Romanesque

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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Saint-Sernin ’ s plan resembles those of the churches of Saint James and Saint Martin. The builders provided additional space for curious pilgrims, worshipers, and liturgical processions alike. They increased the length of the nave, doubled the side aisles, attached a series of radiating chapels.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. To protect the church from fire the builders placed a semicircular stone barrel vault below the timber-roofed loft. The geometric floor plan is reflected in the nave walls. The engaged columns rise from the bottom of the compound peirs to the vaults springing and continue across the nave as transverse arches.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. To protect the church from fire the builders placed a semicircular stone barrel vault below the timber-roofed loft. The geometric floor plan is reflected in the nave walls. The engaged columns rise from the bottom of the compound peirs to the vaults springing and continue across the nave as transverse arches.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. We illustrate in the centerpiece of the group, the figure of Christ in Majesty. Christ sits in a mandorla, his right hand raised in blessing, his left hand resting on an open book inscribed with the words of Pax vobis. Above are the eagle of Saint John and the angel of Saint Matthew. Below are the ox of Saint Luke and the lion of Saint Mark.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Speyer Cathedral in the German Rhineland is an early example of groin vaults used over a nave. The church was begun in 1030 and was the burial place of the Holy Roman Emperors. Speyer was also the seat of the powerful local bishop.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Speyer Cathedral is a timber-roofed structure. The nave is 45 ft wide and crowns of the vaults are 170 ft high. The builders used crossing, covered by an octagonal dome, as the module for the arrangement of the buildings east end.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Of the façade bell towers the shorter one dates back to the tenth century while the taller north campanile is a twelfth century addition. The main vaults are slightly domical, rising higher than the transverse arches. The emphatic alternate support system perfectly reflects the plans geometric regularity.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Sant ’ Ambrogio is three aisled and without transept. Each bay consists of full square in the nave flanked by two small squares in each aisle, all covered with groin vaults. An octagonal dome covers the last bay, its windows providing the major light source for the otherwise rather dark interior.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. This church erected in honor of Saint Ambrose, Milans first bishop. It has an atrium in the early Christian tradition. A two-story narthex pierced by arches on both levels, two bell towers joined to the building, and over towers of German churches.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. This church was begun by William of Normandy in 1067 and must have advanced rapidly, as he was buried there in 1087. Saint-Etiennes west façade is a striking design rooted in the tradition of Carolingian and Ottonian westworks , but it displays the increased rationalism of Romanesque architecture. The three story elevation, with its large arched openings, provides more light into the interior.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the still fairly massive paneling between them. These vaults rise high enough to provide room for an efficient clerestory. The original design called for a wooden roof until the groin vaults were introduced.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the still fairly massive paneling between them. These vaults rise high enough to provide room for an efficient clerestory. The original design called for a wooden roof until the groin vaults were introduced.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. In architecture, it signaled the importation of French Romanesque building and design methods. It was begun around 1093, in the generation following the Norman conquest, and is the centerpiece of a monastery, cathedral, and fortified-castle complex on the Scottish frontier. The church ’ s vaulted interior which predates that of the remodeled Saint-Etienne at Caen, retains its original severe Romanesque appearance.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. In architecture, it signaled the importation of French Romanesque building and design methods. It was begun around 1093, in the generation following the Norman conquest, and is the centerpiece of a monastery, cathedral, and fortified-castle complex on the Scottish frontier. The church ’ s vaulted interior which predates that of the remodeled Saint-Etienne at Caen, retains its original severe Romanesque appearance.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Durham Cathedral ’ s plan is typically English with its long, slender proportions. Our longitudinal section reveals that simple quadrant arches were used in place of groin vaults in the tribune. The structural descendants of the Durham quadrant arches are the flying buttresses that epitomize the mature Gothic solution to church construction “ The Gothic Cathedral ” .
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. In architecture, it signaled the importation of French Romanesque building and design methods. It was begun around 1093, in the generation following the Norman conquest, and is the centerpiece of a monastery, cathedral, and fortified-castle complex on the Scottish frontier. The church ’ s vaulted interior which predates that of the remodeled Saint-Etienne at Caen, retains its original severe Romanesque appearance.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The cathedral, its freestanding bell tower, and the baptistery, where infants and converts were initiated into the Christian community, present a rare opportunity to study a coherent group of three Romanesque buildings. Construction of Pisa Cathedral began first-in 1063, the same year work began on saints Mark ’ s in Venice. The cathedral is large, five aisled, and one of the most impressive and majestic of all Romanesque churches.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The cathedral, its freestanding bell tower, and the baptistery, where infants and converts were initiated into the Christian community, present a rare opportunity to study a coherent group of three Romanesque buildings. Construction of Pisa Cathedral began first-in 1063, the same year work began on saints Mark ’ s in Venice. The cathedral is large, five aisled, and one of the most impressive and majestic of all Romanesque churches.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The interior also at first suggests the basilica, with its timber rather than vaulted ceiling and nave arcade of reused Roman columns in unbroken procession. Above the colonnade is a continuous horizontal molding, on which the gallery arcades rest. The striped walls of alternating dark green and cream-colored marble provide a luxurious polychromy that became a hallmark of Tuscan Romanesque and Gothic buildings.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. It sits, as its name implies, on a hillside overlooking the Arno River and the heart of the Florence. The body of the church was completed by 1090, the gable-crowned façade during the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. Even more than Pisa Cathedral, the structure recalls the Early Christian basilica in plan and elevation, although its elaborate geometric incrustation makes for a rich ornamental effects foreign to the earlier buildings.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. It sits, as its name implies, on a hillside overlooking the Arno River and the heart of the Florence. The body of the church was completed by 1090, the gable-crowned façade during the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. Even more than Pisa Cathedral, the structure recalls the Early Christian basilica in plan and elevation, although its elaborate geometric incrustation makes for a rich ornamental effects foreign to the earlier buildings.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Though at first glance, the lowest level much resembles the patterning of Florence ’ s baptistery, the arcades and panels do not reflect the buildings structure. The façade ’ s upper levels, of much later date than the lowest level are filled capriciously with geometrical shapes that have a purely, ornamental function. The nave is divided into three equal compartments by diaphragm arches. The arches rise from compound piers and brace the rather high, thin walls. They also provide firebreaks beneath the wooden roof and compartmentalize the basilican interior in the manner so popular with most Romansque builders.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Though at first glance, the lowest level much resembles the patterning of Florence ’ s baptistery, the arcades and panels do not reflect the buildings structure. The façade ’ s upper levels, of much later date than the lowest level are filled capriciously with geometrical shapes that have a purely, ornamental function. The nave is divided into three equal compartments by diaphragm arches. The arches rise from compound piers and brace the rather high, thin walls. They also provide firebreaks beneath the wooden roof and compartmentalize the basilican interior in the manner so popular with most Romansque builders.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The segment shown illustrates the creation and temptation of Adam and Eve the theme employed almost exactly a century earlier on Bishop Bernward ’ s bronze doors to Saint Michael ’ s at Hildesheim. Christ is at the far left, framed by a mandorla held up by angels-a variation on both the motifs and the themes of the lintel at Saint Genis-des-Fontaines and the relief's of Saint-Sernin. The creation of Adam, then Eve, and the serpent ’ s temptation of Eve are to the right.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The vast tympanum that crowns the south portal of Saint Pierre depicts the second Coming of Christ as King and Judge of the world in its last days, a theme already alluded to at Saint Genis-des-Fontaines. As befits his majesty, the enthroned Christ is at the center, reflecting a compositional rule followed since Early Christian times. The signs of the Four Evangelists flank him.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. On the trumeau ’ s right face is a prophet identified by some as Jeremiah, by ithers as Isaiah. Whoever the prophet is, he displays the scroll where his prophetic version is written. His position below the apparition of Christ as the apocalyptic Judge is yet another instance of the pairing of Old and New Testment themes.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The vast tympanum that crowns the south portal of Saint Pierre depicts the second Coming of Christ as King and Judge of the world in its last days, a theme already alluded to at Saint Genis-des-Fontaines. As befits his majesty, the enthroned Christ is at the center, reflecting a compositional rule followed since Early Christian times. The signs of the Four Evangelists flank him.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The vast tympanum that crowns the south portal of Saint Pierre depicts the second Coming of Christ as King and Judge of the world in its last days, a theme already alluded to at Saint Genis-des-Fontaines. As befits his majesty, the enthroned Christ is at the center, reflecting a compositional rule followed since Early Christian times. The signs of the Four Evangelists flank him.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The vast tympanum that crowns the south portal of Saint Pierre depicts the second Coming of Christ as King and Judge of the world in its last days, a theme already alluded to at Saint Genis-des-Fontaines. As befits his majesty, the enthroned Christ is at the center, reflecting a compositional rule followed since Early Christian times. The signs of the Four Evangelists flank him.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. On the trumeau ’ s right face is a prophet identified by some as Jeremiah, by ithers as Isaiah. Whoever the prophet is, he displays the scroll where his prophetic version is written. His position below the apparition of Christ as the apocalyptic Judge is yet another instance of the pairing of Old and New Testment themes.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The church ’ s cloister was decorated for the monks alone to see the medieval church cloister expresses the seclusion of the spiritual life, the vita contemplativa. It provided the monks with a foretaste of Paradise. At Moissac a timber-roofed walkway supported by piers and columns surrounds the cloister garth on four sides.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The church ’ s cloister was decorated for the monks alone to see the medieval church cloister expresses the seclusion of the spiritual life, the vita contemplativa. It provided the monks with a foretaste of Paradise. At Moissac a timber-roofed walkway supported by piers and columns surrounds the cloister garth on four sides.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The church ’ s cloister was decorated for the monks alone to see the medieval church cloister expresses the seclusion of the spiritual life, the vita contemplativa. It provided the monks with a foretaste of Paradise. At Moissac a timber-roofed walkway supported by piers and columns surrounds the cloister garth on four sides.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The church ’ s cloister was decorated for the monks alone to see the medieval church cloister expresses the seclusion of the spiritual life, the vita contemplativa. It provided the monks with a foretaste of Paradise. At Moissac a timber-roofed walkway supported by piers and columns surrounds the cloister garth on four sides.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The Cluniac bishop Etienne de Bage had the cathedral built, and it was consecrated in 1132. At Autun, the Judgment is in progress, announced by four trumpet-blowing angels. In the typanum ’ s center, far large than any other figure, is Christ, enthroned in a mandorla angel support, dispassionately presiding over the separation of the Blessed from the Damned. At the far left, an obliging angel boosts one of the Blessed into the heavenly city.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The Cluniac bishop Etienne de Bage had the cathedral built, and it was consecrated in 1132. At Autun, the Judgment is in progress, announced by four trumpet-blowing angels. In the typanum ’ s center, far large than any other figure, is Christ, enthroned in a mandorla angel support, dispassionately presiding over the separation of the Blessed from the Damned. At the far left, an obliging angel boosts one of the Blessed into the heavenly city.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The Cluniac bishop Etienne de Bage had the cathedral built, and it was consecrated in 1132. At Autun, the Judgment is in progress, announced by four trumpet-blowing angels. In the typanum ’ s center, far large than any other figure, is Christ, enthroned in a mandorla angel support, dispassionately presiding over the separation of the Blessed from the Damned. At the far left, an obliging angel boosts one of the Blessed into the heavenly city.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Another large tympanum, this one at the church of La Madeleine at Vezelay, not far from Autun, Christ foretold that the Twelve Apostles would receive the power of the Holy Spirit and became the witness of the truth of the Gospels throughout the world. The light rays emanating from Christ ’ s hands represent the instilling of the Holy Spirit in the apostles at the Pentecost.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Another large tympanum, this one at the church of La Madeleine at Vezelay, not far from Autun, Christ foretold that the Twelve Apostles would receive the power of the Holy Spirit and became the witness of the truth of the Gospels throughout the world. The light rays emanating from Christ ’ s hands represent the instilling of the Holy Spirit in the apostles at the Pentecost.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Another large tympanum, this one at the church of La Madeleine at Vezelay, not far from Autun, Christ foretold that the Twelve Apostles would receive the power of the Holy Spirit and became the witness of the truth of the Gospels throughout the world. The light rays emanating from Christ ’ s hands represent the instilling of the Holy Spirit in the apostles at the Pentecost.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. For the church ’ s western entrance, a projecting portal resembling a Roman arch was “ attached ” to the building ’ s otherwise simple façade. Strictly Christian and thematically related to other Romanesque portals already examined here. The tympanum shows Christ surrounded by the signs of the Four Evangelists.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. For the church ’ s western entrance, a projecting portal resembling a Roman arch was “ attached ” to the building ’ s otherwise simple façade. Strictly Christian and thematically related to other Romanesque portals already examined here. The tympanum shows Christ surrounded by the signs of the Four Evagelists.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. The sculptor BENEDETTO ANTELAMI was active in the last quarter of the twelfth century. Several relief's by his hand exist, including Parma Cathedral ’ s pulpit and the portals of that city ’ s baptistery. His elbows are kept close to his body, and his stance is stiff, lacking any hint of the contrapposto that is classical statuary ’ s hallmark. Yet the sculptors conception of this prophet is undeniably rooted in Greco-Roman art.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. A wooden statuette depicting the Virgin Mary with Christ Child in her lap. The Morgan Madonna so named because it once belonged to the financer and prolific collector J.Pierpont Morgan. The type-known as the Throne of Wisdom, seldes sapientiae-is a western European freestanding version of the Byzantine Theotokos theme popular in icons and mosaics.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. A wooden statuette depicting the Virgin Mary with Christ Child in her lap. The Morgan Madonna so named because it once belonged to the financer and prolific collector J.Pierpont Morgan. The type-known as the Throne of Wisdom, seldes sapientiae-is a western European freestanding version of the Byzantine Theotokos theme popular in icons and mosaics.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. A wooden statuette depicting the Virgin Mary with Christ Child in her lap. The Morgan Madonna so named because it once belonged to the financer and prolific collector J.Pierpont Morgan. The type-known as the Throne of Wisdom, seldes sapientiae-is a western European freestanding version of the Byzantine Theotokos theme popular in icons and mosaics.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. A wooden statuette depicting the Virgin Mary with Christ Child in her lap. The Morgan Madonna so named because it once belonged to the financer and prolific collector J.Pierpont Morgan. The type-known as the Throne of Wisdom, seldes sapientiae-is a western European freestanding version of the Byzantine Theotokos theme popular in icons and mosaics.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Dated 1019-1020 by inscription, the lintel depicts Christ enthroned in a lobed mandorla supported by angels and flanked by apostles. To the left and right of Christ are inscribed the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, a reference to his role as Last Judge: “ I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the Last, the Beginning and the End ” . The Saint-Genis lintel is the earliest of many relief's on Romanesque church facades depicting or alluding to Judgment Day and the separation of those who will be saved from those who will be damned.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. RAINER OF HUY, a bronze worker from the Meuse River valley in Belgium, an area renowned for its metalwork. In 1118 her masterfully cast in a single piece the baptismal font for Norte-Dame-des-Fonts in Liege. The bronze basin rests on the foreparts of twelve oxen, a reference to King Solomon ’ s temple. The Old Testament story was thought to prefigure Christ ’ s baptism which is the central scene on Rainer ’ s font.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Romanesque

    1. 1. Romanesque Art Feudalism Urbanization and Christianity Agricultural economy Pilgrimages and Crusades -Barons (Nobles) -travel and trade -Vassals (Knights) -new middle class-Peasants/serfs (slaves) -growth of cities -influences of Muslims and Byzantines
    2. 2. THEME: Romanesque Stone masonry, new vaultingChurch building techniques, “blocky” appearance • Build it (block by block) and they will come pilgrimages
    3. 3. interior of Saint EtienneVignory, Franceca. 1050-1057
    4. 4. Radiating chapelsplan of Saint EtienneVignory, Franceca. 1050-1057
    5. 5. Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
    6. 6. Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
    7. 7. Plan of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
    8. 8. Interior of Santa Sabina, 422, Rome *compartments of space replaced long flat wallsInterior of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
    9. 9. Barrel Vaulted ceilingTribune (second story gallery) Compound piers (engaged columns attached)Nave of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
    10. 10. St. Catherine’s, Egypt, 565Bernardus GelduinusChrist in Majestyrelief in the ambulatory of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1096marble4 ft. 2 in. high
    11. 11. Interior of Speyer CathedralSpeyer,Germanybegun 1030nave vaults ca.1082-1106
    12. 12. Plan of Speyer CathedralSpeyer, Germanybegun 1030
    13. 13. Aerial view of Sant’ AmbrogioMilan, Italylate eleventh to early twelfth century
    14. 14. Plan of Sant’ AmbrogioMilan, Italylate eleventh to early twelfth century
    15. 15. Interior of Sant’ AmbrogioMilan, Italylate eleventh to early twelfth century
    16. 16. West façade of Saint-EtienneCaen, Francebegun 1067, ca. 1115-1120
    17. 17. Interior of Saint-Etienne (nave)Caen, Franceca. 1115-1120
    18. 18. Interior of Saint-Etienne (elevation)Caen, Franceca. 1115-1120
    19. 19. Interior of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
    20. 20. Interior of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
    21. 21. Plan & transverse section of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
    22. 22. Exterior of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
    23. 23. Pisa Cathedral complexPisa, Italycathedral begun 1063baptistery begun 1153campanile begun 1174
    24. 24. Pisa Cathedral campanilePisa, Italybegun 1174
    25. 25. Interior of Pisa CathedralPisa, Italycathedral begun 1063
    26. 26. West façadeSan Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
    27. 27. West façadeSan Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
    28. 28. Interior of San Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
    29. 29. Interior of San Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
    30. 30. WiligelmoCreation of Adam and Eve, frieze on the west façade, Modena CathedralModena, Italyca. 1110marbleapproximately 3 ft. high
    31. 31. Tympanum of the south portal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca. 1115-1135
    32. 32. Christ in Majestywith angels and the Twenty-Four EldersTympanum of the south portal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca. 1115-1135approximately 16 ft. 6 in. wide at base
    33. 33. Christ in Majestywith angels and the Twenty-Four EldersTympanum of the s. portal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca. 1115-1135approximately 16 ft. 6 in. wide at base
    34. 34. Lions and Old Testament prophet(Jeremiah or Isaiah?)From the trumeau of the south portalof Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. 1115-1130marbleapproximately life-size
    35. 35. Cloister of Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. 1100-1115marblepiers approximately 6 ft. high
    36. 36. Cloister of Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. 1100-1115marblepiers approximately 6 ft. high
    37. 37. Abbey of Notre-DameFontenay, Burgundy, France1139-47
    38. 38. Abbey of Notre-DameFontenay, Burgundy, France1139-47
    39. 39. GislebertusLast Judgment (plaster cast)West tympanum of Saint-LazareAutun, Franceca. 1120-1135marbleapproximately 21’ wide at base
    40. 40. GislebertusLast Judgment (plaster cast)West tympanum of Saint-LazareAutun, Franceca. 1120-1135marbleapproximately 21’ wide at base
    41. 41. Ascension of Christ and Mission of the ApostlesTympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La MadeleineVézelay, France1120-1132
    42. 42. Ascension of Christ and Mission of the ApostlesTympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La MadeleineVézelay, France1120-1132
    43. 43. Portal on the west façadeof Saint-TrophimeArles, Francesecond third of the twelfth century
    44. 44. Portal on the west façadeof Saint-TrophimeArles, Francesecond third of the twelfth century
    45. 45. Benedetto Antelami,King Davidon the west façade of Fidenza CathedralFidenza, Italyca. 1180-1190marbleapproximately life-size
    46. 46. Virgin and Child ( Morgan Madonna)from Auvergne, Francesecond half of twelfth centurypainted wood2 ft. 7 in. high
    47. 47. Virgin and Child ( Morgan Madonna)from Auvergne, Francesecond half of twelfth centurypainted wood2 ft. 7 in. high
    48. 48. Head Reliquary of Saint Alexanderfrom Stavelot Abbey, Belgium1145silver repoussé, gilt bronze, gems, enamel17 1/2 in. high
    49. 49. Christ in Majestyapse fresco from Santa María de Muirnear Lérida, Spainmid-twelfth centuryfresco22 x 24 ft.
    50. 50. The Vision of Hildegard of BingenDetail of facsimile of a lost folioin the Scivias by Hildegard of Bingenfrom Trier or Bingen, Germanyca. 1050-1079
    51. 51. Initial R with knight fighting dragonfrom the Moralia in Jobfrom Cîteaux, Franceca. 1115-1125ink and tempera on vellum13 3/4 x 9 1/4 in.
    52. 52. Master HugoMoses Expounding the Lawfolio 94 recto of the Bury Biblefrom Bury Saint Edmunds, Englandca. 1135ink and tempera on vellum20 x 14 in.
    53. 53. 12 Scenes from the Christmas StoryMS 37472 folio 1 rectofrom Canterbury, Englandca. 1140ink and tempera on vellum40.5 x 30 cm
    54. 54. 12 Scenes from the Christmas Story (detail)MS 37472 folio 1 rectofrom Canterbury, Englandca. 1140ink and tempera on vellum40.5 x 30 cm
    55. 55. 12 Scenes from the Christmas Story (detail)MS 37472 folio 1 rectofrom Canterbury, Englandca. 1140ink and tempera on vellum40.5 x 30 cm
    56. 56. Cat, Mouse and WeaselBestiary, MS 11283, folio 15, (detail)from Englandca. 1170ink and tempera on vellum30 x 180 cm
    57. 57. Mouth of HellWinchester Psalterfrom Winchester, Englandca. 1150ink and tempera on vellum12 3/4 x 9 1/8 in.
    58. 58. Eadwine the Scribe(?)Eadwine the Scribe at workfolio 283 verso of the Eadwine Psalterca. 1160-1170ink and tempera on vellum
    59. 59. Funeral of Edward the Confessorprocession to Westminster Abbeydetail of the Bayeux TapestryFrom Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, Franceca. 1070-1080embroidered wool on linen229 ft. 8 in. overall
    60. 60. Battle of Hastingsdetail of the Bayeux TapestryFrom Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, Franceca. 1070-1080embroidered wool on linen229 ft. 8 in. overall
    61. 61. Christ in Majesty (Maiestas Domini) with apostlesSaint-Genis-des-Fontaines, France1019-1020
    62. 62. Rainer of HuyBaptism of ChristBaptismal fontfrom Notre-Dame-des-FontsLiege, Belgium1107-1118bronze2 ft. 1 in. high
    63. 63. Entombment of Christfresco above the nave arcade, Sant’Angelo in FormisNear Capua, Italyca. 1085fresco
    64. 64. The Tree of JesseExplanatio in Isaiamfrom Cîteaux, Franceca. 1125ink and tempera on vellum15 x 9 in.

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