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Overview of solar power generation

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Overview of solar power generation

  1. 1. Overview ofOverview of Renewable EnergyRenewable Energy Solar power generationSolar power generation prepared By Eng./ Amin GadoEng./ Amin GadoEng./ Amin GadoEng./ Amin Gado
  2. 2. Main Renewable Energy SourcesMain Renewable Energy Sources Biomass (including biogas & biofuels) Solar energy Wind energy Small hydro power Geothermal energy Ocean energy (including wave & tidal)
  3. 3. Solar radiation and heating devices ocean thermal energy Solar radiation From sun photosynthesis Kinetic energy Latent heat potential energy Sensible heating 30 300 40000 80000 120000 Reflected to space 50000 Absorbed on earth Biofuels Wind and wave conversion Hydropower Infrared radiation to speed Natural energy currents on earth , showing renewable energy system.Natural energy currents on earth , showing renewable energy system. Geothermal Gravitation, Orbital motion From earth From Plantary motion Tides Heat 3 30 Tidal power Geothermal installations Note: the great range of energy flux ( 1 : 10 5 ) and the dominance of solar radiation and heat. Units terawatts ( 10 12 w )
  4. 4. Traditional RenewableTraditional Renewable
  5. 5. Renewable Energy Added and Existing Capacities,Renewable Energy Added and Existing Capacities, 20112011 RENEWABLE 2012 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT
  6. 6. Advantages of Solar EnergyAdvantages of Solar Energy Solar energy is the most widely distributed renewable energy source Solar energy can be used for a wide variety of applications such as heating,variety of applications such as heating, cooking, drying, desalination, lighting, pumping and remote power. Solar systems cause no pollution, generally have no moving parts and are easy to maintain.
  7. 7. Breakdown of incoming solar energyBreakdown of incoming solar energy
  8. 8. Solar EnergySolar Energy SOLAR THERMAL For direct heating , cooking, drying, power Solar energy can be used through two main routes generation etc. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC For direct electricity generation
  9. 9. Solar radiation distribution in the worldSolar radiation distribution in the world
  10. 10. Solar radiation mapSolar radiation map--AfricaAfrica--andand--MiddleMiddle--EastEast
  11. 11. Average annual irradiation in EgyptAverage annual irradiation in Egypt
  12. 12. Solar InsolationSolar Insolation
  13. 13. Main solar technologies for powerMain solar technologies for power generationgeneration 1. Solar Thermal - Parabolic trough collectors - Solar tower - Dish – Stirling systems- Dish – Stirling systems - Linear Fresnel Reflectors 2. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) - Flat plate modules : fixed and tracking - Concentrating modules
  14. 14. Concentrating Solar Power TechnologiesConcentrating Solar Power Technologies
  15. 15. Photovoltaic TechnologyPhotovoltaic Technology Photovoltaic technology enables the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity using solar cells Solar cells are most commonly made from wafers of high purity siliconfrom wafers of high purity silicon Cells are connected in series and encapsulated (laminated) with a glass sheet on top to make a module Modules are the building blocks of a PV system.
  16. 16. PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIESPHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES BULKBULK CRYSTALCRYSTAL Mono-crystalline Si Poly-crystalline SiPoly-crystalline Si EFG Si (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) Silicon Film
  17. 17. PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIESPHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES THIN FILMTHIN FILM Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Cadmium TellurideCadmium Telluride (cd-Te) Copper indium diselinide GaAs/Inp Concentrators
  18. 18. Polycrystalline Mono-crystalline Major types of PV cellsMajor types of PV cells Thin Film (6-10%) Polycrystalline 13-18% Mono-crystalline 14-19% 'Hybrid‘ (15 – 20%)
  19. 19. Solar PV Value ChainSolar PV Value Chain Solar cellPolysilicon Ingot &Wafer Solar cell Solar PV moduleSolar PV Array Polysilicon Ingot &Wafer Solar PV Plant
  20. 20. Advantages of PV systemsAdvantages of PV systems They do not need any fuel There is no pollution There are no moving parts They are easy to maintain They are modular in nature, generating power from milliwatts to megawatts They generate power instantaneously Energy can be stored for use later
  21. 21. Photovoltaic ConversionPhotovoltaic Conversion An atom is made up of two main parts, firstly the nucleus, the red sphere you can see in the middle and secondly the electron cloud. Which is the random path the electron follows around the atom Atom structure Electrons Orbits
  22. 22. Metals, Insulators, SemiconductorsMetals, Insulators, Semiconductors Atoms with 1 or 2 electrons in the outer orbit are called Metals, Conductors Atoms with 6 or 7 electrons in the outer orbit are Non-Metals,orbit are Non-Metals, Insulators Atoms with 3 or 4 electrons in the outer orbit are called semiconductors
  23. 23. NN--TYPE SILICON,TYPE SILICON, Doped With Phosphorus,Doped With Phosphorus, 55 ElectronsElectrons elel Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Free electron elel Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si P+ P+
  24. 24. PP-- TYPE SILICONTYPE SILICON Silicon Doped with Boron,Silicon Doped with Boron, 33EleEle free hole Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si B−B−
  25. 25. Description of TechnologyDescription of Technology Photovoltaic (PV) Cell N-layer made with Silicon and Phosphorus P-layer made with Silicon and Boron Basic Process -- N-layer - - ++ P-layer ++
  26. 26. How Solar Cells WorkHow Solar Cells Work Two types of silicon—negative “n” type (A) and positive “p” type (B)—form an electric field. Each photon hitting the cell will free exactly one electron, e-, which flows toward the load. This results in an electric current.
  27. 27. Basic ProcessBasic Process Light hits the Photovoltaic Cell - - N-layer - - ++ P-layer ++
  28. 28. Basic ProcessBasic Process P-layer absorbs the light energy - - N-layer - - ++ P-layer ++
  29. 29. Basic ProcessBasic Process P-layer uses energy to free electrons - - N-layer - - ++ P-layer++
  30. 30. Basic ProcessBasic Process Electric field repels electrons to flow in one direction - - N-layer - - ++ P-layer ++ Leads
  31. 31. Basic ProcessBasic Process Flow of electrons in one direction produces electricity - - N-layer - - ++ P-layer ++ Leads
  32. 32. Module structureModule structure
  33. 33. Concept of Solar PV TechnologyConcept of Solar PV Technology
  34. 34. SetSet--up for testing a PV moduleup for testing a PV module
  35. 35. Testing a PV moduleTesting a PV module
  36. 36. Electrical performance of PV moduleElectrical performance of PV module
  37. 37. Junction box & By Bass Diode & MPPTJunction box & By Bass Diode & MPPT
  38. 38. The largest solar PV plant inThe largest solar PV plant in AmericaAmerica
  39. 39. PV power plant at Fresno,PV power plant at Fresno, CaliforniaCalifornia
  40. 40. Solar PV Additions and Existing Capacity,Solar PV Additions and Existing Capacity, 20072007––20112011
  41. 41. EstimatedEstimated LevelizedLevelized Cost of New Generation Resources,Cost of New Generation Resources, 20172017 U.S. AverageU.S. Average LevelizedLevelized Cost for Plants Entering Service inCost for Plants Entering Service in20172017 ((20102010 USD/USD/MWhMWh))
  42. 42. Advantages of solar power plantsAdvantages of solar power plants Cause no pollution Low running cost Need no fuel Low gestation period Can be set up in dry or waste lands High initial cost Low plant load factor (18-22%) Disadvantages of solar powerDisadvantages of solar power plantsplants
  43. 43. Solar powerSolar powerSolar powerSolar powerSolar powerSolar powerSolar powerSolar power ApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplicationsApplications
  44. 44. Classification Of solar Power Plants GRID CONNECTED STAND ALONE
  45. 45. GRID CONNECTED - Central Generation - Distributed Generation - Main Grid Interface - Local Grid Interface - Small Rooftops GRID SERVICE CONNECTION PV ARRAYS KWh METER AC LOADS ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION PANEL INVERTER SOURCE COMBINER WITH DC STRING DISCONNECTS AC DISCONNECT LIGHTNING PROTECTION DC AC
  46. 46. Central Generation
  47. 47. Main Grid Interface
  48. 48. Small Rooftops
  49. 49. STAND ALONE - Simple DC System - Large DC System - AC and DC System - Hybrid system PV ARRAYS CHARGE CONTROLLER DC LOAD BATTERY DC/AC INVERTER AC LOAD AC DC AC and DC System
  50. 50. Simple DC System Large System STAND ALONE Simple DC System Large System Hybrid system
  51. 51. Simple DC System Street Lighting Telecommunication` Railway Signaling
  52. 52. Solar-Powered Water Pump Systems A typical solar-powered water pump system • The PV array and its support structure, • An electrical controller, and • An electric-powered pump.

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