Ch.22 eastern religions


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Ch.22 eastern religions

  1. 1. Introduction to Missiology Ch.22 – Eastern Religions
  2. 2. Ancient Origins Indus River Valley – present day Pakistan – 3000 b.c. – Dravidic peoples – dark-skinned – spread throughout sub-continent – 1800-1500 b.c. – Indo-Aryan invaders speaking Sanskrit Yellow River Valley – 3000 b.c. thriving culture in north China Cultural background for Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism
  3. 3. Hinduism Beliefs solidify after Indo-Aryan invasion Four Vedas (Rig, Sama, Yajur, Atharva) Hymns, rituals, sacred formulas, spells Hindu Caste – Brahmans: priests and teachers – Kshatriyas: princes and warriors – Vaisyas: merchants and artisans – Sudras: slaves and laborers
  4. 4. 6th Century B.C. - India A time of spiritual ferment worldwide Hindu reflection surges – Brahmanas – commentaries on the Vedas – Upanishads – theological speculation – Sutras – aphorisms highlighting teaching in the Vedas and Upnaishads – Epics – Ramayana and Mahabharata – historial poetry – Bhagavad Gita – “the Bible of Hinduism” Reformers emerge – Jain & Gautama Buddha
  5. 5. Hindu Beliefs Ultimate Reality is the impersonal divine: Brahman There are thousands of gods who are personal manifestations of the divine Reality is suffering and illusion Man needs release from the cycle of rebirth – this is salvation Salvation is something that man must attain
  6. 6. Hindu Paths to Salvation Karma Marga – right action: caste, purity,obedience, hope Jhana Marga – right knowledge: direct insight into the truth Yoga Marga – right discipline: poise and body control to free the spirit Bhakti Marga – right devotion: to a particular god (Thugees to Kali)
  7. 7. Buddhism Origin in Hinduism – a form of Jhana Marga Buddha an historical person – son of nobleman – deeply moved by encounter with suffering Buddha became a monk and wrestled with meaning of life Claimed enlightenment and began to teach
  8. 8. Teachings of Buddha Four noble truths (we all suffer, the cause is desire, suffering ceases when desire ceases, there is a way to gain this freedom) The noble eightfold path 1. Right views 1. Right livelihood 2. Right attitude 2. Right endeavor 3. Right speech 3. Right awareness 4. Right conduct 4. Right meditation
  9. 9. Scriptures of Buddha Not written down until roughly 400 years after his death Called the Triptaka – “Three Baskets” – Rules for monks’ practice – Discussions of the Buddha and his disciple – Interpretation and commentaries
  10. 10. Spread of Buddhism Became dominant in India in 3rd century BC Two branches: Theravada & Mahayana – Theravada – close to Buddhas original teaching – Mahayana – broadening the way to salvation Mahayana developed fully after entering China
  11. 11. Chinese Buddhism Primarily Mahayana Became more accessible to average person Most popular – Pure Land – a place where people go when they die to attain Buddhahood – Ch’an (became Zen in Japan) based on intense meditation
  12. 12. Confucianism Confucius (551-479 B.C.), Chou dynasty – a collector and transmitter of traditions China is the “middle kingdom” living in harmony between earth and heaven Opposite and complementary principles of Yang and Yin, (male and female, dry and wet, light and dark, warm and cold) Wu Ching – the Five Classics Ssu Shu – the Four Books
  13. 13. Five Principles for a Peaceful Society Society can be renewed by a return to past virtues Five Principles – Propriety – appropriate behavior in all situations – Humaneness – humanity & love to others – Filiality – respect of children for parents – Mutuality – consideration for others – Loyalty, especially to one’s superiors
  14. 14. Five Relationships for Stability  Prince and subject  Father and son  Husband and wife  Elder brother and younger brother  Friend and friend
  15. 15. Confucian Ideals The ideal ruler who ruled under the mandate of heaven More a philosophy of life than a religion However – ancestor worship deeply ingrained
  16. 16. Taoism Lao Tzu (600-550 B.C.) Tao (the way) is central. It means the way things go, the natural course. It is the cosmic energy of the universe that underlies all things and determines the right way to proceed. People must live in tune with the universe
  17. 17. Witnessing to Theravada Buddhists No doctrine of God No doctrine of man – self is non-self, ego is illusion No doctrine of creation, ultimate cause is ignorance Sin is impersonal Goal of salvation is absorption into the One Usually combined with spiritism
  18. 18. Witnessing (con’t) Find common ground in our mutual humanity Buddhists take time to win to Christ Begin with God, Gen.1:1 Lift up Jesus Christ – attractive to Buddhists Discipling is crucial for new converts from Buddhism