There are excellent interactive study activities, Web links and videos related to this chapter available at www.mhhe.com/lwa8. This chapter contains many movements, styles, terms, directions and diverse artists. In order to fit this into one class period, I have tried to shorten the terms and movements. Feel free to add or delete, according to your time frame. You may wish to break this chapter into two lectures. End the semester with a chance for students to reflect on the changes in the art world, and art in their world today. A visit to a gallery or museum will give the students an opportunity to reference these concepts in context. 1945 was a turning point in the history of Western art. After World War II, there was a desire to create art which expressed something other than death, violence and hardship. A common theme focused on creation rather than destruction. Many European artists immigrated to the United States in an effort to create with a clean slate. For the first time, New York became the cultural center for the arts.
Feminism was a social and political movement in the 70’s that paved the way for more diversity in art and recognition of women artists. This image combines painting and ”female” craft to state that postmodern art offers diversity in media and style, but also in gender. Note the symbolism (house, quilt, heart, flowers), which was a rebuke to the male-dominant industrial look of Minimalism. The “Dinner Party” by Judy Chicago was viewed in Chapter 12: Crafts, which was a prime example of Feminist art. The anonymous Guerrilla Girls consisted of a group of female artists donning masks of gorillas. They protested the lack of inclusion of female artists in museums, galleries and art history books. One of their more famous posters asked, “Do women have to be naked to get into the Metropolitan Museum?” Less than 5% of the artists in the Modern Art sections are women, but 85% of the nudes are female. Prior to 1965, we would not have studied Anguissola, Gentileschi, or Cassatt because they were not in textbooks prior to this movement.
Week 15 1970s-2000s art
Movements: Terms: The New York School: Action painting Pop Art Appropriation Minimal Art & Earthworks Installation Photorealism Assemblage Conceptual Art Performance Neo-Expressionism Happening Neo-Dada Pluralism Feminism Digital Postmodernism Chapter Twenty-Two Art Since 1945
Minimalists <ul><li>The works are not “visual fields to see into,” like the Abstract Expressionists, but rather an “object to be looked at.” </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition was an important concept, as was the industrial feel, with no sign of the artist’s brush. </li></ul>
ROBERT SMITHSON, Spiral Jetty, 1970. Black rock, salt crystals, earth, red water (algae) at Great Salt Lake, Utah. 1,500’ x 15’ x 3 1/2’.
Photo-Realism <ul><li>Photorealism (superrealism, hyperrealism) is a style of realism that the camera inspired. </li></ul><ul><li>The stark images seek not to imply reality, but the imitation of reality as seen through the camera lens. </li></ul>
CHUCK CLOSE, Big Self-Portrait, 1967–1968. Acrylic on canvas, 8’ 11” x 6’ 11” x 2”.
Audrey Flack, Wheel of Fortune (Vanitas), 1977-78, Oil over acrylic on canvas, 8x8’
Telephone Booths (1968), Oil on canvas. Painting by Richard Estes .
Conceptual Art <ul><li>Conceptual artists desired to get rid of the concept of art as object because they were opposed to the art market, much like Duchamp and the Dada “ready-mades.” </li></ul><ul><li>Their desire to get rid of the art object was motivated by opposition to the burgeoning art market, which equated art with luxury commodities </li></ul>
Felix Gonzalez-Torres “Untitled” As installed for The Museum of Modern Art, New York "Projects 34: Felix Gonzalez-Torres" May 16 - June 30, 1992, in 24 locations throughout New York City
Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Untitled (Public Opinion), 1991. Black rod licorice candy, individually wrapped in cellophane (endless supply), ideal weight, 700 pounds, dimensions variable.
Felix Gonzalez-Torres "Untitled" (For Stockholm), 1992 15-watt light bulbs, extension cords, porcelain light sockets Overall dimensions vary with installation Twelve parts: 62 ft. in length each
BRUCE NAUMAN, The True Artist Helps the World by Revealing Mystic Truths (Window or Wall Sign), 1967. Neon with glass tubing suspension frame, 4’ 11” x 4’ 7” x 2”. Private collection.
<ul><li>The history of art is characterized by a male gaze – treating men as subjects and women (often) as objects </li></ul><ul><li>Feminism was a social and political movement in the 70’s that paved the way for more diversity in art and recognition of women artists. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed culture created the differences (and inequalities) between the sexes </li></ul><ul><li>A rebuke to the male-dominant industrial look of Minimalism. </li></ul>Honored female art and the domestic realm Miriam Shapiro, Heartfelt , 1979. Feminism and Feminist Art
JUDY CHICAGO, The Dinner Party, 1979. Multimedia, including ceramics and stitchery, 48’ x 48’ x 48’ installed.
GUERRILLA GIRLS, The Advantages of Being A Woman Artist, 1988. Poster.
BARBARA KRUGER, Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), 1983.
JENNY HOLZER, Untitled (Selections from Truisms, Inflammatory Essays, The Living Series, The Survival Series, Under a Rock, Laments, and Child Text), 1989. Extended helical tricolor LED electronic display signboard, 16” x 162’ x 6”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, December 1989–February 1990
CINDY SHERMAN, Untitled Film Still #35, 1979. Black-and-white photograph, 10” x 8”.
Post Modernism <ul><li>Rejection of the doctrine of the supremacy of reason, the notion of truth, and the idea that we could create a better, if not utopian society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural criticism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artists realized that art did not always “progress” forward - they often looked back to art history for inspiration. There were so many directions, that it was difficult to continue putting a name on each direction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently use styles and references from the past – often with ironic or sarcastic effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feminism taught historians that the published history may hold other layers, that have yet to be revealed. </li></ul>
Post Modernism <ul><li>Pluralism is the idea that art can take many directions at the same time. There is no longer any single leading artistic center, style, or media. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriation challenges traditional ideas about authenticity, individuality, copyright laws, and the location of meaning within a work of art. </li></ul><ul><li>Video and digital technology become more widely used as well as installation, conceptual art, performance and multimedia art </li></ul>
<ul><li>Modernism </li></ul><ul><li>Artist as grand creator </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive </li></ul><ul><li>Politically neutral </li></ul><ul><li>True/Pure </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on product </li></ul><ul><li>Value in novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Good = beautiful (or </li></ul><ul><li>interesting) </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodernism </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralistic </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Politically active </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Process-based value </li></ul><ul><li>Good = ? </li></ul>
Neo-Expressionism <ul><li>Neo-expressionist art emerges which renews interest in emotion and physicality of paint/media combinations </li></ul><ul><li>They sought to bring back the sincerity and emotional intensity of the Expressionist movement. </li></ul>
INGRID CALAME From #258 Drawing (Tracings from the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and the L.A. River) , 2007 enamel paint on aluminum 72 X 120 inches
Josh Keyes - 05.30.09 - 07.03.09 at David B. Smith Gallery on Santa Fe
Olafur Eliasson, 360-Degree Room for All Colors, 2002. Stainless steel, projection foil, fluorescent lights, wood and control unit. 10’ 6”x diameter of 26’
Recommended local sites for further exploration of Art: <ul><li>Denverarts.org </li></ul><ul><li>MCA, DAM, Kirkland </li></ul><ul><li>Museo de las Americas – on Santa Fe </li></ul><ul><li>David B. Smith Gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Plus Gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Rule Gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Robischon Gallery – on Wazee St. </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Visual Arts – on Wazee St. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Obscura Gallery – Bannock St, by the DAM </li></ul><ul><li>Foothills Art Center in Golden, CO </li></ul>