Pilgrimage and crusades

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  • Europe 1000
  • Pilgrimage and crusades

    1. 1. Romanesque Art: Pilgrimage and the Crusades <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Stokstad , 453-489. </li></ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><li>1000-1150 </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque </li></ul><ul><li>Terms/Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>pilgrimage, relic, reliquary, bodily relic, contact relic, idols, idolatry, martyr, saint, pilgrim, absolution, pilgrimage plan, furtum sacrum (furta sacra), peregrini, crusades. </li></ul><ul><li>Monument List: </li></ul><ul><li>Reliquary statue of Sainte Foy (St. Faith), Conques, France, 9 th -10 th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Transept, Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. </li></ul><ul><li>Giselbertus (?), Last Judgment Tympanum, Autun Cathedral, 1120-1130, or 1130-1145. </li></ul><ul><li>Tympanum, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132. </li></ul>
    2. 5. Representation of a typical pilgrim. Floppy hat with scalloped shell Shabby tunic Walking stick/staff Practical boots
    3. 6. “ Santiago” is Spanish for St. James
    4. 8. entrance Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122.
    5. 9. View of Entrance, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122.
    6. 10. Plan of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. France Town
    7. 11. Trancept. Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. Chapels Lantern Transept
    8. 12. Interior view. Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. Nave
    9. 13. Reconstruction drawing of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. Plan of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. radiating chapels radiating chapels radiating chapels radiating chapels
    10. 14. Reconstruction drawing of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. Windows with rounded arches permit light to enter.
    11. 15. Plan of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 1078-1122. entrance westwork Each radiating chapel contains some kind of relic or holy image. Santiago (St. James)
    12. 16. Casket of Santiago, Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 19 th century. Reliquary
    13. 17. Casket of Santiago, Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, 19 th century. The stone under the altar, Santiago de Compostela, 3 rd or 4 th century. Thought to be where the boat carrying the saint body docked, but actually dedicated to a Roman god.
    14. 19. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
    15. 20. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
    16. 21. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century. Main Entrance Transept Apse and Chapels
    17. 22. Apse Chapel Chapel Chapel Chapel
    18. 23. Entrance
    19. 24. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
    20. 25. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century. Tympanum
    21. 26. Christ in Majesty Good Wicked Hell Heaven Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
    22. 27. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
    23. 31. Last Judgment (Detai), Tympanum, Ste. Foy, Conques, France, i Hell Mouth Ammut the Devourer, The Book of the Dead of Hunefer Ladder of Divine Ascent, St. Catherine’s, Mt. Sinai
    24. 33. Scales
    25. 34. Heaven Hell
    26. 35. Giselbertus (?), Last Judgment Tympanum, Autun Cathedral, 1120-1130, or 1130-1145.
    27. 36. Monastery of Ste. Foy, Conques, France, 11 th and 12 th Century.
    28. 37. Reliquary statue of Sainte Foy (St. Faith), Conques, France, 9 th -10 th centuries. Furtum Sacrum = “Sacred Theft”
    29. 38. St. Madeleine = Mary Magdalene
    30. 39. At first, the crusades were referred to with the same language as pilgrimage.
    31. 40. Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
    32. 41. Abbey Church, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
    33. 42. Plan, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
    34. 43. North Portal, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
    35. 44. Tympanum, North Portal (Center), Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-32. People of the World People of the World Zodiac and the Labors of the Seasons Christ and apostles
    36. 45. Christ and the Apostles, Tympanum, North Portal (Center), Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-32 Rays of Holy Power
    37. 46. Signs of the Zodiac and Seasonal Labors, North Portal (Center), St. Madeleine, Vezelay, 1120-1132 Gemini Cancer Threshing Hay
    38. 47. People of the World, Lintel, North Portal (Center), Tympanum, Ste. Madeleine, Vezaley, 1120-1132. Pygmy/Dwarf Big-eared People
    39. 48. People of the World, North Portal, Tympanum, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132. Monstrous Races of the World, A Crusader’s Handbook, 12 th Century.
    40. 49. Plan, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132. Reliquary of Ste. Madeleine
    41. 50. Nave, Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1120-1132.
    42. 51. Reliquary of Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1281.
    43. 52. Reliquary of Ste. Madeleine, Vezelay, France, 1281.
    44. 53. Critical Thinking Questions <ul><li>How is the relationship between monasteries and their royal benefactors complicated? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between monasteries and pilgrimage? </li></ul><ul><li>How did relics function in the devotional practices in Western European Christianity? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the so-called “Pilgrimage Plan”? What function does it serve in some Romanesque churches? </li></ul><ul><li>What does furtum sacrum mean? Why is it important? How is it justified? </li></ul>

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