Monasticism

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  • Europe 1000
  • Europe 1000
  • Europe 1000
  • Monasticism

    1. 1. Romanesque Art: The Basics and Monasticism <ul><li>Reading: </li></ul><ul><li>Stokstad , 452-489. </li></ul><ul><li>Range: </li></ul><ul><li>1000-1150 </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque </li></ul><ul><li>Terms/Concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Monasticism, Benedictine, Cistercian, barrel vault, groin vault, oblates, novices, postulants, cloister, historiated column, trumeau, tympanum, jambs. </li></ul><ul><li>Monument List </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior, Saint-Martin-du-Canigou, French Pyrenees, 1001-1026. </li></ul><ul><li>Nave, Abbey Church of Notre-Dame, Fontenay, 1139-1147. </li></ul><ul><li>Christ in Majesty, South Portal, Priory Church Moissac, 1115. </li></ul><ul><li>Hildegard and Volmar, from Liber Scivias of Hildegard of Bingen, 1150-1175. </li></ul>
    2. 4. St. Gall
    3. 5. Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland, 9 th Century CE.
    4. 6. Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland, 9 th Century CE. Although it was never built, the plan of St. Gall remains the model for ideal monasteries.
    5. 7. Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland, 9 th Century CE.
    6. 8. Schematic plan for a monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland, 9 th Century CE. Monasteries were meant to be self-sufficient communities much like many cities. Model of the city of Rome.
    7. 12. Saint-Martin-du-Canigou, French Pyrenees, 1001-1026.
    8. 13. Flavian Amphitheater (Coliseum), Rome, 72-80 BCE. ★ The Romans were known for their advancements in arch and vault technology.
    9. 14. Flavian Amphitheater (Coliseum), Interior Vaults, Rome, 72-80 BCE. ★ Roman vaults were typically made with concrete, which is lighter and easier to form than stone. Groin Vault
    10. 15. ★ The knowledge to make concrete was lost to Medieval Europe. Saint-Martin-du-Canigou, French Pyrenees, 1001-1026. Groin Vault
    11. 17. Cluny Reconstruction, France, 1088-1130.
    12. 18. Cluny Plan, France, 1088-1130. Cluny Plan
    13. 19. Cluny Nave, Reconstruction, France, 1088-1130.
    14. 20. Cluny Today Archaeological Park, 2010.
    15. 22. Priory Church, Moissac, France, c. 1115.
    16. 23. South Portal, Priory Church, Moissac, France, c. 1115.
    17. 24. Diagram of Romanesque portal. South portal of Saint-Pierre. Moissac, France. c.1115. Tympanum
    18. 25. Christ in Majesty, South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115. Matthew Mark Luke John Twenty-Four Elders
    19. 26. Trumeau South portal of Saint-Pierre. Moissac, France. c.1115.
    20. 27. Trumeau, South Portal Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?) c.1115 Church of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France (Stokstad 15-23) Trumeau, South Portal, Lions and Old Testament Prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115
    21. 28. Trumeau, South Portal, Lions (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, c.1115
    22. 29. Vices/Lazarus , Porch, South Portal, Priory Church at Moissac, France, c. 1115.
    23. 30. Lazarus and Dives , Porch, South Portal, Priory Church at Moissac, France, c. 1115. Dives Lazarus the Leper Soul Soul
    24. 31. Death of a Miser Torment of Avarice Torment of Lust Scene of Torment
    25. 32. Historiated Column Cloister, Priory Church, Moissac, France, c. 1115.
    26. 33. “ Dove Capital,” Cloister, Moissac, France, c. 1115. Cloister Relief
    27. 34. The Followers of Jesus, Historiated Capital, Cloister, Moissac, France, c. 1115. “ Monsters”
    28. 35. Historiated Capital with Lions’ Heads, Cloister, Priory Church, Moissac, France, c. 1115. Lions’ Heads Griffons attacking lions
    29. 37. Cistercian Abbey at Fontenay, France, 1139-1147
    30. 38. Fontenay Abbey, Plan, France, 1139-1147.
    31. 39. Façade, Fontenay Abbey, France, 1139-1147. Portal, Fontenay Abbey Portal, Priory Church, Moissac
    32. 40. “ immoderate height of [Cluniac] churches…their immoderate length, their excessive width, sumptuous decoration and finely executed pictures, which divert the attention of those who are praying.” – Bernard of Clairvaux, Apologia . Nave, Fontenay Abbey, France, 1139-1147. Nave, Monastery at Cluny, France, 1088-1130.
    33. 41. Nave, Fontenay Abbey, France, 1139-1147 Cloister, Priory Church, Moissac, Capital Detail Capital Detail
    34. 42. “ What profit is there in those ridiculous monsters, in that marvelous and deformed comeliness, that comely deformity?...So many and so marvelous are the varieties of divers shapes on every hand that we are more tempted to read in the marble than in our books, and spend the whole day in wondering at these things than in meditating upon the law of God. For God’s sake, if men are not ashamed of these follies, why at least do they not shrink from the expense?” – Bernard of Clairvaux Historiated Capital with Lions’ Heads, Cloister, Priory Church, Moissac, France, c. 1115.
    35. 43. Nave, Fontenay Abbey, France, 1139-1147. Example of Cistercian Proportions
    36. 44. Nave, Fontenay Abbey, France, 1139-1147. Example of Cistercian Proportions
    37. 48. Double Monastery, Disibodenberg, Germany,
    38. 49. “ a fiery light, flashing intensely, came from the open vault of heaven and poured through my whole brain.” The vision of Hildegard of Bingen, from Scivias (detail of facsimile). 1150-1175. Author Page, from Scivias (detail of facsimile). 1150-1175.
    39. 50. Reconstruction drawing of Cathedral. Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. The vision of Hildegard of Bingen, from Scivias (detail of facsimile). 1150-1175.
    40. 51. “ After this I saw a vast instrument, round and shadowed, in the shape of an egg, small at the top, large in the middle, and narrowed at the bottom; outside it, surrounding its circumference, there was a bright fire with, as it were, a shadowy zone under it. And in that fire there was a globe of sparkling flame so great that the whole instrument was illuminated by it.” Vision, from Scivias (detail of facsimile). 1150-1175.
    41. 52. “ Outward, my eyes are open. So I have never fallen prey to ecstasy in the visions, but I see them wide awake, day and night. And I am constantly fettered by sickness, and often in the grip of pain so intense it threatens to kill me. ” Vision, from Scivias (detail of facsimile). 1150-1175. Hubert Airy, Illustration of visual migraine aura, 1870.
    42. 53. Critical Thinking Questions <ul><li>What does the term “Romanesque” mean? From where does it originate? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ideological function of high vaulting? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does monasticism become more popular in the Romanesque period? What are some of the major qualities of a monastery? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the justifications for the use of profuse relief sculpture in Romanesque churches? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between Benedictine and Cistercian ideology? How does it impact their art and architecture? </li></ul>

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