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  • Plan of Dura Europos with House Church, House Synagogue, and Mithraeum 3 rd century CE
  • Torah Niche, House Synagogue Dura Europos 244-45
  • Torah Niche, House Synagogue Dura Europos 244-45
  • The Parting of the Red Sea Torah Niche, House Synagogue Dura Europos 244-45 CE
  • Wheel of Life , Anon, 15 th -17 th c. Tibet, from Huntington Collection, Ohio State University Other Symbols: 8 Auspicious Symbols: Lotus Flower (Purity and Enlightenment); Endless Knot (Harmony); Golden Fish Pair (Conjugal Happiness/Freedom); Victory Banner (Victorious Battle); Wheel of Dharma (Knowledge); Treasure Vase (Inexhaustible Treasure/Wealth); Parasol (Royal Protection); Conch Shell (Thoughts of Buddha) 8 Auspicious Substances: Mirror (Clarity of Buddha ’s Realization/Emptiness of Phenomena); Medicine (Right Mindfulness/Cure for Ignorance); Yoghurt (Right Livelihood); Durva Grass (Right Effort/Longevity); Bilva Fruit (Right Action); White Conch (Right Speech/Proclamation of Dharma); Cinnabar (Applied to forehead for right contemplation); Mustard Seed (Right view/ to see things as they really are).
  • Saint-Denis France 1140-1144
  • Saint-Denis France 1140-1144
  • Saint-Denis France 1140-1144
  • The Kabaa Mecca, Saudi Arabia c. 630 CE
  • Tomb of the Prophet Muhammad Medina, Saudi Arabia c. 622 CE
  • Dome of the Rock Jerusalem 691-692 CE
  • Page from the Qu’ran Syria 9 th Century
  • Religion and art upload

    1. 1. Announcements! <ul><li>I will be dropping your lowest assignment grade. </li></ul><ul><li>I will accept any responses you have until the day of the final. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want any of your previous assignments back, please make an appointment with me. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Art and Religion <ul><li>Reading: </li></ul><ul><li>Elsen, “Images of Gods” </li></ul><ul><li>Terms/Concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>iconic, didactic, institutional, aesthetic, bhakti, Vedas, Upanishads, Nataraja, Darshana, Samsara, Mandala, Garbhagriha, Four Noble Truths, Jatakas, Circumambulation, Thankga, Covenant, Torah Niche, Aniconism, Relic, Icon, Five Pillars of Islam, Kufic, </li></ul><ul><li>Key Monuments: </li></ul><ul><li>Shiva as Nataraja (Lord of the Dance), Thanjavur, India, 12 th century CE </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Creation of the World,” Sarajevo Haggadah, Barcelona Spain, 14 th Century. </li></ul><ul><li>Seated Buddha, Ghandara India, Schist, 2 nd -3 rd Century CE </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir Virgin, Constantinople, 12 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 CE </li></ul>
    3. 3. Dimensions of Religious Art <ul><li>Iconographic </li></ul><ul><li>Didactic </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul>
    4. 4. Dimensions of Religious Art <ul><li>Iconographic </li></ul><ul><li>Didactic </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Art… </li></ul><ul><li>… may symbolize the holy and sacred. </li></ul><ul><li>… may embody the sacred but not necessarily be sacred. </li></ul><ul><li>… may provide the viewer with a connection to the divine. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Dimensions of Religious Art <ul><li>Iconographic </li></ul><ul><li>Didactic </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Art… </li></ul><ul><li>… teaches the illiterate viewer about the divine. </li></ul><ul><li>… imparts an understanding of the sacred that is not provided by verbal language. </li></ul><ul><li>… communicates the history and culture of a belief system. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Dimensions of Religious Art <ul><li>Iconographic </li></ul><ul><li>Didactic </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Art… </li></ul><ul><li>… is often governed by the hierarchies and structure of religious institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>… either furthers or undermines the goals and support the hierarchies of religious leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>… is often commissioned by religious institutions. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Dimensions of Religious Art <ul><li>Iconographic </li></ul><ul><li>Didactic </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Art… </li></ul><ul><li>… often has a style or “look” that is consistent. </li></ul><ul><li>… has a “look” that provokes a specific emotional response. </li></ul><ul><li>… depicts the divine in a way that follows the rules of its religion. </li></ul>
    8. 8. An Overview of the “Big Five”
    9. 9. Hinduism <ul><li>Historical Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4000 BCE: Traditional practices and beliefs begin to form. </li></ul><ul><li>3000-2000 BCE: The Aryans bring the Vedas to India. </li></ul><ul><li>2000-1000 BCE: Upanishads and Brahmanas were written. </li></ul><ul><li>788-820 CE: Shankara reforms the Upanishads and Vedas. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>We are caught in an endless cycle of death and rebirth. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity of gods and themes. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility and abundance. </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation and controlled breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhakti: </li></ul><ul><li>Darshana: The viewing of sacred images. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Shiva as Nataraja (Lord of the Dance), Thanjavur, India, 12 th century CE “ Light of Glory” Dwarf = Ignorance Fire Drum
    11. 11. Shiva and Parvati, from Hinglajarh in Madhya Pradesh, India, 10 th Century. Shiva Parvati Nandi
    12. 12. Kandariya Mahdeva Temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1000 CE
    13. 13. Kandariya Mahdeva Temple (Plan), Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1000 CE Longitudnal Stairs Mandapas Garbhagriha
    14. 14. Mithunas, Kandariya Mahdeva Temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1000 CE Mithunas are lovemaking couples that emphasize unity of the sexes and abundance.
    15. 15. Garbhagriha, Kandariya Mahdeva Temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India, 1000 CE
    16. 16. Judaism <ul><li>Historical Overview </li></ul><ul><li>18 th Century BCE: God makes covenant with Abraham. </li></ul><ul><li>1275-1250 BCE: Moses leads the Jews out of Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>1020 BCE: Saul becomes the first king of Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>1000 BCE: David unites the 12 Tribes of Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>586 BCE: Diaspora begins. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Rules set up by the 10 Commandments. </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one God. </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning and reinterpretation is a major aspect of Jewish philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>There is not a single Judaism but rather many interpretations. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Dura Europos House Church House Synagogue Mithraeum Built c. 300 BCE. Inhabited until 256 CE.
    18. 18. House Synagogue (Exterior), Dura Europos, Syria, 244-245.
    19. 19. House Synagogue (Plan), Dura Europos, Syria, 244-245. Assembly Room
    20. 20. Torah Niche, House Synagogue, Dura Europos,244-45. Torah Niche
    21. 21. Torah Reading, Congregation Beth Israel. Torah Niche, Dura Europos, c. 244-245 CE
    22. 22. Torah Niche, House Synagogue, Dura Europos,244-45. Torah Niche Adoption of Moses Samuel anointing David Aaron at his Temple Elijah reviving a Child Temple of Dagon Mordechai being led to Achashverosh The Miraculous Well Closed Temple Prophets
    23. 23. The Parting of the Red Sea, Torah Niche, House Synagogue, Dura Europos, 244-45 CE Moses Moses Egyptian Soldiers Egyptian Soldiers *Continuous Narrative Hands of God
    24. 24. “ The Creation of the World,” Sarajevo Haggadah, Barcelona Spain, 14 th Century.
    25. 25. Buddhism <ul><li>Historical Overview </li></ul><ul><li>563 BCE: Buddha was born. </li></ul><ul><li>592 BCE: Buddha encounters suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>598 BCE: Buddha reaches enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>598-643 BCE: Buddha spreads his teachings. </li></ul><ul><li>Four Noble Truths: </li></ul><ul><li>The world is suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering has a cause--attachment. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an end to suffering through non-attachment. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-attachment can be attained by following the eightfold path. </li></ul>
    26. 26. The Great Stupa at Sanchi, 1 st -2 nd Century CE.
    27. 27. Seated Buddha, Ghandara India, Schist, 2 nd -3 rd Century CE Mandorla Ushnisha Urna Closed, leaf-like eyes Mudra Serene Expression Lotus Posture Elongated Earlobes Sangati
    28. 28. Iconography of the Buddha
    29. 29. Wheel of Life , Tibet, 15 th -17 th Centuries. 1st Ring 2 Evolutions: -Virtuous Action -Not virtuous Action Holding the Wheel Yama “ Lord of Death ” <ul><li>2nd Ring </li></ul><ul><li>6 Realms: </li></ul><ul><li>Hell </li></ul><ul><li>Hungry Ghosts </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Demi gods </li></ul><ul><li>Gods </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 Buddha as sun: Feminine Nature Wisdom Buddha as moon: Masculine Nature Compassion Center 3 Poisons: +Pig +Serpent +Bird <ul><li>Outer Ring </li></ul><ul><li>12 Nidanas or links </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Creation </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Name and form </li></ul><ul><li>Six senses </li></ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Craving </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping </li></ul><ul><li>Existence </li></ul><ul><li>Birth </li></ul><ul><li>Aging/Death </li></ul>3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
    30. 30. Christianity <ul><li>Historical Overview </li></ul><ul><li>1 BCE: Annunciation </li></ul><ul><li>0 CE: Nativity </li></ul><ul><li>12 CE: Jesus’s presentation at the temple. </li></ul><ul><li>30 CE: Baptism of Jesus. </li></ul><ul><li>33 CE: The Arrest and Subsequent Crucifixion of Christ. </li></ul><ul><li>313 CE: Christianity made legal by Constantine. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Has the same foundations as Judaism. </li></ul><ul><li>God came to earth in the form of Jesus Christ. </li></ul><ul><li>The crucifixion of Christ is seen as a sacrifice for the sins of all mankind. </li></ul>
    31. 31. St. Michael the Archangel, Ivory Panel, Constantinople, 6 th Century CE Could be another angel or an emperor receiving this orb. Diptych = Di (Two) Ptukhe (Fold)
    32. 32. Pantokrator Christ Pantokrator, St. Catherine’s Monastery, Mt. Sinai, 6 th Century CE “ The All Powerful”
    33. 33. Eleousa Vladimir Virgin, Constantinople, 12 th Century “ Virgin of tenderness.”
    34. 34. St. Denis Church of St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 Century
    35. 35. Church of St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 Century
    36. 36. Church of St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 Century
    37. 37. Church of St. Denis, Paris, France, 1140-1144 Century
    38. 38. Islam <ul><li>Historical Overview </li></ul><ul><li>610 CE: Muhammad is approached by the Angel Gabriel. </li></ul><ul><li>622 CE: Muhammad travels to Medina. </li></ul><ul><li>630 CE: Muhammad returns to Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>632 CE: Muhammad dies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Pillars </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one God and Muhammad is the prophet. </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer must be performed five times a day facing Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>The voluntary payment of a yearly tithe of 1/40 (2.5%) of one’s assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting from dawn till dusk during Ramadan. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one’s lifetime. </li></ul>
    39. 39. The Kabaa, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, c. 630 CE
    40. 40. Tomb of the Prophet Muhammad, Medina, Saudi Arabia, c. 622 CE
    41. 41. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 CE
    42. 42. Page from the Qu’ran, Syria, 9 th Century.

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