This is a simple and general presentation about the health research which is prepared to present within staffs of Naulo Ghumti Nepal especially for EIHS staffs, objective if this presentation is to orient staffs about research.
NAULO GHUMTI NEPAL
Meaning of Research
• The word research was originated from ‘recherche’
which means to travel through or survey.
• RE+SEARCH= Search after search and search
• Careful search or inquiry into any subject matter.
• To investigate thoroughly
• Research is the process of finding solution to a
problem after a through study and analysis of the
• Research as a movement, a movement from unknown
• Systematic effort to gain of knowledge.
Research is systematic collection, analysis and
interpretation of data to answer a certain question or
solve a problem.
Research need to conducted in a
PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
• Generation new knowledge
• Improve understanding
• Application testing
• Comparing best practices
• Helping with decision
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
• Demands a clear statement of the problem
• Requires a scientific plan
• Relevance, testability, effectiveness.
• Collection and interpretation of data.
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
• To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to gain new insights
• To describe the characteristics of a particular cause, situation or
• To determine the relationship between two or more variables.
• To test hypothesis.
• To solve the problems.
• It provides answers for questions like what, where, when, how
TYPES OF RESEARCH
On the basis of
Application of research study
• Basic research
• Applied research
Objectives in understanding the research
• Observational research
• Experimental research
Method of study
• Quantitative research
• Qualitative research
• Identification of the research problem
• Review of literature
• Formulation of the objectives of the study
• Protocol preparation
• Conducting the study
• Analysis of the data
• Preparation of report
FORMULATING STUDY PROBLEM
Formulating a study problem is the
first and most important steps in the
study process. A study problem
identifies researcher’s destination
and decide what he want to find
The abstract should be written in about 200 words, it
contents brief synopsis of activities to be carried out in the
study. It helps to understand the frame of study activities for
The background may provide general idea about
formulating problem and linked between present situation
and past experiences.
Objectives of Research should be
A literature review is a written summary of articles,
books and other documents that describe the past
and current state ok knowledge about topic.
FORMULATING THE HYPOTHESES
Hypotheses is always developed in response to the
purpose statement or to answer the research question.
• Study design
• Study area and population
• Sampling and Sample
• Study variables
• Data collection
• Data analysis
SAMPLINGAND SAMPLE SELECTION
There are different
process of sampling
• Probability sampling
• Non-probability sampling
• Dependent variables
• Independent Variable
Variables may take numerical (quantitative) or non-
numerical (qualitative) values.
Process contains four interdependent elements;
• Defining a research methods
• Defining and constituting the sample
• Choosing and preparing Data collection tools
• Evaluating the tools-pre test
• Entered into a database
• Editing and coding
• Computer software used; dBase IV, SPSS, Epi, Epinfo,
• Frequencies and cross- tabulations
• Selection of analytical techniques
INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGSAND
CONTAINS OF REPORT
• Research title
• List of table
• List of figures
• Introduction (background, statement of problem and its justification or
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