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  1. 1. Acculturation David A. Songco, B.Sc. Psychology Extern Department of Psychology, Hartgrove Hospital
  2. 2. Objectives Establish a basis for understanding acculturation and factors influencing acculturation Provide an understanding of assessing acculturation and the effects of acculturation on psychological assessment Understand implications of acculturation to the therapeutic process. Apply the concept of acculturative stress to micro- cultures
  3. 3. Acculturation Defined socialization: the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
  4. 4. Acculturation Defined culture change that occurs when two populations come into contact and has been treated in two ways: (1) as a unidimensional measure of the adoption of values, beliefs, norms and behaviours of another population, or (2) as a bidimensional measure of adherence to each of two cultures Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 62(11):947-951, November 2008. Hruschka, D J 1; Hadley, C
  5. 5. Another Term Acculturative Stress: Stress due to the acculturation process between two cultures. Psychocultural stress due to cultural differences found between a host culture and an incoming culture marked by reduction in the physical and mental health status of individuals or groups undergoing acculturation.
  6. 6. John Berry’s Model of Acculturation Based on two principles Cultural Maintenance the extent individuals value and wish to maintain their cultural identity Contact Participation the extent individuals value and seek out contact with those outside their own group, and wish to participate in the daily life of the larger society
  7. 7. Cultural Maintenance / Contact- Participation Principles Lead to Two Defining Questions: Cultural Maintenance: Is it considered to be of value to maintain one’s identity and characteristics? Contact-Participation: Is it considered to be of value to maintain relationships with larger society?
  8. 8. Berry’s Model of Acculturation Cultural Cultural Maintenance Maintenance YES NO Contact Participation Integration Assimilation YES Contact Participation Separation Marginalization NO
  9. 9. Response Integration/biculturations- retain many personal, cultural values but adapts the dominant culture by learning necessary skills and values Separation- Identifies exclusively with a specific culture Marginalization- Perceives one’s own culture as negative, but is unable to adapt to majority culture Assimilation: Seeks to become part of the dominant society to the exclusion of his or her own cultural group
  10. 10. Assessing Acculturation Language Media usage Religious Beliefs Social relations Educational status Gender roles Employment Societal norms Social status
  11. 11. Questions Assessing Acculturation What language do you speak? What language do you prefer? How do you self identify? Which ethnic identification does (did) your mother and father use? What was the ethnic origin of the friends a peers you had as a child?
  12. 12. Assessing Acculturation Whom do you now associate with in the outside community? What is your music/television/movie preference? Where were you born? Where were you raised? What is your food preference? What language do you read/write/think it? How much pride do you have in your ethnic group?
  13. 13. Informing Your Understanding Individualism A world view that respects personal goals and individual uniqueness more than communal goals and social unity Personal needs have priority over in-group needs Collectivism A worldview that group members are connected with and interdependent between each other In-group needs are placed before personal needs
  14. 14. Understanding: Self-Concept Individualism The self is independent from a group Collectivism The self is a part of a group
  15. 15. Understanding: Relationships Individualism Collectivism Autonomous in Interpersonal harmony interpersonal is the primal concern relationships Take time in forming Higher social skill in new relationships starting new Relationships tend to relationships be Intimate and long- May give up lasting unproductive social Make efforts to relationships easily maintain relationships
  16. 16. Understanding: Communication Style Individualism Collectivism Direct communication Indirect style communication style Focuses on content Focuses on context Verbal communication Non-verbal is stressed communication is important
  17. 17. Acculturative Stress The variation in and intensity of this stress rests heavily on the similarities or dissimilarities between the host culture and that of the new entrants This includes personal characteristics, amount of exposure, level of education and skills, sex, age, language, race, and psychological and spiritual strengths, as well as the host culture's political and social attitudes, especially toward the newcomers. (Cox, 1987). Cox, D. (1987). Migration/integration as a process: Welfare services for migrants: Can they be better planned? International Migration Review, 24, 17.
  18. 18. Acculturative Stress The more radical and different the host culture is in comparison to the newcomers native cultures, the more acculturative stress will be experienced
  19. 19. Micro-cultural Assessment What is culture and where can we find it? Own cultural background Culture of the Workplace Acculturation to an inpatient hospital setting How can the general concept of acculturation apply to our every practice, on a subcultural and micro-cultural level?
  20. 20. Implications for Treatment Interviewing Style Possibly Adjusting: Eye Contact Personal Space Rate of Speech
  21. 21. Implications for Treatment Cultural Self Assessment Have I been able to separate what is important to me, and what is important to my client? What do I know about the client’s cultural heritage? What is the client’s relationship with his/her culture from his/ her perspective? What are my stereotypes, beliefs and biases about this culture? Have I appropriately consulted with other mental health professionals, members from this culture, and/or members of the client’s family or extended family?
  22. 22. Therapeutic Goals Have I incorporated culturally appropriate strategies/ techniques with this client?
  23. 23. Empathy can be just a word “or it can be an exceedingly intense attempt to capture or understand the inner world of the person you’re dealing with- with all the nuances of feeling and meaning and so on which are real of him or her- not real for you but for him or her. That’s particularly evident when you’re dealing with someone of a different culture, where their attitudes towards the opposite sex are quite different then your own. Can you catch the attitude or feeling that person has and understand it as it is in him or her? It is a very demanding task. And the notion of just listening is far from catching what it contains. When one is endeavoring to capture the whole inner world of this person, that takes all you have. It means laying aside something of yourself, of your own personal values and attitudes in order to really catch the attitudes of the other person.”-Carl Rogers
  24. 24. References Berry, J. W.  (1998).  Intercultural relations in plural societies.  Canadian Psychology, 40, 12-21. Berry, J. W.  (2001).  A psychology of immigration.  Journal of Social Issues, 57, 615-631. Cox, D. (1987). Migration/integration as a process: Welfare services for migrants: Can they be better planned? International Migration Review, 24, 17. Kress, V. E., Eriksen, K. P., Rayle, A. D., Ford, S. J. (2005). The DSM-IV-TR and culture: Considerations for counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development. 83, 97-104. Kuo, B. C. H. (2004). Interdependent and relational tendencies among Asian clients: Infusing collectivistic strategies into counseling. Guidance & Counseling, 19(4), 158-162. Moore, III, J. L. & Constantine, M. G. (2005). Development and initial validation of the collectivistic coping styles measure with African, Asian, and Latin American international students. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 27(4), 329-347. Rogers, C. (1985). Characteristics of effective counseling. Retrieved July 29, 2009, from http:// Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 62(11):947-951, November 2008. Hruschka, D J 1; Hadley, C