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M. Nageswar Rao,
Sr.Mgr.(EMD)
Date: 24.10.2015
Venue: EDC, Simhadri
Presentation layout
 Solar radiation & resources
 Solar power technologies
 Govt. policies
 Solar PV
 Solar Thermal
...
3
Solar energy
 The surface receives
about 47% of the total
solar energy that
reaches the Earth. Only
this amount is usable...
NTPC Solar projects
 Commissioned (110 MW)
 Under execution (8MW)
 8 MW hydro energy based project at NTPC-Singrauli in...
Insolation
 Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy
received on a given surface area in a given time.
 It is c...
Direct insolation
 Direct insolation is the solar irradiance measured at a given location
on Earth with a surface element...
Solar radiation
 Solar radiation is received as heat and light.
 Availability of reliable solar radiation data is vital ...
GHI
 Most parts of India
receive good solar
radiation 5.5- 6
kWh/sq. m/day
DNI
 Most parts of India
receive good solar
radiation 5- 5.5
kWh/sq. m/day
Solar power applications
 Solar PV
 Roof-top
 Solar farms
 Solar thermal
 Power Tower
 Parabolic Trough
 Parabolic ...
Solar power technologies
 Solar PV
 Certain semiconductors when exposed to light
produce an electric current.
 Efficien...
Tilt of panel
 Maximizing exposure
with direct sunlight is
achieved by
 Avoiding shade
 Exposing the panels to the
most...
Tilt and azimuth
 Tilt of the array
 is the angle of inclination from horizontal (0° = horizontal, 90° =
vertical).
 in...
Solar tracker
 A tracking system is one that moves to track the sun.
 There are two different axes that can be tracked
...
Govt. Policies
JNNSM
 The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was
launched on the 11th January, 2010 by the Prime Minister
under Nat...
19
JNNSM - 3 phase approach
Application segment Target for
Phase I
(2010-13)
Cumulative
Target for
Phase 2
(2013-17)
Cumul...
JNNSM- RPO
 The key driver for promoting solar power is through
a Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) mandated
for power ...
JNNSM- RPO
 Solar Power Capacity Requirement By 2022
JNNSM- REC
 Another mechanism being used by the Government is the REC.
 Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) mechanism is ...
JNNSM- REC
 Forbearance Price: It is the highest difference between the CERC tariff
and the APPC across states.
 Floor P...
JNNSM- REC
Solar PV
Solar PV power
 Roof-top application
 Solar farms
26
PV module
27
Solar array wiring
28
How does power produce
 Sunlight is composed of photons, or bundles of
radiant energy.
 When photons strike a PV cell, t...
PV cell types
 Crystalline-Silicon Solar Panels
 Thin-Film Solar Panels
30
Crystalline-Silicon Solar Panels
 Advantages
 stable,
 efficiencies in the range of 15% to 25%,
 relies on established...
Thin-Film Solar Panels
 Potentially cheaper
 less efficient
 Types of thin-film solar cells:
 amorphous Silicon (a-Si)...
Crystalline vs. thin film
33
Cell Technology Crystalline Silicon Thin Film
Types of Technology
Mono-crystalline silicon (c...
I-V characteristics
34
 The usable voltage from solar cells depends
on the semiconductor material. In silicon it
amounts ...
I-V characteristics
35
P-V characteristics
 MPPT
36
Growth in India PV production
37
20 23 36 45
65 80
135
240
300
600
20 22 25 32 37 45
110
175
240
320
2001-02
2002-03
2003-...
Status of PV in India
38
Lights
90
Pumps
14
Off grid Plants
62
Grid Plants
1044
Railways
55
Telecom
65
Others
270
Int Proj...
Grid solar PV in India
 1044 MW capacity new Grid Solar Power
projects commissioned by September, 2012 in
16 States.
39
G...
PV Capital Cost & CERC
Tariff Trends
40
Proposed cost target for
PV by 2017
 PV Module : < Rs. 30 per Wp
 BoS : < Rs. 25 per Wp
 Cost of Electricity : ~ Rs. 4 ...
Projection for Grid Parity in
India
42
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 ...
Efficiency and disadvantages
 Efficiency is far lass than the 77% of solar spectrum
with usable wavelengths.
 43% of pho...
Solar Thermal
Reflector/ Collector types
 Linear Fresnel
reflectors with Linear
collector tubes
 Heliostats with
Central receiver
 Pa...
Parabolic trough
46
Parabolic trough
47
Parabolic Trough
 Sunlight focused on heat transfer fluid (HTF), which
then runs steam turbine
Parabolic Trough power plant
49
Parabolic Trough power plant
 All the collectors track the path of the sun on their longitudinal axes.
The mirrors concen...
Parabolic Trough power plant
 A fossil burner can drive the water-steam cycle during periods
of bad weather or at night.
...
Power tower
52
Power tower
• A solar thermal plant
consists of mirror
reflectors called
heliostats
• Produces electricity
by reflecting s...
Heliostats
• They direct and
concentrate the solar
radiation onto a central
receiver.
• Many parameters must
be optimized,...
Shading & blocking
 Shading occurs when
a heliostat casts its
shadow on another
heliostat located
behind it
• Blocking oc...
Power tower
 General idea is to collect the light from many reflectors spread over a
large area at one central point to a...
Power tower power plant
57
Power tower in Barstow,
California.
Power tower power plant
 The solar field of a central receiver system, or power tower, is
made up of several hundred or e...
Parabolic dish
59
Parabolic dish
 Because they work best
under direct sunlight,
parabolic dishes and
troughs must be steered
throughout the...
Solar Power distribution
Off-grid/ On-grid PV
Solar Generated Electricity
Distribution Approaches
 Centralized (CSP)
 Distributed (PV Roof Installations)
Centralized
 Advantages
 Traditional model of
distribution
 No fuel costs
 Disadvantages
 Non-Constant Power
 Vulner...
Distributed Solar (PV)
 Advantages
 Net-metering
 Grid Storage
 Flexibility
 Reduced vulnerability to
terrorist attac...
Roof top grid connected
 The cost of setting up a 5-KW unit is around Rs 7.5
lakh and requires 2,000 sq feet of roof spac...
Net-Metering
 Peak generation from PV occurs during the day
 Net-metering allows users to “bank” electricity they genera...
Grid-Connected PV
String inverter
69
Central inverters
70
71
1. Solar Power Plant Technologies
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1. Solar Power Plant Technologies

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1. Solar Power Plant Technologies

  1. 1. M. Nageswar Rao, Sr.Mgr.(EMD) Date: 24.10.2015 Venue: EDC, Simhadri
  2. 2. Presentation layout  Solar radiation & resources  Solar power technologies  Govt. policies  Solar PV  Solar Thermal  Solar power distribution 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Solar energy  The surface receives about 47% of the total solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount is usable. 4
  5. 5. NTPC Solar projects  Commissioned (110 MW)  Under execution (8MW)  8 MW hydro energy based project at NTPC-Singrauli in Uttar Pradesh. 5
  6. 6. Insolation  Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time.  It is commonly expressed as  average irradiance in watts per square meter (W/m2), or  kWh/sq. m/day 6
  7. 7. Direct insolation  Direct insolation is the solar irradiance measured at a given location on Earth with a surface element perpendicular to the Sun's rays, excluding diffuse insolation (the solar radiation that is scattered or reflected by atmospheric components in the sky).  Direct insolation is equal to the solar constant minus the atmospheric losses due to absorption and scattering.  While the solar constant varies with the Earth-Sun distance and solar cycles, the losses depend on the time of day (length of light's path through the atmosphere depending on the Solar elevation angle), cloud cover, moisture content, and other impurities.  Insolation is a fundamental abiotic factor affecting the metabolism of plants and the behaviour of animals. 7
  8. 8. Solar radiation  Solar radiation is received as heat and light.  Availability of reliable solar radiation data is vital for the success of solar energy installations in different sites of the country.  Solar radiation data is available in the form of 8 solar radiation data Application Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) for flat solar collectors Solar PV Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for solar collectors/ concentrators. Solar Thermal
  9. 9. GHI  Most parts of India receive good solar radiation 5.5- 6 kWh/sq. m/day
  10. 10. DNI  Most parts of India receive good solar radiation 5- 5.5 kWh/sq. m/day
  11. 11. Solar power applications  Solar PV  Roof-top  Solar farms  Solar thermal  Power Tower  Parabolic Trough  Parabolic dish  Grid connectivity  Off-grid  On -grid
  12. 12. Solar power technologies  Solar PV  Certain semiconductors when exposed to light produce an electric current.  Efficiency of Solar PV systems range from 14% - 36%.  Solar thermal  Heat from the sun is used to heat large amounts of water which is then used to drive turbines.  Efficiency of Solar Thermal system is around 22%. 13
  13. 13. Tilt of panel  Maximizing exposure with direct sunlight is achieved by  Avoiding shade  Exposing the panels to the most direct sunlight for greatest amount of time  Tilt and azimuth 14
  14. 14. Tilt and azimuth  Tilt of the array  is the angle of inclination from horizontal (0° = horizontal, 90° = vertical).  installers aim for a tilt equal to the geographic latitude minus 15 degrees in order to achieve yearly maximum output of power.  An increased tilt will favor power output in the winter months, which is often desired for solar water heating, and a decreased tilt will favor power output in summer months.  The azimuth  is the angle clockwise from true north of the direction that the PV array faces (0 or 360 = North, 180 = South).  Solar installations in the Northwest should generally be designed with an azimuth within 45 degrees of true south (180) to maximize energy production.  Increasing the azimuth angle favors afternoon energy production, while decreasing the azimuth angle favors morning energy production. 15
  15. 15. Solar tracker  A tracking system is one that moves to track the sun.  There are two different axes that can be tracked  the tilt which would change over the course of a year, and  the azimuth, which would change over the course of a day.  Tracking with either a one or two axis system allows the PV production to stay closer to maximum capacity for many additional hours.  Note:  All modules wired to one inverter (or all modules sharing a string in the case of a multi-string inverter) should be mounted at the same tilt and azimuth.  This is to maintain consistent voltage production throughout the array (or string).  If voltage differences occur, energy production from the entire array may be compromised. 16
  16. 16. Govt. Policies
  17. 17. JNNSM  The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched on the 11th January, 2010 by the Prime Minister under National Action Plan on Climate Change.  The Mission has set the ambitious target of deploying 20,000 MW of grid connected solar power by 2022 is aimed at reducing the cost of solar power generation in the country through  (i) long term policy;  (ii) large scale deployment goals;  (iii) aggressive R&D; and  (iv) domestic production of critical raw materials, components and products, as a result to achieve grid tariff parity by 2022. 18
  18. 18. 19 JNNSM - 3 phase approach Application segment Target for Phase I (2010-13) Cumulative Target for Phase 2 (2013-17) Cumulative Target for Phase 3 (2017-22) Grid solar power incl. roof top & distribution grid connected plants 1,000 MW 100 MW 4,000 MW 10,000 MW 20,000 MW Off-grid solar applications 200 MW 1,000 MW 2,000 MW Solar collectors 7 million sq meters 15 million sq meters 20 million sq meters
  19. 19. JNNSM- RPO  The key driver for promoting solar power is through a Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) mandated for power utilities, with a specific solar component.  This will drive utility scale power generation, whether solar PV or solar thermal.  The Solar Purchase Obligation will be gradually increased while the tariff fixed for solar power purchase will decline over time.  As per the National Tariff Policy, it is envisaged that the targets for Solar RPO shall be  0.25% by 2012-13 extending to 3% by 2022
  20. 20. JNNSM- RPO  Solar Power Capacity Requirement By 2022
  21. 21. JNNSM- REC  Another mechanism being used by the Government is the REC.  Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) mechanism is a market based instrument to promote renewable energy and facilitate the compliance of RPOs.  Through RECs, states that do not have sufficient potential for renewable energy can trade with those that have surplus of such resources.  One REC is treated as equivalent to 1MWh.  RECs are available for solar as well as non solar applications.  Revenue for the renewable energy generator can come from the sale of electricity as well as from the sale of environmental attributes in the form of these certificates.  The RECs shall be exchanged through Power Exchanges authorised by CERC.  The price range shall be within the band of floor price and forbearance price to be determined by CERC from time to time.
  22. 22. JNNSM- REC  Forbearance Price: It is the highest difference between the CERC tariff and the APPC across states.  Floor Price: This is the price to keep the project viable in terms of meeting the O&M expenses, Interests on loan and working capital, principal repayment etc. It is taken as the highest difference between the minimum requirement for project viability and respective state APPC of pervious year.  The proposed downward revision is in line with the practices in other countries (say Germany) where the Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) is periodically reduced. It is known as digression and is done to ensure that the subsidy (offered as FiT) follows the falling market prices of the renewable energy systems.
  23. 23. JNNSM- REC
  24. 24. Solar PV
  25. 25. Solar PV power  Roof-top application  Solar farms 26
  26. 26. PV module 27
  27. 27. Solar array wiring 28
  28. 28. How does power produce  Sunlight is composed of photons, or bundles of radiant energy.  When photons strike a PV cell, they may be reflected or absorbed (transmitted through the cell). Only the absorbed photons generate electricity. When the photons are absorbed, the energy of the photons is transferred to electrons in the atoms of the solar cell.  Solar cells are usually made of two thin pieces of silicon, the substance that makes up sand and the second most common substance on earth.  One piece of silicon has a small amount of boron added to it, which gives it a tendency to attract electrons. It is called the p-layer because of its positive tendency.  The other piece of silicon has a small amount of phosphorous added to it, giving it an excess of free electrons. This is called the n-layer because it has a tendency to give up negatively charged electrons.
  29. 29. PV cell types  Crystalline-Silicon Solar Panels  Thin-Film Solar Panels 30
  30. 30. Crystalline-Silicon Solar Panels  Advantages  stable,  efficiencies in the range of 15% to 25%,  relies on established process technologies  proven to be reliable most common solar cells in use.  Disadvantages  poor absorber of light, it needs to be fairly thick and rigid.  Construction  A basic c-Si cell consists of essentially seven layers.  A transparent adhesive holds a protective glass cover over the anti-reflective coating that ensures all of the light filters through to the silicon crystalline layers.  N layer sandwiches against a P layer and the entire package is held together with two electrical contacts: positive topside and negative below. 31
  31. 31. Thin-Film Solar Panels  Potentially cheaper  less efficient  Types of thin-film solar cells:  amorphous Silicon (a-Si) and  Thin-film Silicon (TF-Si);  Cadmium Telluride (CdTe);  Copper Indium Gallium Deselenide (CIS or CIGS); and  Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) plus other organic materials.  Construction  consist of about six layers.  a transparent coating covers the antireflective layer.  These are followed by the P- and N-type materials, followed by the contact plate and substrate.  And, obviously, the operating principle (photovoltaic) is the same as c-Si cells. 32
  32. 32. Crystalline vs. thin film 33 Cell Technology Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Types of Technology Mono-crystalline silicon (c-Si) Poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si/ mc-Si) String Ribbon Amorphous silicon (a-Si) Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIG/ CIGS) Organic photovoltaic (OPV/ DSC/ DYSC) Voltage Rating (Vmp/ Voc) (Higher is better as there is less gap in Voc and Vmp) 80%-85% 72%-78% Temperature Coefficients Higher Lower (Lower is beneficial at high ambient temperatures) I-V Curve Fill Factor (Idealized PV cell is 100%) 73%-82% 60%-68% Module construction With Anodized Aluminum Frameless, sandwiched between glass; lower cost, lower weight Module efficiency 13%-19% 4%- 12% Inverter Compatibility and Sizing Lower temperature coefficient is beneficial System designer has to consider factor such as temperature coefficients, Voc-Vmp difference, isolation resistance due to external factors Mounting systems Industry standard Special clips and structures may be needed. In some cases labor cost is significantly saved DC wiring Industry standard May require more number of circuit combiners and fuses Application Type Residential/ Commercial/ Utility Commercial/ Utility Required Area Industry standard May require up to %50 more space for a given project size Example Brands Kyocera, Evergreen, Sanyo, Schuco, Canadian Solar, Sharp, Yingli, ET Solar, Solon, Schott, Conergy, REC, Solarworld First Solar, Solyndra, UniSolar, Konarka, Dye Solar, Bosch Solar, Sharp, Abound Solar
  33. 33. I-V characteristics 34  The usable voltage from solar cells depends on the semiconductor material. In silicon it amounts to approximately 0.5 V.  Terminal voltage is only weakly dependent on light radiation, while the current intensity increases with higher luminosity.  A 100 cm² silicon cell, for example, reaches a maximum current intensity of approximately 2 A when radiated by 1000 W/m².  The output (product of electricity and voltage) of a solar cell is temperature dependent.  Higher cell temperatures lead to lower output, and hence to lower efficiency.  The level of efficiency indicates how much of the radiated quantity of light is converted into useable electrical energy.
  34. 34. I-V characteristics 35
  35. 35. P-V characteristics  MPPT 36
  36. 36. Growth in India PV production 37 20 23 36 45 65 80 135 240 300 600 20 22 25 32 37 45 110 175 240 320 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Year 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 ProductioninMW Solar Cell PV Module
  37. 37. Status of PV in India 38 Lights 90 Pumps 14 Off grid Plants 62 Grid Plants 1044 Railways 55 Telecom 65 Others 270 Int Projects 1000 2600 MW : 53,00,000 SYSTEMS
  38. 38. Grid solar PV in India  1044 MW capacity new Grid Solar Power projects commissioned by September, 2012 in 16 States. 39 Gujarat 680 Rajasthan 199 A. P. 22 Maharashtra 20 Jharkhand 16 T. N. 15 Karnataka 14 Others 80
  39. 39. PV Capital Cost & CERC Tariff Trends 40
  40. 40. Proposed cost target for PV by 2017  PV Module : < Rs. 30 per Wp  BoS : < Rs. 25 per Wp  Cost of Electricity : ~ Rs. 4 - 6 per kWh 41
  41. 41. Projection for Grid Parity in India 42 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 2020-21 2021-22 Solar Tariff 5% Tariff 3% HT Tariff 3%
  42. 42. Efficiency and disadvantages  Efficiency is far lass than the 77% of solar spectrum with usable wavelengths.  43% of photon energy is used to warm the crystal.  Efficiency drops as temperature increases (from 24% at 0°C to 14% at 100°C.)  Light is reflected off the front face and internal electrical resistance are other factors.  Overall, the efficiency is about 10-14%.  Underlying problem is weighing efficiency against cost.  Crystalline silicon-more efficient, more expensive to manufacture  Amorphous silicon-half as efficient, less expensive to produce. 43
  43. 43. Solar Thermal
  44. 44. Reflector/ Collector types  Linear Fresnel reflectors with Linear collector tubes  Heliostats with Central receiver  Parabolic dish with receiver  Parabolic trough with Linear collector tubes 45
  45. 45. Parabolic trough 46
  46. 46. Parabolic trough 47
  47. 47. Parabolic Trough  Sunlight focused on heat transfer fluid (HTF), which then runs steam turbine
  48. 48. Parabolic Trough power plant 49
  49. 49. Parabolic Trough power plant  All the collectors track the path of the sun on their longitudinal axes. The mirrors concentrate the sunlight more than 80 times on a metal absorber pipe in the line of focus. This pipe is embedded in an evacuated glass tube to reduce heat loss.  A selective coating on the absorber tube surface lowers emission losses. Either water or a special thermal oil, runs through the absorber tube.  The concentrated sunlight heats it up to nearly 400 °C, evaporating water into steam that drives a turbine and an electrical generator. After passing through the turbine, the steam condenses back into water that is returned to the cycle . 50
  50. 50. Parabolic Trough power plant  A fossil burner can drive the water-steam cycle during periods of bad weather or at night.  In contrast to photovoltaic systems, solar thermal power plants can guarantee capacity. This option increases its attractiveness and the quality of planning distribution over the grid.  Thermal storage can complement or replace the fossil burner so that the power plant can be run with neutral carbon dioxide emissions. In this case, heat from storage drives the cycle when there is no direct sunlight.  Biomass or hydrogen could also be used in the parallel burner to run the power plant without carbon dioxide emissions. 51
  51. 51. Power tower 52
  52. 52. Power tower • A solar thermal plant consists of mirror reflectors called heliostats • Produces electricity by reflecting sunlight on to the central receiver. 53
  53. 53. Heliostats • They direct and concentrate the solar radiation onto a central receiver. • Many parameters must be optimized, in the design of a solar thermal plant • The parameters are – Location – Shading and – Blocking 54
  54. 54. Shading & blocking  Shading occurs when a heliostat casts its shadow on another heliostat located behind it • Blocking occurs when a heliostat in front of another heliostat, blocks the reflected suns energy on its way to the receiver. 55
  55. 55. Power tower  General idea is to collect the light from many reflectors spread over a large area at one central point to achieve high temperature.  Example is the 10-MW solar power plant in Barstow, CA.  1900 heliostats, each 20 ft by 20 ft  a central 295 ft tower  An energy storage system allows it to generate 7 MW of electric power without sunlight.  Capital cost is greater than coal fired power plant, despite the no cost for fuel, ash disposal, and stack emissions.  Capital costs are expected to decline as more and more power towers are built with greater technological advances.  One way to reduce cost is to use the waste steam from the turbine for space heating or other industrial processes. 56
  56. 56. Power tower power plant 57 Power tower in Barstow, California.
  57. 57. Power tower power plant  The solar field of a central receiver system, or power tower, is made up of several hundred or even a thousand heliostats, placed around a receiver at the top of a central tower.  A computer controls each of these two-axis tracking heliostats with a tracking error of less than a fraction of a degree to ensure that the reflected sunlight focuses directly on the tower receiver, where an absorber is heated up to temperatures of about 1000 °C by the concentrated sunlight.  Air or molten salt transports the heat and a gas or steam turbine drives an electrical generator that transforms the heat into electricity. 58
  58. 58. Parabolic dish 59
  59. 59. Parabolic dish  Because they work best under direct sunlight, parabolic dishes and troughs must be steered throughout the day in the direction of the sun. 60
  60. 60. Solar Power distribution
  61. 61. Off-grid/ On-grid PV
  62. 62. Solar Generated Electricity Distribution Approaches  Centralized (CSP)  Distributed (PV Roof Installations)
  63. 63. Centralized  Advantages  Traditional model of distribution  No fuel costs  Disadvantages  Non-Constant Power  Vulnerability This PV Array is part of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, generating 3.2 MW, enough for 2,200 homes.
  64. 64. Distributed Solar (PV)  Advantages  Net-metering  Grid Storage  Flexibility  Reduced vulnerability to terrorist attack  Almost no maintenance  Negligible environmental impact  Domestic Production (?)  Disadvantages  Cost  Extensive Individual Investment  Low Conversion Efficiency  CCR’s  Intermittency
  65. 65. Roof top grid connected  The cost of setting up a 5-KW unit is around Rs 7.5 lakh and requires 2,000 sq feet of roof space.  After signing a Power Purchase Agreement with the discoms, the house owner will pay Rs 3 lakh, on which he will get returns of close to Rs 60,000 per annum. 66
  66. 66. Net-Metering  Peak generation from PV occurs during the day  Net-metering allows users to “bank” electricity they generate, and credit it against the electricity they use  Most states won’t pay users if they generate more electricity than they use, but they can “zero-out” their accounts  As of 2007, net-metering is offered to some degree in 41 states and D.C.  California, New York, Texas  Net-metering is offered in Illinois by one or more individual utilities  EPAct of 2005 requires all states to offer net-metering by 2008
  67. 67. Grid-Connected PV
  68. 68. String inverter 69
  69. 69. Central inverters 70
  70. 70. 71

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