SOLAR POWER PLANT
A SEMINAR ON
GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE
Solar power plant is based on the conversion
of sunlight into electricity, either directly
using photovoltaic (PV), or indirectly using concentrated
solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems
use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a
large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic
converts light into electric current using
the photoelectric effect. Concentrated solar power plants
first appeared in the 1980s
About 5,000 trillion
kWh per year energy
is incident over
India’s land area
with most parts
receiving 4-7 kWh
per square meter per
Solar Map of India
Component to be used…..
1) Solar module
5) Lighting load
Solar panel refers to a panel designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of energy
for generating electricity or heating. A photovoltaic (in short PV) module is a
packaged, connected assembly of typically 6×10 solar cells.
Solar Photovoltaic panels constitute the solar module of a photovoltaic system that
generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications.
Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and
typically ranges from 100 to 365 watts.
The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated
output – an 8% efficient 230 watt module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient
230 watt module. There are a few solar panels available that are exceeding 19%
A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most
installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a
panel or an array of solar modules, a solar inverter, and sometimes
a battery and/or solar tracker and interconnection wiring
How a panel is created?
An individual PV cell typically produces 0.6 watts and are joined in an module to produce
the required power.
Solar Panel specifications
Sr No. Name Rating
1 Peak Power 195W
2 Optimum operating Voltage 36.6V
3 Optimum operating current 5.33A
4 Open Circuit Voltage 45.4V
5 Short Circuit Current 5.69A
6 Module Efficiency 15.3%
7 Operating Temperature -40°C to 85°C
Working of A solar cell
o Photoelectric effect
When a light of certain frequency falls on the surface of a metal
Electrons will absorb the energy
If incident light energy is greater than the work function(minimum energy
required to remove the loosely bound valence electrons)of the metal Then the
photo electrons will be emitted and
The excess energy is converted to the kinetic energy of electron.
When solar panels are placed in the sunlight , photons will strike
the surface and emits electrons.
As a result electron hole pair is created in the solar cell.
When external circuit is connected to the solar cell , electrons
flow in the circuit and the current is generated.
Controller's main function is to make solar power system
is always in the vicinity of the maximum power generation
in order to obtain maximum efficiency.
The charge control usually the PWM (pulse width
modulation) control, so that the whole system is always
running at maximum power point Pm near the area.
Discharge control mainly refers to when the battery power
shortage, system failures, such as open or reversed when
the battery cut off switch.
Currently both Hitachi developed a tracking control point
Pm, and can track the sun moving parameter of the
"sunflower" type of controller, the battery components will
be fixed about 50% efficiency.
As technology and material reasons, a single cell generating capacity is very limited,
practical solar cells in a single cell by series and parallel to form a battery system, called
the battery components.
Single cell is a silicon diode, according to the electronic characteristic of semiconductor
materials, when the sun light shines from the P Type and N Type conductivity of two
different types of homogenous composition of semiconductor materials when the PN
junction, under certain conditions, solar radiation absorbed by the semiconductor material
in the conduction band and valence band of nonequilibrium carrier generation is electron
and hole. Barrier at the PN junction with the existence of strong builtin area electrostatic
field, which can be formed in the light of the current density J, shortcircuit current Isc, open
circuit voltage Uoc.
If the sides of the builtin electric field leads to the electrode and connected to the load, by
the PN junction theory, the connection circuit and the load form the loop, there is
"photocurrent“ flows through the solar modules to achieve the power of the load P output.
Theoretical studies have shown that the peak power of solar modules Pk, by the local solar
radiation intensity and the end of the average electricity load (electricity demand) decisions.
An electric battery is a device consisting of two or more electrochemical
cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
Each cell has a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode.
The terminal marked positive is at a higher electrical potential energy than is the
terminal marked negative.
The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to
an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an external device.
When a battery is connected to an external circuit, electrolytes are able to move
as ions within, allowing the chemical reactions to be completed at the separate
terminals and so deliver energy to the external circuit.
It is the movement of those ions within the battery which allows current to flow
out of the battery to perform work. Although the term battery technically means
a device with multiple cells, single cells are also popularly called batteries.
How to choose a solar panel
Selecting the right technology : The selection of solar panel technology
generally depends on space available for installation and the overall cost of the
Selecting the right manufacturer for better warranty.
Check operating specifications beyond STC ratings
Negative Tolerance can lead to a lower system performance and reduced
Solar Panel efficiency under different conditions and over time.
Working of solar power plant
1) Photovoltaic Electricity – This method uses photovoltaic cells that absorb
the direct sunlight just like the solar cells you see on some calculators.
2) Solar-Thermal Electricity – This also uses a solar collector: it has a mirrored
surface that reflects the sunlight onto a receiver that heats up a liquid. This
heated liquid is used to make steam that produces electricity.
As light hits the solar panels, the solar radiation is converted into direct
current electricity (DC).
The direct current flows from the panels and is converted into alternating
current (AC) used by local electric utilities.
Finally, the electricity travels through transformers, and the voltage is
boosted for delivery onto the transmission lines so local electric utilities can
distribute the electricity to homes and businesses.
The Types of Solar Electric Systems
1) The Stand Alone System
Standalone, or off-grid, solar power systems consist of solar panels and a battery
Used in rural areas and regions where there is no access to the utility grid.
Very good at giving economical electricity.
2) Grid-Tie Solar System
Very useful for homes that are already linked to the utility grid.
Primary advantage is the cheap price of utility.
The system needs to be wired with an inverter that creates ac electricity, which is
needed for linking to the utility grid.
Solar energy is a clean and renewable energy source.
Once a solar panel is installed, solar energy can be produced free of charge.
Solar energy will last forever whereas it is estimated that the world’s oil reserves
will last for 30 to 40 years.
Solar energy causes no pollution.
Solar cells make absolutely no noise at all. On the other hand, the giant machines
utilized for pumping oil are extremely noisy and therefore very impractical.
Very little maintenance is needed to keep solar cells running. There are no moving
parts in a solar cell which makes it impossible to really damage them.
In the long term, there can be a high return on investment due to the amount of
free energy a solar panel can produce, it is estimated that the average household
will see 50% of their energy coming in from solar panels
Solar panels can be expensive to install resulting in a time-lag of many years for
savings on energy bills to match initial investments.
Electricity generation depends entirely on a countries exposure to sunlight; this could
be limited by a countries climate.
Solar power stations do not match the power output of similar sized conventional
power stations; they can also be very expensive to build.
Solar power is used to charge batteries so that solar powered devices can be used at
night. The batteries can often be large and heavy, taking up space and needing to be
replaced from time to time.
Solar power plant in India
Sr No. Power Plant Name Location Capacity
1 Charanka Solar Power Plant Gujarat 221
2 Neemuch Solar Power Plant Madhya Pradesh 151
3 Sakri Power Plant Maharashtra 125
4 Rajasthan Solar Project Rajasthan 50
5 GEDCOL Solar Power Plant Odisha 50
6 NTPC’s Solar Power Project Madhya Pradesh 50
7 GEDCOL Solar Power Plant Odisha 48
8 Bitta Solar Power Plant Gujarat 40
9 Dhirubhai Ambani Solar Plant Rajasthan 40
Uses of solar energy
Heaters Green houses
Cars water pumps
Dryers Solar ponds
On an office building , roof areas can be covered with solar panels .
Remote buildings such as schools , communities can make use of solar energy.
In developing countries , this solar panels are very much useful.
Even on the highways , for every five kilometres ,solar telephones are used.