The Real and the Ideal <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Nigel Spivey, “More Human than Human.” </li></ul><ul><li>Terms/Co...
What is “Realism?” <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Informat...
What is “Realism?” <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Informat...
Resemblance Queen Elizabeth I (Dramatization) Unknown Artist, Posthumous Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, 1604.
What is “realism”? <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Informat...
Juan Fernandez,  Two Bunches of Grapes , Spanish, 17 th  Century. “ Zeuxis, who produced a picture of grapes so successful...
Adriaen van der Spelt, Flower Still-Life with Curtain, 1658. “ Parrhasius himself produced such a realistic picture of a c...
Cornelis Gijbrechts, Flemish, 1630-1675. Trompe L’Oeil = “Trick the Eye”
Julian Beever, Illusionistic Street Art, Venice, c. 2010.
What is “realism”? <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Informat...
These properties are socially conditioned… <ul><li>“ When I was a young boy I was asked by my father to guide a Japanese l...
Which is more “realistic”? Jan van Kessel the Elder, A scene with Sea Life, 17 th  century. Unknown Artist, Japanese Print...
What is “realism”? <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Informat...
Information Line Drawing, Chartres Cathedral Chartres Cathedral Photo
… but what makes a painting or sculpture  appear  “realistic” to us?
“ A picture, X, is realistic with respect to property P if and only if X depicts its subject matter as having P.” -Michael...
In other words… “realistic” pictures have properties we understand to be “realistic.”
Which is more realistic? A B
Which is more realistic? A B
Which is more “realistic”? A B
Which is more “realistic”? A B
Which is more “realistic”? A B
What “properties” did you recognize as “realistic” from this exercise?
Masaccio,  The Holy Trinity , 1428.  Cityscape, Cubiculum M, Boscoreale, 1 st  century BCE. Perspective
Color Michelangelo, Adam, from the Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512. Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Madame Solor, 1905
Facture Michelangelo,  Adam , from the Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512. Frans Hals,  Malle Babbe , 1633-1635.
Canons of Proportion: Real or Ideal?
 
 
Kritios Boy, Early Classical, c. 480 BCE
Myron, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower), Roman copy of an Early Classical, 470-440 BCE
Eadweard Muybridge,  Man Throwing Discus , Collotype from glass negative, 1883-1886
 
Warrior, Found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE
Warrior (Detail), Found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE
Warrior (Detail), Found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE
The Proportions of Phidias
=  (phi) = 1 = .6180
Phidian Proportions and the Human Form
Athena, Attributed to Phidias, High Classical, c. 5 th  century CE
Athena, Attributed to Phidias, High Classical, c. 5 th  century CE
Cult Statue of Athena (Reconstruction), Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, c. 5 th  Century CE
a b Cult Statue of Athena (Reconstruction), Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, c. 5 th  Century CE
The  Canon  of Polykleitos Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman Copy from Greek Original, High Classical c. 5 th ...
“ but beauty, he thinks, does not reside in the proper proportion of the elements but in the proper proportion of the part...
 
 
 
Contrapposto Pythagorean Table of Opposites Finite   Infinite Odd   Even One Many Right   Left Rest Motion Straight Crooke...
The Canon of Lysippos Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (The Scraper), Roman Copy of a Greek Original, Late Classical, 4 th  century CE
Doryphoros Apoxyomenos
“ Big” Ideas <ul><li>“ Realism” or “Naturalism” are constructs of both our visual faculties and expectations. </li></ul><u...
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  • Resemblance Gist: Realism is based on how a picture reproduces the shapes, colors and form of its subject matter. The more realistic a picture is the more it captures the essence of the subject. Problem: Interpretation of subject matter is highly subjective, and, therefore, a pictures resemblance to a subject matter is highly subjective. Resemblance theory assumes an objective truth when our inference of realism is highly subjective.
  • Resemblance Gist: Realism is based on how a picture reproduces the shapes, colors and form of its subject matter. The more realistic a picture is the more it captures the essence of the subject. Problem: Interpretation of subject matter is highly subjective, and, therefore, a pictures resemblance to a subject matter is highly subjective. Resemblance theory assumes an objective truth when our inference of realism is highly subjective.
  • Illusion Gist: Realism is based on how a picture “fools” the viewer into thinking that the picture is real. Recall the anecdote of Zeuxis and Parharrius. Problem: Few pictures actually completely fool the viewer into thinking they are tangible objects or spaces. This theory also gives no means of distinguishing more realistic depictions from less realistic depictions, and does not give us the means of explaining why we perceive one picture as an illusion and another as not.
  • Illusion Gist: Realism is based on how a picture “fools” the viewer into thinking that the picture is real. Recall the anecdote of Zeuxis and Parharrius. Problem: Few pictures actually completely fool the viewer into thinking they are tangible objects or spaces. This theory also gives no means of distinguishing more realistic depictions from less realistic depictions, and does not give us the means of explaining why we perceive one picture as an illusion and another as not.
  • Illusion Gist: Realism is based on how a picture “fools” the viewer into thinking that the picture is real. Recall the anecdote of Zeuxis and Parharrius. Problem: Few pictures actually completely fool the viewer into thinking they are tangible objects or spaces. This theory also gives no means of distinguishing more realistic depictions from less realistic depictions, and does not give us the means of explaining why we perceive one picture as an illusion and another as not.
  • Illusion Gist: Realism is based on how a picture “fools” the viewer into thinking that the picture is real. Recall the anecdote of Zeuxis and Parharrius. Problem: Few pictures actually completely fool the viewer into thinking they are tangible objects or spaces. This theory also gives no means of distinguishing more realistic depictions from less realistic depictions, and does not give us the means of explaining why we perceive one picture as an illusion and another as not.
  • Illusion Gist: Realism is based on how a picture “fools” the viewer into thinking that the picture is real. Recall the anecdote of Zeuxis and Parharrius. Problem: Few pictures actually completely fool the viewer into thinking they are tangible objects or spaces. This theory also gives no means of distinguishing more realistic depictions from less realistic depictions, and does not give us the means of explaining why we perceive one picture as an illusion and another as not.
  • Habituation Gist: According to Nelson Goodman: “that a picture looks like nature often means only that it looks the way nature is usually painted.” In other words, the history of representation conditions our expectations of what is realistic and what is not. Realistic pictures are realistic because they appear as we have been conditioned to expect. Problem: This is not a consistent fact. Many unfamiliar forms may be considered “realistic” to a viewer conditioned to a different tradition. We can see multiple traditions/methods of evoking realism as realistic in different ways. Caveat: While not the most complete explanation of realism, habituation must be seen as a factor in how we perceive “realistic” pictures. What methods we largely value as “realistic” can be seen as stemming from some form of habituation. Information
  • Habituation Gist: According to Nelson Goodman: “that a picture looks like nature often means only that it looks the way nature is usually painted.” In other words, the history of representation conditions our expectations of what is realistic and what is not. Realistic pictures are realistic because they appear as we have been conditioned to expect. Problem: This is not a consistent fact. Many unfamiliar forms may be considered “realistic” to a viewer conditioned to a different tradition. We can see multiple traditions/methods of evoking realism as realistic in different ways. Caveat: While not the most complete explanation of realism, habituation must be seen as a factor in how we perceive “realistic” pictures. What methods we largely value as “realistic” can be seen as stemming from some form of habituation. Information
  • Habituation Gist: According to Nelson Goodman: “that a picture looks like nature often means only that it looks the way nature is usually painted.” In other words, the history of representation conditions our expectations of what is realistic and what is not. Realistic pictures are realistic because they appear as we have been conditioned to expect. Problem: This is not a consistent fact. Many unfamiliar forms may be considered “realistic” to a viewer conditioned to a different tradition. We can see multiple traditions/methods of evoking realism as realistic in different ways. Caveat: While not the most complete explanation of realism, habituation must be seen as a factor in how we perceive “realistic” pictures. What methods we largely value as “realistic” can be seen as stemming from some form of habituation. Information
  • Information Gist: Different depictions can be considered realistic or unrealistic based on the information conveyed to the viewer by the picture. More information yields a more realistic image. Problems: Images considered unrealistic can yield as much information about subjects as those considered realistic. Caveat: Realistic depictions can be seen as yielding information/properties considered to be valued as realistic, and those properties can be the result of a mixture of sensory perception and habituation.
  • Renaissance Perspective One vantage point Consistent representation of space Without movement Rounded Ellipses Ancient Perspective Multiple Vantage Points Implies Movement Multiple views of fixed objects Pointed Ellipses Color
  • Color Albertian Color Developed by Alberti Consistent blending and transition from color to color Lack of brushstrokes Smooth Appearance Optical Mixture Relies on the retinal recombination of colors Pointilism Not smooth/textured Visible brushstrokes Facture
  • Facture Invisible brushstrokes Does not betray the application of paint to canvas Smooth/untextured Denies that this is a manufactured image/painting Visible brushstrokes Provides texture Relies on the ability of the eyes to put together these textures and read the image. Provides texture Betrays the nature of the material.
  • Summary We tend to favor the methods of realism surrounding the developments of the Renaissance as most realistic: perspective, Abertian coloring, invisible brushstrokes, etc. These properties, however, have very little to do with our actual reality but rather a combination of conditioned expectations (habituation) and our ocular perception of reality. These preferences are not necessarily held by other perceptual systems and are culturally and historically contingent. These are subject to change and do tend to vary slightly among individuals. Canons of Proportion Systems of depiction that we often hold as “realistic” are really calculated methods of achieving ideal forms that traverse our expectations of reality and our ideals. These are mathematically “perfect” ways of imagining forms that strip away the inherent variations found in nature. These canons of proportion are may be considered distortions of the mathematical symmetry found sometimes found in nature.
  • Ancient Egypt Unfinished paintings and reliefs are a wealth of information about the working processes of Egyptian artists. No surviving texts, but the grid marks of these unfinished sculptures and paintings are very telling of the consistency required and the lengths gone to in order to achieve such perfection. The need for consistency was championed over individuality or variation. Representation of forms was schematic, following a preordered set of proportions and postures. Deviation from these set forms may have been seen as denying some kind of divine order imposed by the gods through the pharaoh. Also, consistency was important for the sense of permanence so important to the Egyptian views of life after death. This mode of depiction continued largely uninterrupted for thousands of years. a pattern emerges: figures shall be 19 squares tall ... two squares are allowed for the face ... the pupil of the eye shall be placed in one square off the central axis ten squares are allowed from the neck to the knees, and six from the knees to the soles of the feet the feet shall be two and a half squares in length
  • Ancient Greece Kouros Greek Kouros and Egyptian cult statue Notice the similarities in the position of the hands, their rigid pose, and stylized hair and ornamentation. The Egyptians had their own rigid canon of proportions. The Greeks most likely got their style from them. Greek artists and thinkers often went to Egypt to study. Conventional for almost all Archaic Sculpture Has been interpreted as a stoic expression that defies death, pain, or the enemies that inflict them.
  • Kritios Boy, Early Classical, 480 BCE One of the earliest statues known of this quality The skin and musculature is neither schematic nor exaggerated. The stance is natural The archaic smile is gone
  • Myron, Diskolobos, (Roman Copy), 450 BCE Beginning interest in showing the idealized male body in motion  athletes This idealized form may appear realistic but it is actually carefully constructed to show off the nude form. Look at Eadweard Muybridge’s photographic series of a discus thrower at different stages of movement. The position of the diskobolos’ arms and legs are not conducive to the movements of the act of throwing. His arm is to high His legs are too close together His other arm is counter productive to maintaining proper balance If the Diskobolos were a real athlete, he would fall over.
  • Myron, Diskolobos, (Roman Copy), 450 BCE Beginning interest in showing the idealized male body in motion  athletes This idealized form may appear realistic but it is actually carefully constructed to show off the nude form. Look at Eadweard Muybridge’s photographic series of a discus thrower at different stages of movement. The position of the diskobolos’ arms and legs are not conducive to the movements of the act of throwing. His arm is to high His legs are too close together His other arm is counter productive to maintaining proper balance If the Diskobolos were a real athlete, he would fall over.
  • Myron, Diskolobos, (Roman Copy), 450 BCE Beginning interest in showing the idealized male body in motion  athletes This idealized form may appear realistic but it is actually carefully constructed to show off the nude form. Look at Eadweard Muybridge’s photographic series of a discus thrower at different stages of movement. The position of the diskobolos’ arms and legs are not conducive to the movements of the act of throwing. His arm is to high His legs are too close together His other arm is counter productive to maintaining proper balance If the Diskobolos were a real athlete, he would fall over.
  • Riace Warrior, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE Some argue that this is completely realistic and reliant on observation Others would argue that the groves along the separation of some muscles (sternum, hip, back) are cut a bit too deep serving to emphasize the musculature of the warrior. The figure also has no coccyx, or tailbone, so that the line of the back is not interrupted. Side Note: the survival of bronze statuary from Greece is very rare despite the fact that it was one of the most popular media for this type of work. Bronze was often melted down because of the value of its raw material. Most bronzes survive because of mishaps like earthquakes and shipwrecks. Most Greek statuary survives through Roman marble copies.
  • Riace Warrior, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE Some argue that this is completely realistic and reliant on observation Others would argue that the groves along the separation of some muscles (sternum, hip, back) are cut a bit too deep serving to emphasize the musculature of the warrior. The figure also has no coccyx, or tailbone, so that the line of the back is not interrupted. Side Note: the survival of bronze statuary from Greece is very rare despite the fact that it was one of the most popular media for this type of work. Bronze was often melted down because of the value of its raw material. Most bronzes survive because of mishaps like earthquakes and shipwrecks. Most Greek statuary survives through Roman marble copies.
  • Riace Warrior, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE Some argue that this is completely realistic and reliant on observation Others would argue that the groves along the separation of some muscles (sternum, hip, back) are cut a bit too deep serving to emphasize the musculature of the warrior. The figure also has no coccyx, or tailbone, so that the line of the back is not interrupted. Side Note: the survival of bronze statuary from Greece is very rare despite the fact that it was one of the most popular media for this type of work. Bronze was often melted down because of the value of its raw material. Most bronzes survive because of mishaps like earthquakes and shipwrecks. Most Greek statuary survives through Roman marble copies.
  • The Proportions of Phidias Primarily active between 480 and 430 BCE, Phidias played an instrumental role in rebuilding the of the Acropolis after it was sacked by the Persians. He also continuing the trend of idealizing the human form in sculpture by using the mathematical principle that would be called the “golden ratio.” While he did not “invent” or “discover” this ratio, he did encourage its use in sculpture and architectural projects, contributing to its popularity in 5 th -century Athens. These proportions were applied to the size and location of facial features and parts of the body.  
  • The Proportions of Phidias Primarily active between 480 and 430 BCE, Phidias played an instrumental role in rebuilding the of the Acropolis after it was sacked by the Persians. He also continuing the trend of idealizing the human form in sculpture by using the mathematical principle that would be called the “golden ratio.” While he did not “invent” or “discover” this ratio, he did encourage its use in sculpture and architectural projects, contributing to its popularity in 5 th -century Athens. These proportions were applied to the size and location of facial features and parts of the body.  
  • The Proportions of Phidias Primarily active between 480 and 430 BCE, Phidias played an instrumental role in rebuilding the of the Acropolis after it was sacked by the Persians. He also continuing the trend of idealizing the human form in sculpture by using the mathematical principle that would be called the “golden ratio.” While he did not “invent” or “discover” this ratio, he did encourage its use in sculpture and architectural projects, contributing to its popularity in 5 th -century Athens. These proportions were applied to the size and location of facial features and parts of the body.  
  • The Proportions of Phidias Primarily active between 480 and 430 BCE, Phidias played an instrumental role in rebuilding the of the Acropolis after it was sacked by the Persians. He also continuing the trend of idealizing the human form in sculpture by using the mathematical principle that would be called the “golden ratio.” While he did not “invent” or “discover” this ratio, he did encourage its use in sculpture and architectural projects, contributing to its popularity in 5 th -century Athens. These proportions were applied to the size and location of facial features and parts of the body.  
  • The Proportions of Phidias Primarily active between 480 and 430 BCE, Phidias played an instrumental role in rebuilding the of the Acropolis after it was sacked by the Persians. He also continuing the trend of idealizing the human form in sculpture by using the mathematical principle that would be called the “golden ratio.” While he did not “invent” or “discover” this ratio, he did encourage its use in sculpture and architectural projects, contributing to its popularity in 5 th -century Athens. These proportions were applied to the size and location of facial features and parts of the body.  
  • The Proportions of Phidias Primarily active between 480 and 430 BCE, Phidias played an instrumental role in rebuilding the of the Acropolis after it was sacked by the Persians. He also continuing the trend of idealizing the human form in sculpture by using the mathematical principle that would be called the “golden ratio.” While he did not “invent” or “discover” this ratio, he did encourage its use in sculpture and architectural projects, contributing to its popularity in 5 th -century Athens. These proportions were applied to the size and location of facial features and parts of the body.  
  • The Proportions of Phidias Primarily active between 480 and 430 BCE, Phidias played an instrumental role in rebuilding the of the Acropolis after it was sacked by the Persians. He also continuing the trend of idealizing the human form in sculpture by using the mathematical principle that would be called the “golden ratio.” While he did not “invent” or “discover” this ratio, he did encourage its use in sculpture and architectural projects, contributing to its popularity in 5 th -century Athens. These proportions were applied to the size and location of facial features and parts of the body.  
  • Canon of Polykleitos The first extensive treatise exclusively dedicated to the proportions of the human body illustrated by a statue. Survives only in the writings of others and through Roman copies Based in an understanding the balance of opposites that is found in Pythagorean mathematics and Greek medicine Most scholars believe that determining proportions rested in the length of on body part, determining the length of all others. For some it’s the index finger, but for the author of this reconstruction it is the length of the pinky. This also applied to the facial features. Another important aspect of Polykleitos’ canon was Contrapposto: the combination of raised and lower/resting and tense limbs along a single axis. This corresponds to the Pythagorean Table of Opposites.
  • Canon of Polykleitos The first extensive treatise exclusively dedicated to the proportions of the human body illustrated by a statue. Survives only in the writings of others and through Roman copies Based in an understanding the balance of opposites that is found in Pythagorean mathematics and Greek medicine Most scholars believe that determining proportions rested in the length of on body part, determining the length of all others. For some it’s the index finger, but for the author of this reconstruction it is the length of the pinky. This also applied to the facial features. Another important aspect of Polykleitos’ canon was Contrapposto: the combination of raised and lower/resting and tense limbs along a single axis. This corresponds to the Pythagorean Table of Opposites.
  • Canon of Polykleitos The first extensive treatise exclusively dedicated to the proportions of the human body illustrated by a statue. Survives only in the writings of others and through Roman copies Based in an understanding the balance of opposites that is found in Pythagorean mathematics and Greek medicine Most scholars believe that determining proportions rested in the length of on body part, determining the length of all others. For some it’s the index finger, but for the author of this reconstruction it is the length of the pinky. This also applied to the facial features. Another important aspect of Polykleitos’ canon was Contrapposto: the combination of raised and lower/resting and tense limbs along a single axis. This corresponds to the Pythagorean Table of Opposites.
  • Canon of Polykleitos The first extensive treatise exclusively dedicated to the proportions of the human body illustrated by a statue. Survives only in the writings of others and through Roman copies Based in an understanding the balance of opposites that is found in Pythagorean mathematics and Greek medicine Most scholars believe that determining proportions rested in the length of on body part, determining the length of all others. For some it’s the index finger, but for the author of this reconstruction it is the length of the pinky. This also applied to the facial features. Another important aspect of Polykleitos’ canon was Contrapposto: the combination of raised and lower/resting and tense limbs along a single axis. This corresponds to the Pythagorean Table of Opposites.
  • Canon of Polykleitos The first extensive treatise exclusively dedicated to the proportions of the human body illustrated by a statue. Survives only in the writings of others and through Roman copies Based in an understanding the balance of opposites that is found in Pythagorean mathematics and Greek medicine Most scholars believe that determining proportions rested in the length of on body part, determining the length of all others. For some it’s the index finger, but for the author of this reconstruction it is the length of the pinky. This also applied to the facial features. Another important aspect of Polykleitos’ canon was Contrapposto: the combination of raised and lower/resting and tense limbs along a single axis. This corresponds to the Pythagorean Table of Opposites.
  • Canon of Polykleitos The first extensive treatise exclusively dedicated to the proportions of the human body illustrated by a statue. Survives only in the writings of others and through Roman copies Based in an understanding the balance of opposites that is found in Pythagorean mathematics and Greek medicine Most scholars believe that determining proportions rested in the length of on body part, determining the length of all others. For some it’s the index finger, but for the author of this reconstruction it is the length of the pinky. This also applied to the facial features. Another important aspect of Polykleitos’ canon was Contrapposto: the combination of raised and lower/resting and tense limbs along a single axis. This corresponds to the Pythagorean Table of Opposites.
  • The Canon of Lysippos While the sculptors of the classical period were relatively happy to follow the Canons of Phidias and Polykleitos, in the fourth century interest began to shift away from the idealized portrayal of stoic atheletes. One of the major figures that led the way was Lysippos. Active between 350 and 310 BCE, Lysippos was reputed to be the favorite sculptor of Alexander the Great. He swapped out Polykleitos’ proportions for a set of his own. Instead of 7 heads tall, his figures were 8, creating a much more slender and elegant form His works also showed an interested in the space and experience of the viewer. Instead of a sculpture that was only meant to be seen from one ideal vantage point, his Apoxyomenos intruded into the viewers space and encourages you to move around it. Apoxyomenos means “scraper.” A common hygiene practice in the Greco-Roman world was the application of scented oils and the scraping off of dead skin cells. In this sculpture, it looks as though the athlete is going to his you with his skin waste. This shows a trend towards humor and cleverness in the appreciation and making of artwork.
  • The real and the ideal upload

    1. 1. The Real and the Ideal <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Nigel Spivey, “More Human than Human.” </li></ul><ul><li>Terms/Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Resemblance Theory, Illusion Theory, trompe l’oeil, Habituation Theory, Information Theory, Facture, Canon of Proportions, Perspective, Golden Ratio, Phi, Contrapposto, </li></ul><ul><li>Key Monuments: </li></ul><ul><li>Kritios Boy, Early Classical, c. 480 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Myron, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower), Roman copy of an Early Classical, 470-440 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Warrior, Found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman Copy from Greek Original, High Classical c. 5 th Century CE </li></ul>
    2. 2. What is “Realism?” <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is “Realism?” <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>“ Realism is based on how a picture reproduces the shapes, colors and form of its subject matter. The more realistic a picture is the more it captures the essence of the subject.” </li></ul>
    4. 4. Resemblance Queen Elizabeth I (Dramatization) Unknown Artist, Posthumous Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, 1604.
    5. 5. What is “realism”? <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>“ Realism is based on how a picture “fools” the viewer into thinking that the picture is real.” </li></ul>
    6. 6. Juan Fernandez, Two Bunches of Grapes , Spanish, 17 th Century. “ Zeuxis, who produced a picture of grapes so successfully represented that the birds flew up [and pecked at them].”
    7. 7. Adriaen van der Spelt, Flower Still-Life with Curtain, 1658. “ Parrhasius himself produced such a realistic picture of a curtain that Zeuxis, proud of the verdict of the birds, requested that the curtain should now be drawn and the picture displayed; and when he realized his mistake, with a modesty that did him honor he yielded up the prize, saying he had deceived the birds, Parrhasius had deceived him, an artist. ” Illusion
    8. 8. Cornelis Gijbrechts, Flemish, 1630-1675. Trompe L’Oeil = “Trick the Eye”
    9. 9. Julian Beever, Illusionistic Street Art, Venice, c. 2010.
    10. 10. What is “realism”? <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>“ The history of representation conditions our expectations of what is realistic and what is not.” </li></ul>
    11. 11. These properties are socially conditioned… <ul><li>“ When I was a young boy I was asked by my father to guide a Japanese lawyer around the sights of my native Vienna. At that time nearly half a century ago, the media of mass communication, books, periodical, films, had not yet brought about the present diffusion of aesthetic sensibilities around the world. The Japanese gentleman, though highly educated, was quite unfamiliar with Western art. We soon became good friends, and I concluded that all traditional European art seemed highly stylized and decorative to him. I also showed him around a conventional show of contemporary post-Impressionistic art and this too impressed him as stylized. I was puzzled. It dawned on me that only Japanese art could be realistic to him, in spite—or rather because—of its conventional schema that distorts every single line. Apparently once the Japanese spectator has become attuned to the secret regularity ruling the linear flow of this persistent distortion, he can discount it.” </li></ul>
    12. 12. Which is more “realistic”? Jan van Kessel the Elder, A scene with Sea Life, 17 th century. Unknown Artist, Japanese Print of Fish, c. 19 th century
    13. 13. What is “realism”? <ul><li>Resemblance </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>“ Different depictions can be considered realistic or unrealistic based on the information conveyed to the viewer by the picture. More information yields a more realistic image. ” </li></ul>
    14. 14. Information Line Drawing, Chartres Cathedral Chartres Cathedral Photo
    15. 15. … but what makes a painting or sculpture appear “realistic” to us?
    16. 16. “ A picture, X, is realistic with respect to property P if and only if X depicts its subject matter as having P.” -Michael Newall
    17. 17. In other words… “realistic” pictures have properties we understand to be “realistic.”
    18. 18. Which is more realistic? A B
    19. 19. Which is more realistic? A B
    20. 20. Which is more “realistic”? A B
    21. 21. Which is more “realistic”? A B
    22. 22. Which is more “realistic”? A B
    23. 23. What “properties” did you recognize as “realistic” from this exercise?
    24. 24. Masaccio, The Holy Trinity , 1428. Cityscape, Cubiculum M, Boscoreale, 1 st century BCE. Perspective
    25. 25. Color Michelangelo, Adam, from the Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512. Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Madame Solor, 1905
    26. 26. Facture Michelangelo, Adam , from the Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512. Frans Hals, Malle Babbe , 1633-1635.
    27. 27. Canons of Proportion: Real or Ideal?
    28. 30. Kritios Boy, Early Classical, c. 480 BCE
    29. 31. Myron, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower), Roman copy of an Early Classical, 470-440 BCE
    30. 32. Eadweard Muybridge, Man Throwing Discus , Collotype from glass negative, 1883-1886
    31. 34. Warrior, Found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE
    32. 35. Warrior (Detail), Found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE
    33. 36. Warrior (Detail), Found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Early Classical, 460-450 BCE
    34. 37. The Proportions of Phidias
    35. 38. = (phi) = 1 = .6180
    36. 39. Phidian Proportions and the Human Form
    37. 40. Athena, Attributed to Phidias, High Classical, c. 5 th century CE
    38. 41. Athena, Attributed to Phidias, High Classical, c. 5 th century CE
    39. 42. Cult Statue of Athena (Reconstruction), Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, c. 5 th Century CE
    40. 43. a b Cult Statue of Athena (Reconstruction), Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, c. 5 th Century CE
    41. 44. The Canon of Polykleitos Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman Copy from Greek Original, High Classical c. 5 th Century CE
    42. 45. “ but beauty, he thinks, does not reside in the proper proportion of the elements but in the proper proportion of the parts, such as for example that of finger to finger and all these to the palm and base of hand, of those to the forearm, of the forearm to the upper arm and of everything to everything else, just as described in the Canon of Polykleitos. For having taught us in that work all the proportions of the body, Polykleitos supported his treatise with a work of art, making a statue according to the tenets of the treatise and calling it, like the treatise itself, the Canon. So then, all philosophers and doctors accept that beauty resides in the due proportion of the parts of the body.”
    43. 49. Contrapposto Pythagorean Table of Opposites Finite Infinite Odd Even One Many Right Left Rest Motion Straight Crooked Light Darkness Good Evil Square Oblong
    44. 50. The Canon of Lysippos Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (The Scraper), Roman Copy of a Greek Original, Late Classical, 4 th century CE
    45. 51. Doryphoros Apoxyomenos
    46. 52. “ Big” Ideas <ul><li>“ Realism” or “Naturalism” are constructs of both our visual faculties and expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>When we refer to something as “realistic,” we mean that it agrees with our understanding of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>What we consider “realistic” is culturally and historically defined. It is subject to change or shift. </li></ul>

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