solar power plant


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solar power plant

  1. 1. SOLAR POWER PLANT • Process of operation of power plant • Kind of energy sources and its availability in the Philippines • Comparative capital and maintenance cost • Efficiency • Environmental effect while obtaining energy source of operating the plant
  2. 2. SOLAR ENERGY Traditionally, photovoltaic systems (PVs) are used in remote areas. Examples of this are wireless and cellular communication systems, road sign lighting, call boxes, water pumping and refrigeration. Solar water heaters are now being used at hotels and commercial complexes which where initially target for residentiial areas of the country. Harnessing energy on land through the use of photovoltaic or solar cells is best for places which are 20 degree S and 20 degree N of the equator. We are within this area, so solar energy is feasible. An experimental solar powerplant with solar panels is found
  3. 3. PROCESS OF OPERATION OF POWER PLANT Radiant energy (sunlight) generated electricity through
  4. 4. There are two ways we can produce electricity from the sun: Photovoltaic Electricity – This method uses photovoltaic cells that absorb the direct sunlight just like the solar cells you see on some calculators. Solar-Thermal Electricity – This also uses a solar collector: it has a mirrored surface that reflects the sunlight onto a receiver that heats up a liquid. This heated liquid is used to make steam that produces electricity.
  5. 5. Photovoltaic solar plants work like this: As light hits the solar panels, the solar radiation is converted into direct current electricity (DC). The direct current flows from the panels and is converted into alternating current (AC) used by local electric utilities. Finally, the electricity travels through transformers, and the voltage is boosted for delivery onto the transmission lines so local electric utilities can distribute the electricity to homes and businesses.
  6. 6. Solar-Thermal plants work like this: Solar collectors capture and concentrate sunlight to heat a synthetic oil called therminol, which then heats water to create steam. The steam is piped to an onsite turbine-generator to produce electricity, which is then transmitted over power lines. On cloudy days, the plant has a supplementary natural gas boiler. The plant can burn natural gas to heat the water, creating steam to generate electricity.
  7. 7. Kind of energy sources and its availability in the Philippines
  8. 8. Solar Trough System Trough systems predominate among today’s commercial solar power plants. Trough systems convert the heat from the sun into electricity. Because of their parabolic shape, troughs can focus the sun at 30 to 60 times its normal intensity on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough. Synthetic oil captures this heat as the oil circulates through the pipe, reaching temperatures as high as 390°C (735ºF). The hot oil is pumped to a generating station and routed through a heat exchanger to produce steam. Finally, electricity is produced in a conventional steam turbine.
  9. 9. Comparative capital and maintenance cost
  10. 10. • Due to the poor part-load behaviour of solar thermal power, plants should be installed in regions with a minimum of around 2000 full-load hours. This is the case in regions with a direct normal irradiance of more than 2000 kWh/m2 or a global irradiance of more than 1800 kWh/m2. These irradiance values can be found in the earth’s sunbelt; however, thermal storage can increase the number of full-load hours significantly. The specific system costs are between €2000/kW and €5000/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost €100–250 million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of €0.15/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below €0.10/kWh. The potential for solar thermal power plants is enormous: for instance, about 1% of the area of the Sahara desert covered with solar thermal power plants would theoretically be sufficient to meet the entire global electricity demand. Therefore, solar thermal power systems will hopefully play an important role in the world’s future electricity supply.
  11. 11. • A small home system can be installed for as little as $25k dollars if you do the work yourself. Larger homes and small companies would be proportionally more expensive. Johnson Controls spent a million dollars to provide some power for their lights in Milwaukee recently. Power completely from solar is prohibitively expensive in many cases. Rs. 6 Crore to Rs. 7 Crore per MW It's possible to build them anywhere, but to get the most power out of them you want to build them in a place with reliable, sunny weather. Ideally, it should be fairly close to a town or industry too, so that there's something nearby to use up the energy. Otherwise, you'll have to move the energy around first, which means that some of it is lost in transit.
  12. 12. EFFICIENCY
  13. 13. Solar power from a concentrated solar power plant costs the same as electric from a fossil fuel pant. if you install home photovoltaic solar panels, it will cost up to $25,000. after installation, there is little maintenance and the panels will last over 30 years. The cost of photovoltaic energy is obtained by adding together investment costs (planning, photovoltaic system, inverter and/or batteries, other auxiliary equipments) running costs (maintenance, technicians) and additional costs (taxes and insurance). Generally, governments provide incentives, funding and various concessions, which unfortunately sometimes come up against bureaucratic obstacles. If we take as an example the most common systems, which use modules in mono or polycrystalline silicon, with an efficiency of 12-14%, the average cost in Italy is approximately 8000 Euros/kWpeak for small systems (a few tens of kWpeak) and can cost as little as 5500 Euros for 1 MWpeak systems. Modules built with a special technology can reach a 20% efficiency with a corresponding increase in costs; modules in amorphous silicon, with a 6-8% efficiency, cost less. The cost of the photovoltaic kWh generated, plus investment and maintenance costs, must also take into account the number of kWh generated in a year, the lifetime of the system (usually estimated at 25 years), real interest costs, etc. In Italy, the final amount can vary between 0.3 and 0.5 Euros/kWh; the cost paid by the average private consumer to the distributing company is around 0.15 Euros/kWh.
  14. 14. Environmental effect while obtaining energy source of operating power plant.
  15. 15. Getting the energy we need affects our environment in many different ways. Some energy sources have a greater impact than others. Energy is lost to the environment during any energy transformation, usually as heat. Notice the heat from your computer or car after it has been in use for a while. Nothing is completely energy efficient. Fortunately, the energy industry has become increasingly aware of the importance of environmental protection and is working to reduce its long-term impact. Solar energy produces no air or water pollution or greenhouse gases. However, it has some indirect impacts on the environment. For example, the manufacturing of photovoltaic cells (PV) produces some toxic materials and chemicals. Ecosystems can also be affected by solar systems. Water from underground wells may be required to clean concentrators and receivers, and to cool the generator, which may harm the ecosystem in dry climates.
  16. 16. • The environmental impact of using solar energy is negative at the start with the cost of the materials and the cost of production of the equipment. It balances out after a few years and the impact is then positive. With solar hot water, it is the cost of the tank and the evacuated tubes on your roof, and the small electric pump to circulate the water. After that initial expense the only ongoing impact is the small electric pump. The initial cost should be recovered in two or three years, depending on your local price of fuel and after that the environmental impact is positive. With solar panels that generate electricity (PV, or photovoltaic cells), the cost of the materials and the cost of production is the negative environmental impact. Again after a few years that impact is balanced out by the positive features of generating your own electricity from the sun. A: Disadvantages: - When people are producing solar panels they have leftover stuff like Silicon Tetrachloride, and they have to dispose of it, which can pollute.
  17. 17. When creating solar panels the manufacturers have to use energy, which pollutes the air, creates heavy metal emissions, and greenhouse gases. Can't use solar energy during the night Can't use solar energy when it is very dense and foggy outside Advantages: Using solar panels doesn't pollute the air. Using solar panels doesn't release carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, or mercury into the atmosphere as many traditional forms of electrical generation do. The solar panels operate silently, have no moving parts, and don't release offensive smells. Doesn't contribute to acid rain, global warming, or smog. A: It provides power for our use while not continuously using resources. This reduces the cost and effects of obtaining fuel and transporting fuel, and once in place the panels do not generate polluting material while functioning.