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  1. 1. One and Many: The Unifying Multiplicity of “Hindu” Traditions
  2. 2. . World Distribution of Hinduism
  3. 3. <ul><li>Vast Library </li></ul>University of California at Berkeley: Books on “Hindu Traditions,” Doe Library (2010)
  4. 4. What images and ideas do you associate with India? Hinduism? “ India” and “Hinduism”
  5. 5. “ Hindu” and “Hinduism” are words of Persian origin from the twelfth century C.E .; thus, they are not native to India. “ Hinduism”
  6. 6. This concept suggests a uniformity that does not apply to the reality it names. “ Hinduism”
  7. 7. The phrase that more closely approximates what Westerners call Hinduism is sanatana dharma , which may be translated as “eternal religion.” “ Hinduism”
  8. 8. It structures and influences every aspect of Hindu life, including arts, music, medicine, and the like , which may explain the lack of a specific self-referential term. “ Hinduism”
  9. 9. India is often seen as exotic, rich, and different , a land of deep spirituality and mysticism. “ India”
  10. 10. India is a land of great diversity and extremes, socially, religiously, economically, and geographically — “ India”
  11. 11. India has more than 1 billion people , deriving from a host of racial and ethnic stocks and speaking 16 major languages and hundreds of dialects for an estimated 850 languages in daily use. “ India”
  12. 12. India is also one of the most religiously pluralistic of all places in the world. “ India”
  13. 13. Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, Jains, Jews, Parsis “ India”
  14. 14. Insider/Outsider Problem
  15. 15. Hinduism is the world’s oldest living religious tradition with roots deep in the early cultures of India. “ Hinduism”
  16. 16. The Indus Valley civilization was a highly sophisticated ancient society in North India (now Pakistan). “ Hinduism”
  17. 17. Archaeological evidence indicates that the civilization flourished between 2500–1500 B.C.E. “ Hinduism”
  18. 18. The entire civilization may have spanned as much as 1 million square kilometers , and some cities may have had populations of as many as 40,000 inhabitants. “ Hinduism”
  19. 19. Their language became “Sanskrit,” which means “well-formed,” and it became the “official” language of the Hindu tradition. “ Sanskrit”
  20. 20. A great concern with cleanliness is evidenced throughout the civilization; not only homes, but also municipalities, featured sophisticated bathing and toilet facilities. “ Hinduism”
  21. 21. Mohenjo-daro and Harappa each had a large central bath with public access, which antedate similar Roman facilities by many centuries. “ Hinduism”
  22. 22. the opposition of cleanliness and dirtiness, or more technically, purity and pollution (Mary Douglas). “ Hinduism”
  23. 23. lingam and yoni
  24. 24. <ul><li>Vedic Sacrifices </li></ul>Fire sacrifices and other rituals prescribed in the earliest sacred texts called the Vedas.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Vedic Sacrifices </li></ul>They were performed exclusively by Brahmins and promised earthly rewards, such as prosperity, health and longevity, and reproductive success.
  26. 26. <ul><li>Vedic Sacrifices </li></ul>The creative power of sacrifice acquired the name “Brahman.”
  27. 27. <ul><li>Vedic Sacrifices </li></ul>Language was believed to embody spirit.
  28. 28. <ul><li>Vedic Sacrifices </li></ul>One Vedic creation myth maintained that the universe was created out of a word— OM, the Pravnava , or most potent of mantras.
  29. 29. <ul><li>OM: The Creation of the Universe </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>OM: The Creation of the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>(RECITE NINE TIMES) </li></ul><ul><li>Vedic chant: Rig Veda. 3.62.10 “Gayatri Mantra” in Sanskrit (Track 21: Guy Beck). </li></ul><ul><li>Om Bhur B-hu-vah-a-Svah-a </li></ul><ul><li>Tat sa-vi-tur varen-yam </li></ul><ul><li>Bh-argo deva-sya dhi-ma-hi </li></ul><ul><li>Dhi-yo yo nah-a-pra-cho-da-yat </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>OM: The Creation of the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Vedic chant: Rig Veda. 3.62.10 “Gayatri Mantra” in Sanskrit. </li></ul><ul><li>Om! Earth, Sky, Heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>We meditate on the brilliant light of the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>May it illuminate our minds. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Chant: Bhagavad Gita 18.65-66. in Sanskrit (Track 23: Guy Beck). </li></ul><ul><li>man-mana bhava mad-bhakto </li></ul><ul><li>mad-yaji mam namaskuru </li></ul><ul><li>mam ev’aishyasi satyam te </li></ul><ul><li>pratijane priyo ‘si me </li></ul><ul><li>Sarva-dharman parityajya </li></ul><ul><li>Mam ekam saranam vraja </li></ul><ul><li>Aham tvam sarva-papebhyo </li></ul><ul><li>Mokshayishyami ma sucha </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Chant: Bhagavad Gita 18.65-66. in Sanskrit (Track 23: Guy Beck). </li></ul><ul><li>Think of me, love me, and worship Me. </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifice and offer submission to Me: </li></ul><ul><li>Thus you will come to me; </li></ul><ul><li>I promise you in truth, for you are very dear to me. </li></ul><ul><li>Renounce all types of religious duties and </li></ul><ul><li>Simply surrender to Me. </li></ul><ul><li>You will thus achieve liberation from all sins. </li></ul><ul><li>Of this there is no doubt. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul><ul><li>samsara </li></ul><ul><li>moksha </li></ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul><ul><li>atman </li></ul><ul><li>Brahman </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>karma : action and its consequences
  36. 36. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>karma : Good karma counts toward a favorable rebirth in which one improves his or her station in the next life.
  37. 37. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>karma : Bad karma counts toward an unfavorable rebirth in which one lowers his or her station in the next life.
  38. 38. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>samsara : literally means “wandering on” or flowing by”
  39. 39. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>samsara : the fundamental problem of life—the realm of suffering, sorrow, and ennui.
  40. 40. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>samsara : refers to the vicious cycle of life, death, and rebirth
  41. 41. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>moksha : meaning “release” or “liberation from” samsara, which all persons must eventually achieve
  42. 42. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>atman : literally means “self” or “soul”
  43. 43. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>atman : the divine essence of a human being
  44. 44. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>Brahman : A concept reworked from the Vedas, Brahman literally means “that which makes great.”
  45. 45. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>Brahman : the power of all powers, the deepest reality of the cosmos
  46. 46. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>BELIEF: Brahman and atman are one and the same . The Story of Uddalaka
  47. 47. <ul><li>Doctrinal or Philosophical </li></ul>moksha : meaning “release” or “liberation from” samsara, which all persons must eventually achieve
  48. 48. <ul><li>Four Aims in Life </li></ul><ul><li>First is the good of dharma , or duty. </li></ul><ul><li>The second is the good of artha , or wealth and material acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>The third is the good of kama , or pleasure and enjoyment of the sense </li></ul><ul><li>4. Moksha is the fourth and highest good. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Trimurti (“The Three Paths”) </li></ul><ul><li>karma-marga , or the way of action </li></ul><ul><li>jñana-marga , or the way of wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>bhakti-marga , the way of devotion </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Ethical or Legal </li></ul><ul><li>sruti (that which is heard) </li></ul><ul><li>smrti (that which is remembered) </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Ritual or Practical </li></ul>
  52. 52. Maha Kumbh Mela
  53. 53. Maha Kumbh Mela (2001)
  54. 54. Maha Kumbh Mela
  55. 55. Maha Kumbh Mela The Khumb Mela of 2001 is believed to be the largest congregation of humanity in history. Some 30 million pilgrims visited this Hindu festival between the 9th of January and 21st of February.
  56. 56. Maha Kumbh Mela Pilgrims from all over India mass to bath where the three holy rivers cross: Ganges, Yamuna and the invisible, mythological river of Saraswati . The holy confluence of the three rivers is called Sangam.
  57. 57. Maha Kumbh Mela (2001)
  58. 58. Maha Kumbh Mela The Hindu belief is that gods and demons once fought a battle for a khumb (pitcher) containing the nectar of immortality.
  59. 59. Maha Kumbh Mela A huge mela (fair) is held every 12 years at these holy places.
  60. 60. Maha Kumbh Mela Four drops were spilled at four towns along the Ganges: Allahabad (Prayag),* Hardiwar, Nasik, and Ujjain. *largest fair of all
  61. 61. Mythical Background
  62. 62. The Churning of the Ocean
  63. 63. The Churning of the Ocean
  64. 64. The Ganges River: Sacred Site
  65. 65. The Ganges River: Sacred Site
  66. 66. The Ganges River: Sacred Site
  67. 67. Who’s that on top of Shiva’s head?
  68. 68. Who’s that on top of Shiva’s head?
  69. 69. Who’s that on top of Shiva’s head?
  70. 70. Ganga: The River Goddess
  71. 71. The Descent of Ganga
  72. 72. “Bhagiratha's Penace” Relief at Mahabalipuram
  73. 73. Ganga: The River Goddess
  74. 74. Ganga: The River Goddess Shiva Bearing the Descent of the Ganges River as Parvati and Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look, folio from a Hindi manuscript by the saint Narayan, circa 1740
  75. 75. The Sacred Geography of Ganga
  76. 76. <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>If you had to see your life in these Hinduist terms, how would you do so (samsara, moksha, karma, maya, dharma, kama, etc.)? </li></ul><ul><li>Which “paths” do you identify with the most (action, wisdom, devotion)? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Which forms of Hinduist belief do you disagree with? Why? </li></ul>