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Monastic Practices
for Ordinary People
Sister Edith Bogue
Benedictine Center
St. Paul’s Monastery
24 March 2017
2
God bless our contradictions,
those parts of us which seem out of character.
Let us be boldly and gladly out of characte...
3
SESSION I
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
4
INTRODUCTION
aa
5
Benedict’s wisdom and vision
 Benedict did not
invent the monastic
way of life.
 He drew on the
wisdom of the past.
 ...
6
Monastic Life Before Benedict
 St. Augustine in northern Africa (Augustinians)
 St. Basil in Cappadocia in Turkey
(Bas...
7
Two types of answers
 "Flight from"
• Overwhelming temptations & addictions.
• Intensity and stress of modern life.
• S...
8
"The Desert a City"
 Thousands of monks
as desert hermits
 Garden plot, work area,
cells for sleeping.
9
Common Practices
 Separation from "the world"
 Persistent prayer
 Work, usually manual work
 Extreme simplicity of l...
10
“The external
practices of monastic
life are directly
connected with our
search for God. In
and through these
practices...
11
Dangers of Monastic Practices
 Focus on the practice,
not the spirituality.
 The practice becomes
a burden that bring...
12
Practice Hardens to Tradition
 It becomes THE
right thing to
do.
 Imposed on
others
 Ceases to have
meaning
 A “rut...
13
HORARIUM
aa
14
Monastic Schedule:
A Modern View
“DailyLifeinaMedievalMonastery"at"MostlyMedieval-
ExploringtheMiddleAges”
For most mon...
15
Order as the Source of Freedom
 Rule spells out details of
everyday life.
 Ten out of 73 chapters for the
schedule an...
16
Time as Cycle of God's Year
17
 Summer Schedule
1:30AM:Preparation for night office.
2:00:AM: Nocturns
3:30AM: Lauds at daybreak.
4:00AM:Change and w...
18
Why is work spiritual?
 God works.
• God’s work never ends
• We are made in
God’s image
• Jesus rested in order
to go ...
19
When they live by the
labor of their hands,
as our fathers and the
apostles did, then
they are really
monks. Yet, all t...
20
Work
Work done in the
Benedictine tradition is
supposed to be regular;
it is supposed
to be productive,
it is supposed
...
21
The Liturgical Year: The Spiraling
Adventure of the Spiritual Life by Joan
Chittister, OSB
 “The liturgical year is th...
22
LINEAR TIME, HISTORICAL TIME
Birth Child Youth Adult Death
 We enter at conception
 We live each moment
• Events form...
23
Sundays: The first cycle
The Cornerstone of Christian Worship
 Early Christians – Sunday
• The communion of heaven – t...
24
Major Feasts: The Second Cycle
Centered on the Life of Christ
• Easter – celebration of the resurrection
• Ascension
• ...
25
Celebration of Saints: The Third Cycle
• Major figures in the life of Christ
• Mary and Joseph
• John the Baptist
• Apo...
26
The Daily Cycle
 Liturgy of the Hours
breaks up the day
with times of
prayer.
 Some communities
pray midday prayer
at...
27
The Liturgical Year: The Spiraling
Adventure of the Spiritual Life by Joan
Chittister, OSB
 “The liturgical year is an...
28
Time for Reflection
or Journaling
29
SESSION I
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
30
SESSION II
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
31
SPACE
32
http://www.tate.org.uk/art/images/work/T/T01/T01455_10.jpg As regards the monastery: if possible it is to be so constit...
33
Enclosure
 A form of simplicity
 Guard of the heart
 Limits accumulation
of material goods
 Limits frenetic
activit...
34
Purpose
 Spaces have a
designated
purpose in The Rule.
 Gatehouse,
Novitiate,
Kitchen, Oratory, the
Abbot’s Table, th...
35
The Oratory
The oratory is to be what it is called, and
nothing else should be done or kept
there. When the Work of God...
36
PROPERTY
37
Personal Ownership
These beds are to be frequently
inspected by the abbot so that personal
possessions are not found th...
38
Personal Ownership 2
39
In The Rule
 Ch. 54, Whether a Monk May Receive
Letters or Anything Else
" If [the abbot] orders [the letter, blessed
...
40
In The Rule
Ch 39,
The Measure of Food:
"If it happens that the
work is heavier the
abbot can choose to
exercise his po...
41
In The Rule
 Ch 58., The Table of
the Abbot
"The table of the abbot
should always be with
guests and pilgrims.
Wheneve...
42
“Vessels of the Altar”
The cellarer is to
look upon all the
vessels and goods
of the monastery
as though they
were the ...
43
More recently…
How beautiful will be the day when all the baptized
understand that their work, their job, is a priestly...
https://viewersite.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/leunig-2013christmas-wish.jpeg
45
Time for Reflection
or Journaling
46
SESSION II
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
47
SESSION III
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
48
https://s-media-cache-
ak0.pinimg.com/736x/3e/48/72/3e4872967e719b86ea3c6cf35c31b169.jpg
49
CUSTODY OF THE TONGUE
50
Latin custodio, a verb
 To guard, to keep watch
 This is the verb St. Jerome used to where
modern translations say "k...
51
The Rule of St. Benedict, Ch. 4
In Ch 4.51-54, Tools for Good Works:
"to keep custody of one’s
mouth against depraved
s...
52
Reading the Bible with St. Benedict
 Monastics learned scripture by heart.
 In St. Benedict's era:
The OT had some di...
53
Medieval Scripturehttp://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/800px-Illuminated.bible_.arp_.jpg
54
Scripture at the time of BenedictCodexClaromontanus:https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Codex_claromont...
55
2 Timothy 2:16 in contextFromtheNewAmericanBibleviatheBibleGateway:
https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2%20Ti...
56
Custody as Danger Control
 The Letter of James
focuses on the harm
the tongue can do. It is
a warning.
 St. Benedict ...
57
Custody as safekeeping
 Custody indicates value
• Valued possessions
• Children, our future
• Even prisoners, we
keep ...
58
Custody as Encouragement
 Benedict tells us how
to use our tongues:
for praise, for prayer,
to edify others by our
rea...
59
Custody as Training for Proper Use
 Custody of a person
involves all needs,
not only physical.
True even in prisons.
...
60
Custody of the Tongue
 …is not the same as
keeping silence
 …is related to "custody of
my ways"
 …may occur in the f...
61
READING
62
Lectio Divina
 "Holy Reading"
 Remember that the best time of the day
was given to Reading in the medieval
monastic s...
63
Monastic Contemplative Tradition
 Grounded in Scripture
 Begins with Lectio
• Reading. Read a passage slowly many tim...
64
"A word"
 Silence
 The "word" of an abba
was for a particular
person and need.
 Hundreds of stories,
sayings and liv...
65
Outside the Monastery
“No one shall presume to tell
others what he may have seen
or heard outside the monastery,
for th...
66
Turning Towards God
 Augustine: "You have made
us for yourself, O God, and
our hearts are restless until
they find res...
67
Time for Reflection
or Journaling
68
SESSION III
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
69
SESSION IV
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
70
Michael Leunig
71
THE BODY
72
Encountering Christ
 In God’s word
 In the superior
 In the pilgrim and guests
 In the sick and the young
 Members...
73
Spiritual Life in the Body
Benedict prescribes
postures & gestures
 bow to fellow server
 prostrate for pardon
 novi...
74
Romano Guardini – Sacred Signs
(1911)
“EVERY part of the body is an
expressive instrument of the
soul. The soul does no...
75
Romano Guardini – Sacred Signs (1911)
Even when we are praying alone, to pray standing may
more forcibly express our in...
76
Divine Presence
 We believe that the Divine Presence is
everywhere, and the eyes of the Lord in
every place look upon ...
77
Body a Temptation
“If it happens that the work is heavier the
abbot can choose to exercise his power,
when expedient, t...
78
RELATIONSHIP
79
AUTHORITY
 We have paradoxical ideas about authority
• We hope everyone will be “a leader” and train them for it
• We ...
80
RESPONSIBILITY
 Jesus Christ is the authority
• The Rule embodies a particular
path to follow Christ.
• The Abbot is t...
81
What Authority Cannot Do
 Abbot's power depends on the obedience
of the monks.
 Benedict knew this:
he told the unrul...
82
Preserving and
transmitting the
“technology” of
community:
skills of stability, love,
neighboring,
commitment, bearing
...
83
“Choosing not what she
judges best for herself but
what is best for the
other.”
Relationship and
awareness of the other...
84
Working Side by SideSlidetotellthestoryofSisterAquinataBockmannandthepotatoes
85
Theology of Reproof
 RB 27.2-3 He ought to use every skill of a
wise physician and send in senpectae…
under the cloak ...
86
Caring Abbot
 For excommunicated and sick RB 27
• He should realize that he has undertaken care
of the sick, not tyran...
87
Caring Cellarer
 For brothers
(RB 31.6-7)
• He should not annoy
the brothers.
 For sick, children,
guests, and poor
(...
88
The Good Shepherd
 Goes beyond charity
 Repentance of the
offender, with
genuine conversion
of heart
 Forgiveness by...
89
"These practices do
not create union
with God. If that
happens, it is an
accident. But these
are the practices
that wil...
90
https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/05/b1/86/05b186783413a6c78ca45e1967335c07.jpg
91
Time for Reflection
or Journaling
92
SESSION IV
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
Monastic Practices
for Ordinary People
Sister Edith Bogue
Benedictine Center
St. Paul’s Monastery
24 March 2017
94
SESSION V
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
95
We give thanks for the blessing of winter:
Season to cherish the heart.
To make warmth and quiet for the heart.
To make...
96
ORDINARY PEOPLE
97
Inside the Monastery
 The Rule was meant for a community.
• A leader who follows its precepts
• Fellow workers seeking...
98
Outside the Monastery
 Homes and workplaces
• Other missions and goals
• Few or no others following this path
• Variou...
99
Benedictine Adaptability
 Designed for cloistered
communities
 Even so, great variety
• Some very secluded
(especiall...
100
Shaped by Social Realities
 Christianity came to
Germany in 700s by
the foundation of
monasteries
• St Boniface
• St ...
101101
 Communio Internationalis Benedictinarum
Benedictine Sisters Differ
102
“Shaped by social realities”
SistersofSt.ScholasticaMonastery
We might see things one way
from a monastery descended
f...
103
“Shaped by social realities”
PhotobyS.MaryAgnesPattersonofMountSt.Scholastica,Atchison,KS
… but quite
differently from...
104
“Shaped by social realities”
PhotobySisterEdithBogueattheAbbeyofSt.Walburgain
VirginiaDale,Colorado.
… and still diffe...
105
Lay & Monastic connected
http://c8.alamy.com/comp/E79D3Y/aerial-view-melk-abbey-benedictine-monastery-austrian-baroque...
106
CALL TO DISCIPLESHIP
107
 Conflicts of
old (Roman) &
new (German)
cultures
 Inequality
 Uncertainty
 Factions &
Violence
 Senatorial famil...
108
Now: Koyaanisqatsi
 Koyaanisqatsi:
• Hopi term for
“chaotic life” or “life that calls
for another way of living” or
“...
109
Social Unrest in Jesus’ Time
 Conflict of Empire
and local cultures
 Great inequality
 Differences of faith
and val...
110
Jesus, the Surprising Savior
 No distinctions by class
 Jew and Gentile alike
 Undaunted by Romans
but not their fo...
111
"Your way of acting should be different
from the world's way."
112
Benedictine Practices
 Entirely Gospel-based
 The practices are the
result of long lectio on
the Scriptures and on
t...
113
Monastic Practices
 Common “technology”
with many traditions of
monastic life – Sufi,
Essene, Buddhist, and
Native Am...
114
“Do these things in
memory of me.”
Joseph,K.(2013).Re-focusingtheBenedictineTradition.
BenedictinesLXVI:1Spring/Summer...
115
RESPONDING TO THE
CALL
 Our encounter with Christ, our
belief, makes claims on our lives
that are real.
 Responding ...
116
Abba Lot went to see Abba Joseph and said to him, “Abba, as far
as I can, I say my little office, I fast a little, I p...
117
May this time of retreat bring
many blessings to you.
118
SESSION V
IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary
CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
Monastic Practices
for Ordinary People
Sister Edith Bogue
Benedictine Center
St. Paul’s Monastery
24 March 2017
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Monastic Practices

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Slides from a 5-session retreat presenting some Benedictine monastic practices for lay people. Given at St. Paul's Monastery, St. Paul, Minnesota.

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Monastic Practices

  1. 1. Monastic Practices for Ordinary People Sister Edith Bogue Benedictine Center St. Paul’s Monastery 24 March 2017
  2. 2. 2 God bless our contradictions, those parts of us which seem out of character. Let us be boldly and gladly out of character. Let us be creatures of paradox and variety: creatures of contrast; of light and shade; creatures of faith. God be our constant. Let us step out of character into the unknown, to struggle and love and do what we will. Amen
  3. 3. 3 SESSION I IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  4. 4. 4 INTRODUCTION aa
  5. 5. 5 Benedict’s wisdom and vision  Benedict did not invent the monastic way of life.  He drew on the wisdom of the past.  His approach was moderate, flexible, interactive, and compassionate for human frailty. SaintBenedictseestheworldinasinglerayoflight. MonteCassino.PhotobySisterEdithBogue.
  6. 6. 6 Monastic Life Before Benedict  St. Augustine in northern Africa (Augustinians)  St. Basil in Cappadocia in Turkey (Basilians; most Eastern Orthodox monks and nuns)  St. Pachomius in Egypt  The "Desert Abbas" or Desert Fathers and Mothers – hermits in Egypt, Palestine, Syria  The Jewish Essene community at the time of Jesus  The example of Elijah (Carmelite tradition)
  7. 7. 7 Two types of answers  "Flight from" • Overwhelming temptations & addictions. • Intensity and stress of modern life. • Superficial relationships  "Journey toward" • Relationship with God • Authentic relationships with others • Freedom from bondage to transient values
  8. 8. 8 "The Desert a City"  Thousands of monks as desert hermits  Garden plot, work area, cells for sleeping.
  9. 9. 9 Common Practices  Separation from "the world"  Persistent prayer  Work, usually manual work  Extreme simplicity of lifestyle and diet  Longing and striving for holiness  Keen sense of eternity and eternal life  Their practices form a "spiritual technology" that enabled many to reach spiritual depths, and also to help each other along the way.
  10. 10. 10 “The external practices of monastic life are directly connected with our search for God. In and through these practices we express our spiritual values and ideals, & daily live out our commitment to God.” Cummings, Monastic Practices Obedience is not about rules
  11. 11. 11 Dangers of Monastic Practices  Focus on the practice, not the spirituality.  The practice becomes a burden that brings no joy, does not connect to God.  Occasion for rigidity and judgment.
  12. 12. 12 Practice Hardens to Tradition  It becomes THE right thing to do.  Imposed on others  Ceases to have meaning  A “rut” is another term for a shallow grave.
  13. 13. 13 HORARIUM aa
  14. 14. 14 Monastic Schedule: A Modern View “DailyLifeinaMedievalMonastery"at"MostlyMedieval- ExploringtheMiddleAges” For most monks and nuns the basis of their daily life was the Rule of Saint Benedict. In his rule, Benedict devised a rigid, monotonous routine of work, prayer, study and sleep designed to make the mind and the will submissive to God. The pattern of the day varied only according to the seasons of the year and the liturgical calendar.
  15. 15. 15 Order as the Source of Freedom  Rule spells out details of everyday life.  Ten out of 73 chapters for the schedule and method of prayer  Job descriptions for all, from leaders to kitchen helpers.  Instructions for sick people and those who care for them.  Instructions for making a mistake and correcting someone who does.  Prescribes an order for coming and going and sitting at meals.  Lays out a schedule for the day.
  16. 16. 16 Time as Cycle of God's Year
  17. 17. 17  Summer Schedule 1:30AM:Preparation for night office. 2:00:AM: Nocturns 3:30AM: Lauds at daybreak. 4:00AM:Change and wash. 5:00AM:Trina Oratorio, Reading 6:00AM:Prime, Morrow Mass, Chapter 7:30AM:Reading 8:00AM:Terce, Sung Mass 9:30AM:Work 11:30AM: Sext 12:00PM: Dinner 1:00PM: Siesta 2:30PM: None, Drink 3:00PM Work 5:30PM Supper 6:00PM Vespers 7:30PM: Change into night shoes, Collatio 8:00PM: Compline 8:15PM: Bed 2:30AM Preparation for night office. 3:00AM Nocturns (aka Matins) 5:00AM Reading 6:00AM Lauds at daybreak, Prime 7:30AM Reading 8:00AM Terce, Morrow mass, Chapter 9:45AM Work 12:00PM Sext, Sung Mass 1:30PM None 2:00PM Dinner 2:45PM Work 4:15PM Vespers 5:30PM Change into night shoes 6:00PM Collatio 6:15PM Compline 6:30PM Bed  Winter Schedule
  18. 18. 18 Why is work spiritual?  God works. • God’s work never ends • We are made in God’s image • Jesus rested in order to go out in ministry  We work to survive • Food and shelter • Comfort and joy • To be able to give PhotobySisterEdithBogue
  19. 19. 19 When they live by the labor of their hands, as our fathers and the apostles did, then they are really monks. Yet, all things are to be done with moderation on account of the fainthearted. Rule of Benedict, Chapter 48 Sweet corn harvest, Yankton Benedictines The Rule on Work PhotobySisterEdithBogue.
  20. 20. 20 Work Work done in the Benedictine tradition is supposed to be regular; it is supposed to be productive, it is supposed to be worthwhile, but it is not supposed to be impossible. Joan Chittister
  21. 21. 21 The Liturgical Year: The Spiraling Adventure of the Spiritual Life by Joan Chittister, OSB  “The liturgical year is the year that sets out to attune the life of the Christian to the life of Jesus, the Christ. It proposes, year after year, to immerse us over and over again into the sense and substance of the Christian life until, eventually, we become what we say we are: the followers of Jesus all the way to the heart of God.”
  22. 22. 22 LINEAR TIME, HISTORICAL TIME Birth Child Youth Adult Death  We enter at conception  We live each moment • Events form us (family of origin, schools, jobs, families we make, world events)  We exit at death  How does the Christian live in linear time?
  23. 23. 23 Sundays: The first cycle The Cornerstone of Christian Worship  Early Christians – Sunday • The communion of heaven – the “Eighth Day” • Do what Jesus asked: Remembrance • Gathered in the community of disciples • Celebrating the Lord’s Resurrection  Borrowed from the Jewish and Roman rituals  Retained what was compatible with Christianity  Liturgies were a ‘stew’ of many elements • St. Paul’s letter to the Corinthians specifies early elements
  24. 24. 24 Major Feasts: The Second Cycle Centered on the Life of Christ • Easter – celebration of the resurrection • Ascension • Pentecost • Christmas
  25. 25. 25 Celebration of Saints: The Third Cycle • Major figures in the life of Christ • Mary and Joseph • John the Baptist • Apostles and Evangelists • Major figures and event in the early Church • Bishops, Martyrs, Holy men and women • Locations become places of worship • Witnesses to Christ’s love, power, mercy and way of life – throughout history.
  26. 26. 26 The Daily Cycle  Liturgy of the Hours breaks up the day with times of prayer.  Some communities pray midday prayer at work, from memory.
  27. 27. 27 The Liturgical Year: The Spiraling Adventure of the Spiritual Life by Joan Chittister, OSB  “The liturgical year is an adventure in bringing the Christian life to fullness, the heart to alert, the soul to focus. It does not concern itself with the questions of how to make a living. It concerns itself with the questions of how to make a life.”
  28. 28. 28 Time for Reflection or Journaling
  29. 29. 29 SESSION I IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  30. 30. 30 SESSION II IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  31. 31. 31 SPACE
  32. 32. 32 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/images/work/T/T01/T01455_10.jpg As regards the monastery: if possible it is to be so constituted that all necessities, such as water, mill, garden, and various crafts may be practiced within the monastery so there will be no necessity for the monks to wander outside; for this is not at all good for their souls. (RB 66.6-7)
  33. 33. 33 Enclosure  A form of simplicity  Guard of the heart  Limits accumulation of material goods  Limits frenetic activity and connection
  34. 34. 34 Purpose  Spaces have a designated purpose in The Rule.  Gatehouse, Novitiate, Kitchen, Oratory, the Abbot’s Table, the Dormitory…  Entering the space thus prompts the appropriate spirit and practices.
  35. 35. 35 The Oratory The oratory is to be what it is called, and nothing else should be done or kept there. When the Work of God is finished all should go out in complete silence and with reverence for God, so that a member who wishes to pray alone will not be impeded by another’s insensitivity. … And therefore one who is not performing this work is not to be permitted to remain in the oratory after the Work of God, so that, as was said, no one else is impeded.
  36. 36. 36 PROPERTY
  37. 37. 37 Personal Ownership These beds are to be frequently inspected by the abbot so that personal possessions are not found there; and if anyone is found with something he has not received from the abbot, he is to be subjected to the most severe discipline. And so as to cut out this vice of personal ownership at the roots, the abbot is to give out everything that is necessary: that is, cowl, tunic, stockings, shoes, belt, knife, stylus, needle, handkerchief, and writing tablets; so that every excuse based on necessity is removed.
  38. 38. 38 Personal Ownership 2
  39. 39. 39 In The Rule  Ch. 54, Whether a Monk May Receive Letters or Anything Else " If [the abbot] orders [the letter, blessed object or little gift] to be received, it is in his power to decide to whom it will be given; and this is not to sadden the brother to whom it was sent, so that occasion is not given to the devil (Eph 4:27; 1 Tim 5:14). But one who presumes to act otherwise is to be subjected to the discipline of the Rule.
  40. 40. 40 In The Rule Ch 39, The Measure of Food: "If it happens that the work is heavier the abbot can choose to exercise his power, when expedient, to add something, provided that before all else over- indulgence is avoided, and that no monk suffers indigestion."
  41. 41. 41 In The Rule  Ch 58., The Table of the Abbot "The table of the abbot should always be with guests and pilgrims. Whenever there are few guests it is within his power to invite any of the brothers he wishes. He is, however, always to leave one or two seniors with the brothers for the sake of discipline." https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/52/24/de/5224de5d31ae381dc62138ae90d4dee3.jpg
  42. 42. 42 “Vessels of the Altar” The cellarer is to look upon all the vessels and goods of the monastery as though they were the sacred vessels of the altar. She is not to neglect anything.
  43. 43. 43 More recently… How beautiful will be the day when all the baptized understand that their work, their job, is a priestly work, that just as I celebrate Mass at this altar, so each carpenter celebrates Mass at his workbench, and each metalworker, each professional, each doctor with the scalpel, the market woman at her stand, is performing a priestly office! How may cabdrivers, I know, listen to this message there in their cabs, you are a priest at the wheel, my friend, if you work with honesty, consecrating that taxi of yours to God, bearing a message of peace and love to the passengers who ride in your cab. Archbishop Oscar Romero November 20, 1977 http://liturgyhouse.blogspot.com/2008/03/quotes-from-archbishop-oscar- romero.html
  44. 44. https://viewersite.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/leunig-2013christmas-wish.jpeg
  45. 45. 45 Time for Reflection or Journaling
  46. 46. 46 SESSION II IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  47. 47. 47 SESSION III IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  48. 48. 48 https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/736x/3e/48/72/3e4872967e719b86ea3c6cf35c31b169.jpg
  49. 49. 49 CUSTODY OF THE TONGUE
  50. 50. 50 Latin custodio, a verb  To guard, to keep watch  This is the verb St. Jerome used to where modern translations say "keep" as in  faciens misericordiam in millia his qui diligunt me, et custodiunt praecepta mea, SHOWING STEADFAST LOVE TO THOUSANDS OF THOSE WHO LOVE ME AND KEEP MY COMMANDMENTS  CUSTIDIO has many and deep meanings across Scripture, worthy of its own study.
  51. 51. 51 The Rule of St. Benedict, Ch. 4 In Ch 4.51-54, Tools for Good Works: "to keep custody of one’s mouth against depraved speech, not to love excessive speaking. Not to speak words that are vain or apt to provoke laughter (cf. 2 Tim 2:16), not to love frequent or raucous laughter (cf. Sir 21:23;)." These words have been given a variety of meanings, often leading to difficulty. ThisExclusiveClipFrom‘TheInterview’FeaturesJamesFrancoAsADepravedTalkShowHost http://brobible.com/entertainment/article/exclusive-clip-the-interview/
  52. 52. 52 Reading the Bible with St. Benedict  Monastics learned scripture by heart.  In St. Benedict's era: The OT had some divisions. The NT may have had divisions but not our modern chapters  There were no verses or verse numbers.  Memory was entirely according to meaning.  SO: Quoting a phrase would bring to mind the entire passage related to it.  Sister Irene Nowell taught an entire course on "Reading the Bible with Benedict" from which some of these ideas were drawn. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/1QIsa_b.jpg/220px-1QIsa_b.jpg
  53. 53. 53 Medieval Scripturehttp://www.medievalists.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/800px-Illuminated.bible_.arp_.jpg
  54. 54. 54 Scripture at the time of BenedictCodexClaromontanus:https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Codex_claromontanus_latin.jpg Codex Claromontanus V, 4th or 5th century Latin manuscript of the New Testament. The text, written on vellum.
  55. 55. 55 2 Timothy 2:16 in contextFromtheNewAmericanBibleviatheBibleGateway: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2%20Timothy%202 14Remind people of these things and charge them before God to stop disputing about words. This serves no useful purpose since it harms those who listen. 15 Be eager to present yourself as acceptable to God, a workman who causes no disgrace, imparting the word of truth without deviation. 16 Avoid profane, idle talk, for such people will become more and more godless,17 and their teaching will spread like gangrene. Among them are Hymenaeus and Philetus, 18 who have deviated from the truth by saying that [the] resurrection has already taken place and are upsetting the faith of some. 19 Nevertheless, God’s solid foundation stands, bearing this inscription, “The Lord knows those who are his”; and, “Let everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord avoid evil.”
  56. 56. 56 Custody as Danger Control  The Letter of James focuses on the harm the tongue can do. It is a warning.  St. Benedict forbids the ill use of the tongue, but is not afraid of the organ.
  57. 57. 57 Custody as safekeeping  Custody indicates value • Valued possessions • Children, our future • Even prisoners, we keep safe to guard the dignity of all humans. • God's commandments, our guide and hope.
  58. 58. 58 Custody as Encouragement  Benedict tells us how to use our tongues: for praise, for prayer, to edify others by our reading, for blessing.  Scripts: At start of prayer, on meeting another monastic, for start of service. http://s3.amazonaws.com/artspan-fs/member_files/kiryah/The_Psalmist.jpg
  59. 59. 59 Custody as Training for Proper Use  Custody of a person involves all needs, not only physical. True even in prisons.  Adequate custody allows the person to develop and flourish.  Many of the joys of life are possible only if we tame passions and learn procedures.  Custody is a two-way relationship.  Obedience can be seen as custody relationship. PartnershipTraining: http://www.partnersdogtraining.com/images/img_sendsitgroup_HI.jpg
  60. 60. 60 Custody of the Tongue  …is not the same as keeping silence  …is related to "custody of my ways"  …may occur in the face of "the wicked" and of calamities  …has to do with hope and trust in God  …is an integral part of being acceptable to God, carrying out God's work acceptably AbandonedWorship: http://www.drawneartogod.com/ArtDetail.asp?ID=20010905&art=abandoned- worship#.WHs2mlMrJeM
  61. 61. 61 READING
  62. 62. 62 Lectio Divina  "Holy Reading"  Remember that the best time of the day was given to Reading in the medieval monastic schedule.  Pondering the Word, hearing it new, letting it speak: these are the goals. Quantity of reading is not a goal at all.
  63. 63. 63 Monastic Contemplative Tradition  Grounded in Scripture  Begins with Lectio • Reading. Read a passage slowly many times. Read it silently, read it aloud. Try memorizing the passage. • Meditating. As words or phrases stand out, focus on them. Dialogue with. What do they remind you of? • Praying. Do you find yourself asking God questions? Do people or situations come to mind? Allow the connections to become a natural conversation with God. • Contemplating. This is a gift from God. It may not happen and it is not the “reward” for a well-done lectio divina! It is the delightful “aha-moment,” a sense of timelessness, an inner awe at the beauty or love or wisdom or of God.
  64. 64. 64 "A word"  Silence  The "word" of an abba was for a particular person and need.  Hundreds of stories, sayings and lives were collected.  Now slowly becoming available in English. ChristandaDesertHermit.Ancientfresco.
  65. 65. 65 Outside the Monastery “No one shall presume to tell others what he may have seen or heard outside the monastery, for this is very destructive. If anyone so presumes, he is to be subjected to the punishment of the Rule. It is to be the same with one who presumes to leave the enclosure of the monastery, whether to go anywhere or do anything, however small, without the order of the abbot. http://fisheaters.com/twomonks.jpg
  66. 66. 66 Turning Towards God  Augustine: "You have made us for yourself, O God, and our hearts are restless until they find rest in you."  Desiring God (John Piper)  Michael Casey, Toward God  Monastic practices give us the opportunity and means to turn our hearts to God.
  67. 67. 67 Time for Reflection or Journaling
  68. 68. 68 SESSION III IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  69. 69. 69 SESSION IV IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  70. 70. 70 Michael Leunig
  71. 71. 71 THE BODY
  72. 72. 72 Encountering Christ  In God’s word  In the superior  In the pilgrim and guests  In the sick and the young  Members to each other  Present in all places  Therefore present in oneself as well.
  73. 73. 73 Spiritual Life in the Body Benedict prescribes postures & gestures  bow to fellow server  prostrate for pardon  novice prostrates to receive the prayers of all  traveler lies prostrate for pardon of accidental errors
  74. 74. 74 Romano Guardini – Sacred Signs (1911) “EVERY part of the body is an expressive instrument of the soul. The soul does not inhabit the body as a man inhabits a house. It lives and works in each member, each fibre, and reveals itself in the body's every line, contour and movement.”
  75. 75. 75 Romano Guardini – Sacred Signs (1911) Even when we are praying alone, to pray standing may more forcibly express our inward state. The early Christians stood by preference. The "Orante," in the familiar catacomb representation, stands in her long flowing robes of a woman of rank and prays with outstretched hands, in perfect freedom, perfect obedience, quietly attending to the word, and in readiness to perform it with joy.” “Stand up straight: not leaning, both feet on the ground, the knees firm, not slackly bent, upright, in control. Prayer made thus is both free and obedient, both reverent and serviceable.” https://www.ecatholic2000.com/guardini/signs6.shtml
  76. 76. 76 Divine Presence  We believe that the Divine Presence is everywhere, and the eyes of the Lord in every place look upon the good and the evil. (Prov 15:3). We especially believe this without any doubt when we are assisting at the Work of God. (RB 19.1-2)  Chant psalms in such a way that our mind and voice are in concord with each other. (RB 19.7)
  77. 77. 77 Body a Temptation “If it happens that the work is heavier the abbot can choose to exercise his power, when expedient, to add something, provided that before all else overindulgence is avoided, and that no monk suffers indigestion. For nothing is more contrary to all things Christian than overindulgence, as Our Lord says: See that your hearts are not weighed down through overindulgence (Luke 21:34) (RB 39)”
  78. 78. 78 RELATIONSHIP
  79. 79. 79 AUTHORITY  We have paradoxical ideas about authority • We hope everyone will be “a leader” and train them for it • We promote independent thinking and individual choice, rather than looking for and following a leader  Benedict tells us to follow TWO authorities all the time: • The Rule AND the Abbot who takes the place of Christ • The Rule describe how to be a good follower o Don’t grumble and complain, but be satisfied with the work you’re asked to do o If a task seems impossible, explain the problem but try it. o Don’t get puffed up about your contributions • If the Rule and the Abbot are in conflict, try to keep the Rule but remember that it tells you to obey the Abbot.
  80. 80. 80 RESPONSIBILITY  Jesus Christ is the authority • The Rule embodies a particular path to follow Christ. • The Abbot is the presence of Christ guiding our actions. • We want to respond to Christ with our best self.  RESPONSIBILITY means that our community, our superior, and the people we encounter believe in us: • The know our monastic commitment • They sincerely expect us to live out our promises • They will let us know when we fall short. • They will encourage us as we try to improve.
  81. 81. 81 What Authority Cannot Do  Abbot's power depends on the obedience of the monks.  Benedict knew this: he told the unruly monks they would not like him.  Ch. 28 is about the limits of the abbots power, and the priorities when he must deal with things he cannot control.
  82. 82. 82 Preserving and transmitting the “technology” of community: skills of stability, love, neighboring, commitment, bearing with, and fidelity. Care and Support
  83. 83. 83 “Choosing not what she judges best for herself but what is best for the other.” Relationship and awareness of the others revitalizes a sense of the common good. Care and Support
  84. 84. 84 Working Side by SideSlidetotellthestoryofSisterAquinataBockmannandthepotatoes
  85. 85. 85 Theology of Reproof  RB 27.2-3 He ought to use every skill of a wise physician and send in senpectae… under the cloak of secrecy, may support the wavering brother… and console him lest he be overwhelmed by excessive sorrow. (2 Cor 2:7)  RB 27.4 Rather… let love for him be reaffirmed (2 Cor 2:8) and let all pray for him.
  86. 86. 86 Caring Abbot  For excommunicated and sick RB 27 • He should realize that he has undertaken care of the sick, not tyranny over the healthy. (RB 27.6)
  87. 87. 87 Caring Cellarer  For brothers (RB 31.6-7) • He should not annoy the brothers.  For sick, children, guests, and poor (RB 31.9)  For poor and pilgrims (RB 53.15)
  88. 88. 88 The Good Shepherd  Goes beyond charity  Repentance of the offender, with genuine conversion of heart  Forgiveness by the community to bring about the salvation of “weak” brother  It is the image of the Good Shepherd who wants and needs to save the one lost sheep
  89. 89. 89 "These practices do not create union with God. If that happens, it is an accident. But these are the practices that will make you accident prone." Fr. Greg Mayers
  90. 90. 90 https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/05/b1/86/05b186783413a6c78ca45e1967335c07.jpg
  91. 91. 91 Time for Reflection or Journaling
  92. 92. 92 SESSION IV IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  93. 93. Monastic Practices for Ordinary People Sister Edith Bogue Benedictine Center St. Paul’s Monastery 24 March 2017
  94. 94. 94 SESSION V IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  95. 95. 95 We give thanks for the blessing of winter: Season to cherish the heart. To make warmth and quiet for the heart. To make soups and broths for the heart. To cook for the heart and read for the heart. To curl up softly and nestle with the heart. To sleep deeply and gently at one with the heart. To dream with the heart. To spend time with the heart. We give thanks for the blessing of winter: Season to cherish the heart. Amen.
  96. 96. 96 ORDINARY PEOPLE
  97. 97. 97 Inside the Monastery  The Rule was meant for a community. • A leader who follows its precepts • Fellow workers seeking similar paths • Common understanding of practices and goals • Common language, spoken and symbolic
  98. 98. 98 Outside the Monastery  Homes and workplaces • Other missions and goals • Few or no others following this path • Various (competing) practices and goals • A different (or no) common language, spoken and symbolic
  99. 99. 99 Benedictine Adaptability  Designed for cloistered communities  Even so, great variety • Some very secluded (especially the reforms) • Some in urban areas • Size varies from a dozen to hundreds • Focus on liturgy and prayer, or on ministries • The ministries and means of livelihood vary http://www.archirhett.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/mona_09.jpg
  100. 100. 100 Shaped by Social Realities  Christianity came to Germany in 700s by the foundation of monasteries • St Boniface • St Walburga  Came to America to teach immigrant children • Sr. Benedicta Riepp https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/564x/d9/45/b8/d945b8269539cc74eed1b64750964988.jpg
  101. 101. 101101  Communio Internationalis Benedictinarum Benedictine Sisters Differ
  102. 102. 102 “Shaped by social realities” SistersofSt.ScholasticaMonastery We might see things one way from a monastery descended from Mother Benedicta Riepp’s lineage or the other sisters who came from Europe to teach or nurse in the late 1800s…
  103. 103. 103 “Shaped by social realities” PhotobyS.MaryAgnesPattersonofMountSt.Scholastica,Atchison,KS … but quite differently from a monastery founded by the Missionary Benedictines in rural Africa … Sisters Susana, Imane, and Presentasia are thrilled with the new dam that brings electricity to their monastery in Chipole, Tanzania
  104. 104. 104 “Shaped by social realities” PhotobySisterEdithBogueattheAbbeyofSt.Walburgain VirginiaDale,Colorado. … and still differently from the viewpoint of other monasteries in America founded from European abbeys in the 20th century. Sisters measuring rain water near the garden at the Abbey of St. Walburga, Virginia Dale, CO.
  105. 105. 105 Lay & Monastic connected http://c8.alamy.com/comp/E79D3Y/aerial-view-melk-abbey-benedictine-monastery-austrian-baroque-melk- E79D3Y.jpg
  106. 106. 106 CALL TO DISCIPLESHIP
  107. 107. 107  Conflicts of old (Roman) & new (German) cultures  Inequality  Uncertainty  Factions & Violence  Senatorial family: learn the arts of rhetoric and manners of government frescofromSantaScolasticainNorcia Social Unrest in Benedict’s Era
  108. 108. 108 Now: Koyaanisqatsi  Koyaanisqatsi: • Hopi term for “chaotic life” or “life that calls for another way of living” or “unbalanced”  “The economy” has become a force on its own.  Family relationships and life are complex and increasingly uncertain.  Life is fast, pressured, scheduled, controlled.  Human dimension is lacking. KoyaanisqatsiandPowaqatsi http://www.koyaanisqatsi.org/films/powaqqatsi.php
  109. 109. 109 Social Unrest in Jesus’ Time  Conflict of Empire and local cultures  Great inequality  Differences of faith and values  Injustice & violence  Many expected a political or military Messiah, or God to intervene in force. https://s-media-cache- ak0.pinimg.com/736x/a0/57/ec/a057ec9c5f2ffe7a874dd70f1d76f 1f3.jpg
  110. 110. 110 Jesus, the Surprising Savior  No distinctions by class  Jew and Gentile alike  Undaunted by Romans but not their foe  Teaching the fulfillment of values already spoken  Embodying God’s love and sacrifice for all  Inviting us to follow.
  111. 111. 111 "Your way of acting should be different from the world's way."
  112. 112. 112 Benedictine Practices  Entirely Gospel-based  The practices are the result of long lectio on the Scriptures and on the life of Christ.  “What if we spent a year trying to live out ‘Love one another’ and really meant it?”
  113. 113. 113 Monastic Practices  Common “technology” with many traditions of monastic life – Sufi, Essene, Buddhist, and Native American • Silence • Separation • Meditation • Community  The effectiveness of these methods is etched into our bodies, our embodied spirituality.
  114. 114. 114 “Do these things in memory of me.” Joseph,K.(2013).Re-focusingtheBenedictineTradition. BenedictinesLXVI:1Spring/Summer2013 114
  115. 115. 115 RESPONDING TO THE CALL  Our encounter with Christ, our belief, makes claims on our lives that are real.  Responding means shaping our actions, our choices, our words, even our hopes and dreams towards Christ, out of love for him.  The Rule offers us a template and many practices to translate our “Yes” to Christ into a lived reality of new life.
  116. 116. 116 Abba Lot went to see Abba Joseph and said to him, “Abba, as far as I can, I say my little office, I fast a little, I pray and meditate, I live in peace and as far as I can, I purify my thoughts. What else can I do?” Then the old man stood up and stretched his hands towards heaven. His fingers became like ten lamps of fire and he said to him, “If you will, you can become all flame.” - From the Desert Fathers
  117. 117. 117 May this time of retreat bring many blessings to you.
  118. 118. 118 SESSION V IlluminatedRuleofBenedict.Illuminationsby+SisterMary CharlesMcGough,St.ScholasticaMonastery,Duluth,MN
  119. 119. Monastic Practices for Ordinary People Sister Edith Bogue Benedictine Center St. Paul’s Monastery 24 March 2017

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