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How Fiber Optics Work


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How Fiber Optics Work

  1. 1. How Fiber Optics Work You hear about fiber-optic cables whenever people talk about the telephone system, the cable TV system or the Internet. They are also used in medical imaging and mechanical engineering inspection.
  2. 2. What are Fiber Optics? Fiber optics (optical fibers) are long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances. If you look closely at a single optical fiber, you will see that it has the following parts: *Core - Thin glass center of the fiber where the light travels *Cladding - Outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light back into the core *Buffer coating - Plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and moisture
  3. 3. How Does an Optical Fiber Transmit Light? The light in a fiber-optic cable travels through the core (hallway) by constantly bouncing from the cladding (mirror-lined walls), a principle called total internal reflection. Because the cladding does not absorb any light from the core, the light wave can travel great distances.
  4. 4. A Fiber-Optic Relay System Fiber-optic relay systems consist of the following: *Transmitter - Produces and encodes the light signals *Optical fiber - Conducts the light signals over a distance *Optical regenerator - May be necessary to boost the light signal (for long distances) *Optical receiver - Receives and decodes the light signals
  5. 5. Advantages of Fiber Optics Compared to conventional metal wire (copper wire), optical fibers are: 1.Less expensive 2.Thinner 3.Higher carrying capacity 4.Less signal degradation 5.Light signals 6.Low power 7.Digital signals 8.Non-flammable 9.Lightweight 10.Flexible
  6. 6. How Are Optical Fibers Made? 1.Making a preform glass cylinder 2.Drawing the fibers from the preform 3.Testing the fibers