SOLAR Power Plant pV Module(Renewable source of Energy)
With its abundance of sunlight, India has tremendous potential to emerge as one of the leaders in solar power generation. According to the Government of India’s policy for the solar sector – Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) – a target of 20 GW of solar installations by 2022 has been set.
Global ScenarioSolar Energy demand globally has been growing at about 30% per annum over the past 15 years. In comparison, the hydrocarbon demand growth rate is 0‐2% per annum. This high growth rate in solar energy is due to many reasons – increasing cost of petroleum products and the parallel decreasing cost of producing power from solar, and a concern world over on the harmful effects of using fossil fuels
Solar Energy in IndiaIndia is one of the few countries in the world that has a dedicated ministry for New and Renewable energy In India, the high GDP growth rate has created a huge demand for energy, but the supply is unable to match the demand. The total installed capacity of power as of January 2012 is 187 GW. The per capita total consumption is 778 kWh. The estimated shortage of power in India is about 20 GW.
Plant Commissioned in India Name of Plant DC Peak Power (MW) NotesMithapur Solar Power Plant ‐ Mithapur, Gujarat (Tata Power) 25 Commissioned February 2012WAA SOLAR POWER PLANT ‐ Surendranagar, Gujarat 10.22 Commissioned January 2012Reliance Power Pokaran Solar PV Plant, Rajasthan 40 Commissioning in March 2012Adani Bitta Solar Plant, Gujarat 40 Completed in January 2012Mahindra Solar Plant, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 5 Completed in January 2012Sivaganga Photovoltaic Plant 5 Completed December 2010Kolar Photovoltaic Plant 3 Completed May 2010Itnal Photovoltaic Plant, Belgaum 3 Completed April 2010Azure Power ‐ Photovoltaic Plant 2 Completed 2009 Chesdin Power ‐ Biomass and Solar Photovoltaic Plants 4.1 Completes December 2011Citra and Sepset Power Plants ‐ Solar Photovoltaic Plants 4 Commissioned October 2011Jamuria Photovoltaic Plant 2 Completed 2009 NDPC Photovoltaic Plant 1 Completed 2010 Thyagaraj Stadium Plant‐Delhi 1 Completed April, 2010Gandhinagar Solar Plant 1 Completed January 2011Tata ‐ Mulshi, Maharashtra 3 Commissioned April 2011Azure Power ‐ Sabarkantha, Gujarat (Khadoda village ) 10 Commissioned June 2011. Moser Baer ‐ Patan, Gujarat 30 Commissioned July 2011B&G Solar Pvt Ltd ‐ Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu 1 Commissioned June 2011REHPL ‐ Sadeipali, (Bolangir) Orissa 1 Commissioned July 2011Tata ‐ Patapur, Orissa 1 Commissioned August 2011Tata ‐ Osmanabad, Maharastra 1 Commissioned 1st Aug 2011Amruth Solar Power Plant ‐ Kadiri, Andhra Pradesh 1 Commissioned March 2012Abengoa ‐ Gwal Pahari, Haryana 3 Commissioned September 2011Chandraleela Power Energy ‐ Narnaul, Haryana 0.8 Commissioned December 2011Green Infra Solar Energy Limited ‐ Rajkot, Gujarat 10 Commissioned November 2011 Total 182.1
Why In India India is in the sunny regions of the world with most parts of the country receiving 4‐7 kwh (kilowatt‐hour) of solar radiation per square meter per day, 250‐300 sunny days in a year. Even though Solar energy constitutes a miniscule part in India’s installed power generation capacity (with grid connected solar PV generation at a mere 6 MW as of March 2010), in the medium and long run, it is expected that solar energy, especially solar PV will form a vital component of the countrys energy mix.
Different suppliers of Module Manufacturer Country Model Number Watts (p) Life in years/Guarantee givenBosch Germany M 240 3 BB 240 10 years-90%, 25 years-80%Canadian solar Canada CS5A-170 170 25 yearsCo energy US Power Plus 215 P 215 12 years-92%, 25years-80%Del Solar Taiwan D6P_E 120 10 years-90%, 25 years-80%Evergreen solar US ES-A series 200 25 yearsFirst solar US FS Series 70 10 years-90%,Mitsubishi Japan TD/TE series 190JA solar holdings China JAS 165 10 years-90%, 25 years-80%Q cells Germany SL 1 70 25 yearsPLG Solar India 10 years-90%, 25 years-80%Moser Baer India 10 years-90%, 25 years-80%Tata BP Solar India 10 years-90%, 25 years-80%
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar MissionThe Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (also known as the National Solar Mission) is a major initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenges. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global effort to meet the challenges of climate change. Named for Jawaharlal Nehru, the Mission is one of the several initiatives that are part of National Action Plan on Climate Change. The program was officially inaugurated by Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh.
Scheme on financing of Off‐Grid and Decentralised Solar ApplicationsGovernment of India, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has formulated a scheme on financing of Off‐Grid and Decentralised Solar (Photovoltaic and Thermal) applications aspart of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM). Under the scheme, banks may extend subsidised loans to entrepreneurs at interest rates not exceeding five per cent where refinance of two per cent from Government of India is available.
Excise Duty Exemption on Transmission EquipmentsExemption of Excise Duty on procurement of Transmission Equipments for initial setup of Solar Power Plant. The exemption would be available on transmission equipments wherever the contractual obligation for installing transmission lines/equipments up to the point of delivery is c0st on the solar power developer.
Subsidy in installation of Solar Power plantThe Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) provides 70 percent subsidy on the installation cost of a solar photovoltaic power plant in North‐East states and 30 percentage subsidy on other regions. The detailed outlay of the National Solar Mission highlights various targets set by the government to increase solar energy in the countrys energy portfolio.
Major other incentivesIn the budget for 2010/11, the government has announced an allocation of US $ 220 million towards the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission. They encouraged private solar companies by reducing customs duty on solar panels by 5% and exempting excise duty on solar photovoltaic panels. The budget also proposed a coal tax of US$1 per metric ton on domestic and imported coal used for power generation.The government has initiated a Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) scheme, which is designed to drive investment in low‐carbon energy projects.
Opportunities and ChallengesLand is a scarce resource in India and per capita land availability is low. Dedication of land area for exclusive installation of solar arrays might have to compete with other necessities that require land. The amount of land required for utility‐scale solar power plants—currently approximately 1 km2 for every 20–60 megawatts (MW) generated could pose a strain on Indias available land resource. The architecture more suitable for most of India would be a highly‐distributed set of individual rooftop power generation systems, all connected via a local grid. However, erecting such an infrastructure, which does not enjoy the economies of scale possible in mass, utility‐scale, solar panel deployment, needs the market price of solar technology deployment to substantially decline, so that it attracts the individual and average family size household consumer. That might be possible in the future, because PV is projected to continue its current cost reductions for the next decades and be able to compete with fossil fuel.
Incentives from State Government Government of Gujarat declared comprehensive Solar Policy 2009, wherein Govt will purchase the power at the following minimum rates. for first 12 years for next 12 years from date of commissioning Solar PV Rs. 12/‐ kWh Rs. 3/‐ kWh Solar Thermal Rs. 9/‐ kWh Rs. 3/‐ kWh
Transmission charges & transmission losses At 66kV : Transmission charges and transmission losses applicable to normal Open Access Consumer. Below 66 kV : Transmission charges, applicable to normal open access consumer and transmission and wheeling losses @ 10% of the energy fed to the grid, for Solar power Plant of capacity more than 5MW. For Solar power Plants of capacity less than 5 MW, Transmission charges, applicable to normal open access consumer and transmission and wheeling losses @ 7% of the energy fed to the grid.
Policy related to Land Acquisition for Solar Plant At 66kV : Transmission charges and transmission losses applicable to normal Open Access Consumer. Below 66 kV : Transmission charges, applicable to normal open access consumer and transmission and wheeling losses @ 10% of the energy fed to the grid, for Solar power Plant of capacity more than 5MW. For Solar power Plants of capacity less than 5 MW, Transmission charges, applicable to normal open access consumer and transmission and wheeling losses @ 7% of the energy fed to the grid.
Govt.’s Initiative The Government of Gujarat is promoting Solar Power Parks in the Sate. Rolled Out Special Policy in 2009. Already few Plants are operational in the State. The development of solar parks will streamline the project development timeline by letting government agencies undertake land acquisition and necessary permits, and provide dedicated common infrastructure for setting up solar power generation plants largely in the private sector. The State Government is taking initiative in providing the common infrastructure/ facilities like site preparation and leveling, power evacuation, availability of water, access roads, security and services. In parallel with the central governments initiative..
Contd. The Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission has announced feed‐in‐tariff to mainstream solar power generation which will be applied for solar power generation plants in the solar park. Gujarat Power Corporation Limited is the responsible agency for developing the solar park of 500 megawatts and will lease the lands to the project developers to generate solar power. Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation Limited will develop the transmission evacuation from the identified interconnection points with the solar developer. This project is being supported, in part, by the Asian Development Bank
Exclusive mandate for Land in GujaratLand area : About 1200 acre (485 hec.)Location : 60 km from Ahmedabad (Capital of Gujarat) 20 km from Sanand (Plant of Tata Nano Car).Expected Price : $ 12,000/‐ per acrePrimary Use : Solar Power PlantSecondary Use : Storage/ Warehousing
Expected Production 1200 acre @ 10 MW /100 acre X 0.80 = 96 MWAssuming efficiency 80%
Cost of the Project ($ m) Land Cost : 1.4 Cost of Approvals/Coversion/Devlopment 0.28 (20% of land cost) PV Power Panels @ 4m 480.00• Thus total initial investment for 120 Mw : 48168• Say 500.00• Less Subsidy 30% 150.00• Net Investment 350.00
Expected revenue Expected Revenue from the Selling of Electricity @ Rs. 12/‐ per kWh for first 12 years: = 2,102,400,000/‐ or USD $ 42 mn/ year Assuming the plant will for 5 hours a day with efficiency of 80%
Return of Investment Payback period of 8 years includes land also With that other benefits like Carbon Credits and other subsidies, moreover appreciation in the land value.
Secondary benefits Can be used as Storage purpose if constructed as Roof top Solar power plant, to store the items which is not effected by UV rays and other harmful rays.