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Solar energy ppt

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Solar energy ppt

  1. 1. Solar EnergySolar Energy  Shubhajit Basak(Roll no.11)  Saumik Bhattyacharya(Roll no.17)  Debraj Biswas( Roll no.20) E.C.E, 2nd YEAR , Sec-A B.P.P.I.M.T
  2. 2. What is Solar Energy? • The most precise Solar Energy definition : Energy from the sun. • But what is solar energy really? There are two types of solar energy: Thermal Energy & Electric Energy • Thermal Energy: Thermal Energy is everywhere. It’s lights up our days. It heats the earth, our bodies and our homes. It dries our clothes . All for free! • Electric Energy: Electric Energy uses the power of the sun to produce electricity through solar cells, otherwise known as Photovoltaics (PV).
  3. 3. • Diameter: 1.39E9 m (120 x greater than earth) • Distance from earth = 1.495E11 m (93 million miles) ± 1.7% • Center: Density 100 x density of water and T>1E6 K≅ • Powered by hydrogen fusion • Composed of layers. The outer layer is the photosphere • Effective blackbody temperature of 5777 K The Sun Cont’d
  4. 4. Cont’d • World Energy Conservation predicted estimation about the rate of utilization of energy resources shows that the coal depositscoal deposits will deplete within the next 200200 to 300300 years and petroleum depositspetroleum deposits will deplete in next few decadesnext few decades • The most advantage using SolarSolar EnergyEnergy is that this is distributed over a wide geographical area, ensuring that developing regions such as IndiaIndia have access to electricity generation at a stable cost for the long-term future • The huge consumption of fossil fuels has caused visible damage to the environment in various forms Why Solar EnergyWhy Solar EnergyWhy Solar EnergyWhy Solar Energy
  5. 5. The following table shows the amount of carbon and sulphur deposited in the atmosphere Cont’d S. No Activity Amount deposited in the atmosphere 1. Human Vehicle, Waste product etc 8 billion tones 2. Fossil fuels 6.5 million tones 3. Deforestation and forest firing 1.5 million tones At present so many alternative fuels have been developed, still they are able to meet only a small proportion of our actual demand - The right fuel mixThe right fuel mix At present so many alternative fuels have been developed, still they are able to meet only a small proportion of our actual demand - The right fuel mixThe right fuel mix Importance of Solar EnergyImportance of Solar EnergyImportance of Solar EnergyImportance of Solar Energy
  6. 6. Cont’d
  7. 7. Cont’d Solar RadiationSolar RadiationSolar RadiationSolar Radiation Solar Radiation Components •Ultra-Violet (200nm to 400nm) 8.7% • Visible (400nm to 700nm) 36.2% •Infra-red (700nm to 2500nm) 53.1% Solar Radiation Components •Ultra-Violet (200nm to 400nm) 8.7% • Visible (400nm to 700nm) 36.2% •Infra-red (700nm to 2500nm) 53.1% Solar Radiation Level •Average radiation outer space 136.7mw/sq.cm •Radiation on Earth surface 107mw/sq.cm Solar Radiation Level •Average radiation outer space 136.7mw/sq.cm •Radiation on Earth surface 107mw/sq.cmRef: Thekaekara 1977 •Near infra-red (700nm to 1100nm) 28.1% •Infrared/far-infrared (above 1100nm) 25.4% •Near infra-red (700nm to 1100nm) 28.1% •Infrared/far-infrared (above 1100nm) 25.4% Voltaic Form of radiation: Diffused or Beamed Voltaic Form of radiation: Diffused or Beamed Silicon PV efficient UsesSilicon PV efficient Uses Regions Only heating or Thermo Photo Voltaic Regions Only heating or Thermo Photo Voltaic
  8. 8. Current solar energy consumptionCurrent solar energy consumption Cont’d
  9. 9. • 1838 - Edmund Becquerel observed materials which turn light into energy • 1876 - 78 - William Adams, wrote the first book about Solar Energy called: AA Substitute for Fuel in TropicalSubstitute for Fuel in Tropical CountriesCountries and was able to power a 2.5 horsepower steam engine • 1860- Auguste Mouchout, used direct conversion of solar radiation into mechanical power. • 1895 - Aubrey Eneas formed the first Solar Energy company • 1904 - Henry Willsie built 2 huge plants in California to store generated power. He was the first to successfully use power at night after generating it during the day • 1838 - Edmund Becquerel observed materials which turn light into energy • 1876 - 78 - William Adams, wrote the first book about Solar Energy called: AA Substitute for Fuel in TropicalSubstitute for Fuel in Tropical CountriesCountries and was able to power a 2.5 horsepower steam engine • 1860- Auguste Mouchout, used direct conversion of solar radiation into mechanical power. • 1895 - Aubrey Eneas formed the first Solar Energy company • 1904 - Henry Willsie built 2 huge plants in California to store generated power. He was the first to successfully use power at night after generating it during the day HISTORICAL MILESTONESHISTORICAL MILESTONES Mouchout‘s Solar collectorMouchout‘s Solar collector Cont’d
  10. 10. HISTORICAL MILESTONESHISTORICAL MILESTONES • 1954 -Calvin Fuller, Gerald Pearson and Daryl Chaplin of Bell Laboratories discovered the use of silicon as a semi-conductor, which led to the construction of a solar panel with an efficiency rate of 6%. • 1956 -The first commercial solar cell was made available to the public at a very expensive $300 per watt$300 per watt • 1958- Vanguard I the first satellite was launched that used solar energy to generate electricity. • 1970- The Energy Crisis ! (OPEC oilThe Energy Crisis ! (OPEC oil embargo)embargo) Solar energy history was made as the price of solar cells dropped dramatically to about $20$20 per watt.per watt. • 1954 -Calvin Fuller, Gerald Pearson and Daryl Chaplin of Bell Laboratories discovered the use of silicon as a semi-conductor, which led to the construction of a solar panel with an efficiency rate of 6%. • 1956 -The first commercial solar cell was made available to the public at a very expensive $300 per watt$300 per watt • 1958- Vanguard I the first satellite was launched that used solar energy to generate electricity. • 1970- The Energy Crisis ! (OPEC oilThe Energy Crisis ! (OPEC oil embargo)embargo) Solar energy history was made as the price of solar cells dropped dramatically to about $20$20 per watt.per watt. Cont’d
  11. 11. Discover Solar Panels HOW IT WORKS Discover Solar Panels HOW IT WORKS 1) Sunlight hit the solar panel (photovoltaic/ PV) and absorbed by semi-conducting materials such as silicone. 2) Electrons are knocked loose from their atoms, which allow them to flow through the material to produce electricity. This process is called the photovoltaic (PV) effect. 3) An array of solar panels converts solar energy into DC (direct current) electricity. 4) The DC electricity enters an inverter. 5) The inverter turns DC electricity into 120-volt AC (alternating current) 6) The AC power enters the utility panel in the house. 7) The electricity (load) is then distributed to appliances or lights in the house. 1) Sunlight hit the solar panel (photovoltaic/ PV) and absorbed by semi-conducting materials such as silicone. 2) Electrons are knocked loose from their atoms, which allow them to flow through the material to produce electricity. This process is called the photovoltaic (PV) effect. 3) An array of solar panels converts solar energy into DC (direct current) electricity. 4) The DC electricity enters an inverter. 5) The inverter turns DC electricity into 120-volt AC (alternating current) 6) The AC power enters the utility panel in the house. 7) The electricity (load) is then distributed to appliances or lights in the house. Cont’d
  12. 12. Discover Solar Panels HOW IT WORKS Discover Solar Panels HOW IT WORKS 8) When more solar energy is generated it can be stored in a battery as DC electricity and will continue to supply your home with electricity in the event of a power blackout or at nighttime. 9) When the battery is full the excess electricity can be exported back into the utility grid, if your system is connected to it. 10) Utility supplied electricity can also be drawn form the grid when not enough solar energy is produced 11) The flow of electricity in and out of the utility grid is measured by a utility meter, which spins backwards (when you are producing more energy that you need) and forward (when you require additional electricity from the utility company). The two are offset ensuring that you only pay for the additional energy you use from the utility company. This system is referred to as "net- metering". 8) When more solar energy is generated it can be stored in a battery as DC electricity and will continue to supply your home with electricity in the event of a power blackout or at nighttime. 9) When the battery is full the excess electricity can be exported back into the utility grid, if your system is connected to it. 10) Utility supplied electricity can also be drawn form the grid when not enough solar energy is produced 11) The flow of electricity in and out of the utility grid is measured by a utility meter, which spins backwards (when you are producing more energy that you need) and forward (when you require additional electricity from the utility company). The two are offset ensuring that you only pay for the additional energy you use from the utility company. This system is referred to as "net- metering". Cont’d
  13. 13. • Begun as far back as in the mid 70’s solar photovoltics programme of the Government of India is one of the largest in the World • Reliefs offered by government on SPV manufacturers and users of SPV based products : * 100% depreciation in the first year of installation of the systems * No excise duty for manufacturers * Low import tariff for several raw materials and components * Soft loans to users, intermediaries and manufacturers. • Begun as far back as in the mid 70’s solar photovoltics programme of the Government of India is one of the largest in the World • Reliefs offered by government on SPV manufacturers and users of SPV based products : * 100% depreciation in the first year of installation of the systems * No excise duty for manufacturers * Low import tariff for several raw materials and components * Soft loans to users, intermediaries and manufacturers. Postage Stamp published By India Government Postage Stamp published By India Government Solar Photovolatics in IndiaSolar Photovolatics in India Cont’d
  14. 14. Promoting use of PV technology to Provide Lighting in Villages in the form of : Promoting use of PV technology to Provide Lighting in Villages in the form of : Solar Photovolatics in India (cont’d)Solar Photovolatics in India (cont’d) Cont’d Systems Capacity Uses Community lighting systems 1KW to 2.5 KW Small household lighting system Portable solar lanterns 10Wp SPV module lighting 7 W CFL lamp for 3 hours a day Street lights 75Wp SPV module Charging 100-130AH battery to run a 11W CFL lamp for dusk to dawn operation Fixed home lighting systems 35-50Wp SPV module powering two CFLs -- 9 or 11W , work 4-5 hours /day, run a small TV set or a fan Water Pumping 1KW DC motor shallow pumping
  15. 15. Solar powered “Auto Rickshaw”Solar powered “Auto Rickshaw” NASA designed Solar powered vehicle- “HELIOS” NASA designed Solar powered vehicle- “HELIOS” PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGYPRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGY Cont’d
  16. 16. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGYPRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGY Semi autonomous War machine- ”Odysseus” Semi autonomous War machine- ”Odysseus” Solar car- “ Quant”Solar car- “ Quant” Cont’d
  17. 17. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGYPRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGY Solar street lightSolar street light Solar cooker used in Rural India Solar cooker used in Rural India Cont’d
  18. 18. Solar Energy Advantages • Saves you money • After the initial investment has been recovered, the energy from the sun is practically FREE. • Financial incentives are available form the government that will reduce your cost. • Environment friendly • It's not affected by the supply and demand of fuel and is therefore not subjected to the ever-increasing price of gasoline. • Solar Energy is clean, renewable (unlike gas, oil and coal), sustainable and helping to protect our environment. • As we see previously ,it does no pollute air. • Therefore Solar Energy does not contribute to global warming, acid rain or smog. It actively contributes to the decrease of harmful green house gas emissions. By not using any fuel, Solar Energy does not contribute to the cost and problems of the recovery and transportation of fuel or the storage of radioactive waste. Cont’d
  19. 19. Solar Energy Advantages (cont’d) • Low/ no maintenance • Solar Energy systems are virtually maintenance free and will last for decades. • Once installed, there are no recurring costs. They operate silently, have no moving parts, do not release offensive smells and do not require you to add any fuel. More solar panels can easily be added in the future when your family's needs grow. Cont’d
  20. 20. Solar Energy- Main Drawbacks • The initial cost is the main disadvantage of installing a solar energy system, largely because of the high cost of the semi-conducting materials used in building one. • The cost of solar energy is also high compared to non-renewable utility-supplied electricity. • Solar panels require quite a large area for installation to achieve a good level of efficiency. • The efficiency of the system also relies on the location of the sun, although this problem can be overcome with the installation of certain components. The production of solar energy is influenced by the presence of clouds or pollution in the air. Similarly, no solar energy will be produced during nighttime although a battery backup system and/or net metering will solve this problem. • As far as solar powered cars go - their slower speed might not appeal to everyone caught up in today's rat race. Cont’d
  21. 21. FINAL VERDICT • Penalizing extractive and polluting fossil-fuel energy • Create Incentives – Feed-in tariffs – Net metering – Rebates – Consumer tax deductions – Production Tax credits • Invest in R&D • Penalizing extractive and polluting fossil-fuel energy • Create Incentives – Feed-in tariffs – Net metering – Rebates – Consumer tax deductions – Production Tax credits • Invest in R&D A 1-kilowatt home solar system will prevent approximately 170 lbs. of coal from being burned, 300 lbs of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere and 105 gallons of water from being consumed each month! A 1-kilowatt home solar system will prevent approximately 170 lbs. of coal from being burned, 300 lbs of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere and 105 gallons of water from being consumed each month! Tools For Adoption & Acceleration Solar Energy CollectorSolar Energy Collector Solar DishSolar Dish Cont’d
  22. 22. No! But it can do much more than it does now. “Old guysOld guys” don’t know about solar design. It is up to the “NewNew GraduatesGraduates” to promote solar. Cont’d Can solar do it all?Can solar do it all?
  23. 23. Thank YouThank You

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