Chapter16

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Chapter16

  1. 1. Chapter 16 Early Medieval Europe Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e
  2. 2. Early Medieval Sites in Europe
  3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Understand the distinctive artistic traditions of the European peoples after the fall of the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the chronological placement of this period following the fall of the western Roman Empire in the fourth century but preceding the Romanesque period of the 11 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the different types of art, media, and their respective cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the role of Christian monks in preserving and creating art </li></ul><ul><li>Trace influences of medieval art styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the early Middle Ages. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Northern European Art <ul><li>Understand the artistic, technical and stylistic traditions of the northern European peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the different types of art and the respective cultures associated with the Merovingians, Anglo-Saxons, and Vikings. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the artistic traditions applied to a variety of media, such as wood, stone, and metal. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Merovingian and Saxon Art <ul><li>Understand the artistic, technical and stylistic traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the different types of art and the respective cultures associated with the Merovingians and Saxons. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 16-2 Pair of Merovingian looped fibulae, from Jouy-le-Comte, France, mid-sixth century. Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones, 4” high. Musée d’Archéologie nationale, Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
  7. 7. Figure 16-3 Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England, ca. 625. Gold, glass, and cloisonné garnets, 7 1/2” long. British Museum, London.
  8. 8. Interlaced Animal Style <ul><li>Examine the European artistic traditions applied to a variety of media, such as wood, stone, and metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the imagery includes intertwined ribbon-like designs called interlacing as well as abstract animal imagery. These design features reflect the cultures of pre-Christian Northern Europe. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 16-4 Animal-head post, from the Viking ship burial, Oseberg, Norway, ca. 825. Wood, head 5” high. University Museum of National Antiquities, Oslo.
  10. 10. Figure 16-5 Wooden portal of the stave church at Urnes, Norway, ca. 1050–1070.
  11. 11. Hiberno-Saxon Art (6 th to 10 th centuries) <ul><li>Understand the Saxon artistic influence in the British Isles. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the early influence of Christianity and the ways in which indigenous art forms serve the cause of Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the specific art elements and principles of design applied to the illuminated manuscripts, Celtic crosses and other objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe the continuation of interlacing and abstract animal imagery. Why did art used for Christian purposes retain these qualities? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 16-6 Man (symbol of Saint Matthew), folio 21 verso of the Book of Durrow , possibly from Iona, Scotland, ca. 660–680. Ink and tempera on parchment, 9 5/8” X 6 1/8”. Trinity College Library, Dublin.
  13. 13. Figure 16-1 Cross-inscribed carpet page, folio 26 verso of the Lindisfarne Gospels, from Northumbria, England, ca. 698–721. Tempera on vellum, 1’ 1 1/2” X 9 1/4”. British Library, London.
  14. 14. Figure 16-7 Saint Matthew, folio 25 verso of the Lindisfarne Gospels, from Northumbria , England, ca. 698–721. Tempera on vellum, 1’ 1 1/2” X 9 1/4”. British Library, London.
  15. 15. Figure 16-8 Chi-rho-iota (XPI) page, folio 34 recto of the Book of Kells , probably from Iona, Scotland, late eighth or early ninth century. Tempera on vellum, 1’ 1” X 9 1/2”. Trinity College Library, Dublin.
  16. 16. Medieval Christian Monks <ul><li>Understand the role of Christian monks in preserving and creating illuminated manuscripts in scriptoria </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the layout of a medieval monastery </li></ul>
  17. 17. Figure 16-19 Schematic plan for a monastery at Saint Gall, Switzerland, ca. 819. Red ink on parchment, 2’ 4” X 3’ 8 1/8”. Stiftsbibliothek, Saint Gall.
  18. 18. Celtic Crosses <ul><li>Describe the specific art elements and principles of design applied to the Celtic crosses. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 16-9 High Cross of Muiredach (east face), Monasterboice, Ireland, 923. Sandstone, 18’ high.
  20. 20. Carolingian Art (9 th century – present day France and Germany) <ul><li>Understand the political and religious influences on art and architecture during the Carolingian period. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the ‘revival of learning’ and the art of the book as a result of Charlemagne’s interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the Carolingian period. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Figure 16-12 Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne or Charles the Bald, from Metz, France, ninth century. Bronze, originally gilt, 9 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.
  22. 22. The Carolingian Renovation <ul><li>Observe how Charlemagne’s empire revived Roman art and architectural forms. Why did he desire to do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the ‘revival of learning’ and the art of the book. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 16-13 Saint Matthew, folio 15 recto of the Coronation Gospels ( Gospel Book of Charlemagne ), from Aachen, Germany, ca. 800–810. Ink and tempera on vellum, 1’ 3/4” X 10”. Schatzkammer, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  24. 24. Figure 16-14 Saint Matthew, folio 18 verso of the Ebbo Gospels ( Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims ), from Hautvillers (near Reims), France, ca. 816–835. Ink and tempera on vellum, 10 1/4” X 8 3/4”. Bibliothèque Municipale, Épernay.
  25. 25. Art of Charlemagne’s Court <ul><li>Examine the gold and jeweled secular and religious court art under Charlemagne and his successors. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Figure 16-16 Crucifixion, front cover of the Lindau Gospels , from Saint Gall, Switzerland, ca. 870. Gold, precious stones, and pearls, 1’ 1 3/8” X 10 3/8”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.
  27. 27. Carolingian Architecture <ul><li>Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the Carolingian period. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Figure 16-17 Restored plan of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805.
  29. 29. Figure 16-18 Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792–805.
  30. 30. Figure 16-20 Westwork of the abbey church, Corvey, Germany, 873–885.
  31. 31. Ottonian Art (10 th century Germany) <ul><li>Examine the architecture associated with the Ottonians, its formal origins and its later influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the architectural and free standing sculptural traditions of the Ottonians. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast Ottonian and Carolingian art </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the styles of the Ottonian illuminated manuscripts. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Architecture of the Ottonians <ul><li>Examine the architecture, its formal origins and its later influence. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Figure 16-21 Nave of the church of Saint Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961–973.
  34. 34. Figure 16-22 Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001–1031.
  35. 35. Figure 16-23 Longitudinal section ( top ) and plan ( bottom ) of the abbey church of Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001–1031.
  36. 36. Ottonian Sculpture <ul><li>Understand the architectural sculpture associated with St. Michael’s at Hildesheim, Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the free standing sculptural traditions of the Ottonians. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Figure 16-24 Doors with relief panels (Genesis, left door; life of Christ, right door), commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015. Bronze, 16’ 6” high. Dom-Museum, Hildesheim.
  38. 38. Figure 16-25 Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ, commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, ca. 1015–1022. Bronze, 12’ 6” tall. Dom-Museum, Hildesheim.
  39. 39. Figure 16-26 Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, Germany, ca. 970. Painted wood, height of figure 6’ 2”. Cathedral, Cologne.
  40. 40. Ottonian Illuminated Manuscripts <ul><li>Examine the appearance of the Ottonian illuminated manuscripts. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the golden backgrounds and linear figural styles in Ottonian illuminated manuscripts --- Ottonian leaders developed significant contacts with the Byzantine empire. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Figure 16-28 Annunciation to the Shepherds, folio in the Lectionary of Henry II , from Reichenau, Germany, 1002–1014. Tempera on vellum, approx. 1’ 5” X 1’ 1”. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich.
  42. 42. Figure 16-29 Otto III enthroned, folio 24 recto of the Gospel Book of Otto III , from Reichenau, Germany, 997–1000. Tempera on vellum, 1’ 1” x 9 3/8”. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich.
  43. 43. Discussion Questions <ul><li>In what ways did medieval European art and architecture depart from classical Roman art and architecture? Did any of the civilizations retain characteristics of Roman art and architecture? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the three major manuscript styles that developed in the Middle Ages. </li></ul><ul><li>What previous styles of art influenced medieval European art? </li></ul>

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