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David A. Songco, B.Sc.
Department of Psychology, Hartgrove Hospital
Establish a basis for understanding acculturation and
factors inﬂuencing acculturation
Provide an understanding of assessing acculturation
and the effects of acculturation on psychological
Understand implications of acculturation to the
Apply the concept of acculturative stress to micro-
adoption of the
behavior patterns of
the surrounding culture
the process of
assimilating new ideas
into an existing
culture change that occurs when two populations
come into contact and has been treated in two
(1) as a unidimensional measure of the adoption of
values, beliefs, norms and behaviours of another
(2) as a bidimensional measure of adherence to
each of two cultures
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 62(11):947-951, November 2008.
Hruschka, D J 1; Hadley, C
Acculturative Stress: Stress due to the acculturation
process between two cultures. Psychocultural stress
due to cultural differences found between a host
culture and an incoming culture marked by reduction in
the physical and mental health status of individuals or
groups undergoing acculturation.
John Berry’s Model of
Based on two principles
the extent individuals value and wish to maintain
their cultural identity
the extent individuals value and seek out contact with
those outside their own group, and wish to participate
in the daily life of the larger society
Cultural Maintenance / Contact-
Principles Lead to Two Deﬁning Questions:
Cultural Maintenance: Is it considered to be of value
to maintain one’s identity and characteristics?
Contact-Participation: Is it considered to be of value
to maintain relationships with larger society?
Berry’s Model of Acculturation
Participation Integration Assimilation
Participation Separation Marginalization
Integration/biculturations- retain many personal, cultural
values but adapts the dominant culture by learning
necessary skills and values
Separation- Identiﬁes exclusively with a speciﬁc culture
Marginalization- Perceives one’s own culture as
negative, but is unable to adapt to majority culture
Assimilation: Seeks to become part of the dominant
society to the exclusion of his or her own cultural group
Language Media usage
Religious Beliefs Social relations
Educational status Gender roles
What language do you speak?
What language do you prefer?
How do you self identify?
Which ethnic identiﬁcation does (did) your mother and
What was the ethnic origin of the friends a peers you
had as a child?
Whom do you now associate with in the outside
What is your music/television/movie preference?
Where were you born?
Where were you raised?
What is your food preference?
What language do you read/write/think it?
How much pride do you have in your ethnic group?
Informing Your Understanding
A world view that respects personal goals and
individual uniqueness more than communal goals
and social unity
Personal needs have priority over in-group needs
A worldview that group members are connected with
and interdependent between each other
In-group needs are placed before personal needs
The self is independent from a group
The self is a part of a group
Autonomous in Interpersonal harmony
interpersonal is the primal concern
Take time in forming
Higher social skill in new relationships
starting new Relationships tend to
relationships be Intimate and long-
May give up lasting
unproductive social Make efforts to
relationships easily maintain relationships
Direct communication Indirect
style communication style
Focuses on content Focuses on context
Verbal communication Non-verbal
is stressed communication is
The variation in and intensity of this stress rests heavily
on the similarities or dissimilarities between the host
culture and that of the new entrants
This includes personal characteristics, amount of
exposure, level of education and skills, sex, age,
language, race, and psychological and spiritual
strengths, as well as the host culture's political and
social attitudes, especially toward the newcomers.
Cox, D. (1987). Migration/integration as a process: Welfare services for migrants: Can they be better planned? International
Migration Review, 24, 17.
The more radical and different the host culture is in
comparison to the newcomers native cultures, the more
acculturative stress will be experienced
What is culture and where can we ﬁnd it?
Own cultural background
Culture of the Workplace
Acculturation to an inpatient hospital setting
How can the general concept of acculturation apply to
our every practice, on a subcultural and micro-cultural
Implications for Treatment
Rate of Speech
Implications for Treatment
Cultural Self Assessment
Have I been able to separate what is important to me, and
what is important to my client?
What do I know about the client’s cultural heritage?
What is the client’s relationship with his/her culture from his/
What are my stereotypes, beliefs and biases about this
Have I appropriately consulted with other mental health
professionals, members from this culture, and/or members of
the client’s family or extended family?
Have I incorporated culturally appropriate strategies/
techniques with this client?
Empathy can be just a word
“or it can be an exceedingly intense attempt to capture or understand the inner world of the
person you’re dealing with- with all the nuances of feeling and meaning and so on which are
real of him or her- not real for you but for him or her. That’s particularly evident when you’re
dealing with someone of a different culture, where their attitudes towards the opposite sex are
quite different then your own. Can you catch the attitude or feeling that person has and
understand it as it is in him or her? It is a very demanding task. And the notion of just listening
is far from catching what it contains. When one is endeavoring to capture the whole inner
world of this person, that takes all you have. It means laying aside something of yourself, of
your own personal values and attitudes in order to really catch the attitudes of the other
Berry, J. W. (1998). Intercultural relations in plural societies. Canadian Psychology, 40, 12-21.
Berry, J. W. (2001). A psychology of immigration. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 615-631.
Cox, D. (1987). Migration/integration as a process: Welfare services for migrants: Can they be better
planned? International Migration Review, 24, 17.
Kress, V. E., Eriksen, K. P., Rayle, A. D., Ford, S. J. (2005). The DSM-IV-TR and culture:
Considerations for counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development. 83, 97-104.
Kuo, B. C. H. (2004). Interdependent and relational tendencies among Asian clients: Infusing
collectivistic strategies into counseling. Guidance & Counseling, 19(4), 158-162.
Moore, III, J. L. & Constantine, M. G. (2005). Development and initial validation of the collectivistic
coping styles measure with African, Asian, and Latin American international students. Journal of
Mental Health Counseling, 27(4), 329-347.
Rogers, C. (1985). Characteristics of effective counseling. Retrieved July 29, 2009, from http://
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 62(11):947-951, November 2008. Hruschka, D J 1;