-18 months)  At this stage, we as human beings are completely dependant, helpless. We rely on an external source for everything, from food to affection. The conflict of this stage is Trust vs. Mistrust. Obviously, if we as infants are not getting our needs met, we will become unsure of our environment and fearful of our caregivers. For healthy development and movement into the next stage, we require our physical and emotional needs to be consistently met. 30
  30. 30. Early Childhood (18 months-3 years)  When we have overcome our Infancy crisis, we begin to move into Early Childhood. In this stage of development, we begin to do things for ourselves, such as communicate with others verbally, walk without assistance, and become potty trained. Our crisis shifts to Autonomy vs. Shame. This can be a fragile stage, particularly due to our attempt to master skills (such as feeding oneself, using a toilet instead of a diaper, etc) 31
  31. 31. Play Age (3-6 years  When we have resolved our Early Childhood crisis, we begin to move into Play Age. In this stage of development, we begin to mirror or mimic behavior around us. This is demonstrated in our playtime activity. We become fascinated with adult behaviors like driving, talking on the phone, performing household chores like cleaning and cooking, etc. It is through our play that we explore and learn more skills. 32
  32. 32. School Age (6-12 years  This stage of life is all about expansion of one’s social circle and beginning school. Students are influenced by their new surroundings as well as their peers. Teachers begin to take on an important role as well, considering a student’s teacher spends more time with them than their parents at this stage of life. Cognitively, we are growing and learning new skills and we are making things which is why this stage’s crisis is considered Industry vs. Inferiority 33
  33. 33. Adolescence (12-18 years)  According to Erikson, this is the first stage in our development that is determined directly by what we do as opposed to what we have had done to us. It is a phase of exploration in which we endeavor to determine our identity (ego identity) and what we want our lives to look like (career, education, etc). We are increasingly more independent, withdrawing from our peers and parents. 34
  34. 34. Young Adulthood (18-35 years)  At this stage of psychosocial development, a person begins to search for a partner. It becomes the main focus or new struggle once a person has resolved their adolescent identity crisis. The most important event in this stage is a romantic attachment or relationship. This is also the stage in which most start a family, though this has been pushed back somewhat in societal norms today. The struggle of this stage is Intimacy vs. Isolation. 35
  35. 35. Middle Adulthood (35-55 years)  Erikson believed that much of our lives are spent preparing for this stage. Once we have successfully resolved the conflict of young adulthood, we approach a new conflict in middle adulthood. At this stage, work is most crucial to our lives and we tend to be concerned with productivity as well as personal growth. The biggest fear of this stage is feeling meaningless or inactive. Also the stage of the “mid-life crisis,” we tend to struggle to find our purpose or greater meaning in life. This struggle is known as Generativity vs. Self-absorption 36
  36. 36. Late Adulthood (55-Death)  Once we have resolved our mid-life crisis or the crises of middle adulthood, we enter late adulthood. This stage is one that Erikson believed was a recovery from middle adulthood. In this final stage, people tend to reflect on their lives and accomplishments or lack thereof, regrets, and reflect on their demise. The inevitability of death is something that we have to face and accept in this stage. The most significant relationship of this stage is with all mankind. The struggle of this final stage is Integrity vs. Despair. 37
  37. 37. Erikson’s Typology
  38. 38. Jean Piaget 1896-1980 39
  39. 39. Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 18 months of age. (Children learn directly from their senses.) Preoperational Stage: 18 months to 6 or 7 years old. (Representational thought: symbols and language but rigid thinking—real connected to make-believe.) Concrete Operational Stage: 6 or 7 years to 11 or 12 years of age. (Thinking more abstractly; separate symbol from thing it represents.) Formal Operational Stage: 11 or 12 years to adulthood. (Further abstract thinking; mathematical thinking; moral sensibility becomes deeper.) 40
  40. 40. 41
  41. 41. Charles Horton Cooley 1864-1929 42
  42. 42. Reacting to the biological determinism of the early 20th Century (Skinner), he emphasized the element of “nurture” over “nature.” That is, we develop through social interaction. 43
  43. 43. The Looking Glass Self  How we imagine others see us  How we imagine they judge what they see  How we feel about those reactions 44
  44. 44. Professor Christine Monnier – date unknown
  45. 45. George Herbert Mead 1863-1931 46
  46. 46. The Self: The “I” and the “Me” 47 The "Me" is the social self and the "I" is the response to the “Me." In other words, the "I" is the response of an individual to the attitudes of others, while the "me" is the organized set of attitudes of others which an individual assumes.
  47. 47. The Self: The “I” and the “Me” 49 The "me" is the accumulated understanding of "the generalized other" i.e. how one thinks one's group perceives oneself etc. The "I" is the individual's impulses. The "I" is self as subject; the "me" is self as object. The "I" is the knower, the "me" is the known. (Wikipedia, updated October 14, 2014)
  48. 48. Describe the “I” you are? That is, Who are you? And What are you? Let’s see what the Zen perspective is, per Alan Watts.
  49. 49. Developmental Stages  Play Stage  Game Stage  Generalized Other 51
  50. 50. Play Stage (imitation): Taking on the role of another. Trying on a person’s behavior. 52
  51. 51. Game Stage: Now assuming many roles. Must account for the roles of others. 53
  52. 52. Generalized Other: The individual gains a sense of selfhood through these steps to the point that she or he internalizes the necessary elements of the culture. 54
  53. 53. Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann 55
  54. 54. Yes, it is back to the social construction of reality. For Berger and Luckmann point out in their seminal book the importance of the “generalized other.” They explain that the socialization process for the child is one in which a reality is socially created already. 56
  55. 55. Indeed, the whole process is a fabrication. Note their comment on the process: “Primary socialization thus accomplishes what (in hindsight, of course) may be seen as the most important confidence trick that society plays on the individual—to make appear as necessity what in fact is a bundle of contingencies, and thus to make meaningful the accident of his birth.” (TSCoR, 1966) 57
  56. 56. Definition of the Situation W. I.. Thomas We must collectively define the situation—agree on meanings oc actions and circumstances for socialization to occur. 58
  57. 57. Addendum:  Rhesus monkeys: OpenStax etc re needing physical contact – love as it were.  Add twin studies 59