Enculturation & Socialization• Enculturation: The process of learning a culture (system of beliefs and associated practices).• Socialization: Learning group norms and values from others.• Often used interchangably. – Enculturation emphasizes the influence of a general cultural system of beliefs. – Socialization emphasizes the sources of information (parents, peers, media, etc.).
Gender Socialization: 3 Models Model 1: Model 2: Direct Teaching/ Indirect Teaching/ Rewards & Punishment Identification & Modeling Behavior Children identify withAdults set the agenda, provide adults/parents of same sex rewards or punishment and imitate their behavior
Gender Socialization Model 3 (Maccoby): Peer-to-Peer Socialization Children learn gender roles & behavior from each other
Gender Socialization Up to age 2 Equal Same-Sex, Cross-Sex Interaction 18 Interactions 9 Same Sex 9 Cross Sex
Gender Socialization Age 3 to 6 Same-Sex 66%, Cross-Sex 33% 18 Interactions 12 Same Sex 6 Cross Sex
Gender Socialization Age 6 to 10 Same-Sex 75%, Cross-Sex 25%* 18 Interactions 14 Same Sex 4 Cross Sex*These are all rough estimates, based on the research cited in Maccoby, pp.15-29
From the perspective of an individual (child),we see how children’s worlds becomesegregated as they grow up.Increasingly, they are learning, playing,growing in “male” and “female” cultures.
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Two Boy’s World Girl’s World
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Four Boy’s World Girl’s World
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Six Boy’s World Girl’s World
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Eight Boy’s World Girl’s World
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated Age Ten Boy’s World Girl’s World
Children Reinforce Segregation, Stereotypes and glad I’m soLet’s go play Barbie™Styles of Play between each other football finally dumped Ken™! Look at my new Power Poor Rangers™ toy! Ken Only sissy’s Let’s go play play with dolls. football Ewwww Boys … boysDon’t sit That dress Boy’s World are so arewith the is so cute, Girl’s World mean! yucky! girls! can I borrow it? “Distinctions between males and females are of the group contextual kind.” Maccoby, p.12 In other words, children grow up in different gendered cultures.
Becoming Male or Female* Children are active agents Social positioning Striving to “get gender right” Discursive positioning – asserting feminine/masculine identities (e.g. through clothing) Social conditioning Social sanctioning; approval or disapproval Fixing categories*Based on Browwyn Davies, 2002 (1989)
Socialization Involves Multiple,Complex Influences (Four Sources) TV DIRECT TEACHING GENERAL CULTURAL INFLUENCES MODELING BEHAVIOR PEER SOCIALIZATION
Socialization of Difference (Points to Remember) Gender/Sex segregation is almost never absolute (for example, in the studies cited by Maccoby, a significant minority of interactions are still cross-gender). Within a culture or society, a range of socialization and identities are always available to different individuals. In the peer-to-peer socialization model (and all three models), messages, attitudes, status relations, etc. from the culture/society in general play an extremely important role. They provide the content of socialization.
Falling Back on Biology Davies mentions how parents and others revert to biology (“it must be genetics”), when girls act like girls and boys act like boys Hormones may have some role in sex segregation and in preference for play-styles. But, socialization is far more influential and complex. Explaining through biology (“it must be genetics”) is a cultural simplification – “fixing” categories and behavior by reference to simple binaries.
A Final Thought: “Partitioning genes from environment, nature from nurture, is a scientific dead end, a bad way of thinkingabout human development” (Fausto-Sterling pg.235). Bye-bye . . .See you next week