Lecture, Early Medieval & Romanesque Europe


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Lecture, Early Medieval & Romanesque Europe

  1. 1. arly Medieval and omanesque
  2. 2. Map of Western Europe, ca. 1100
  3. 3. Early Medieval:Hiberno-SaxonDates and Places:• 7th-9th century• British IslesPeople:• Christians• In monasteries• Working in scriptoria• Living in isolation Crucifixion, Lindau Gospels, ca. 870, Switzerland Fig. 6-1.
  4. 4. Early Medieval:Hiberno-SaxonThemes:• Gospel books (New Testament)• Symbolic imagesForms:• Interlace inherited from warrior lords• Stylized human and animal forms• Illuminations Chi-rho-iota page, Book of Kells,• Tempera on vellum late eighth or early ninth century. Scotland, Fig. 6-4.
  5. 5. Book ofKells Chi-rho-iota page (details) Book of Kells late 8th or early 9th century tempera on vellum Fig. 6-4.
  6. 6. EarlyMedieval:Hiberno-Saxon Carpet page, Lindisfarne Gospels, ca. 698–721. Fig. 6-3.
  7. 7. Early Medieval:Hiberno-Saxon• Illuminated manuscript• Tempera on vellum• Carpet page before gospel text• Cross & interlace with zoomorphic forms (serpentine animals)• No narrative Carpet page, Lindisfarne Gospels, ca. 698–721, England, Fig. 6-3.
  8. 8. Lindisfarne Gospels Carpet page, Lindisfarne Gospels (details) ca. 698–721. Fig. 6-3.
  9. 9. Early Medieval vs. Islamic Art Carpet page, Lindisfarne Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami Gospels, ca. 698–721. Fig. 6-3. Iran, ca. 1354. Fig. 5-11.
  10. 10. Early Medieval:CarolingianDates and Places:• 800-900• FrancePeople:• Charlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor• Revival of Roman Empire• Importance of Saint Matthew, Coronation Gospels (Gospel Book of Charlemagne, ca. 800–810. Aachen, Germany, learning Fig. 6-5.
  11. 11. Early Medieval:CarolingianThemes:• Gospel books• MonasteryForms:• Illusionism• Local traditions• Monastic Seated Scribe compound with ca. 2600 BCE basilica Egyptian• Classical styles Saint Matthew, Ebbo Gospels, ca. 816–835. Fig. 6-6.
  12. 12. Early Medieval:Carolingian Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Plan of the Palatine Chapel, 792–805 CE, Aachen, Germany 792–805. Fig. 6-7. Fig. 6-8.
  13. 13. Early Medieval:Carolingian• Central plan inspired by Ravenna• Byzantine style• Renewal of architecture of Christian Rome• Charlemagne’s palace chapel Plan of the Palatine Chapel, 792– 805. Fig. 6-7.
  14. 14. Roman & Byzantine ArchitectureFaçade & restored cutaway viewof the Pantheon, 118-125CE.Fig. 3-38. ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES and ISIDORUS OF MILETUS, Hagia Sophia, 532–537. Fig. 4-11.
  15. 15. Early Medieval:OttonianDates and Places:• 900-1000• FrancePeople:• Heirs of Charlemagne• Inspired by Rome Crucifix, ca. 970. Cologne Cathedral, Germany, Fig. 6-13.
  16. 16. Early Medieval:OttonianThemes:• Biblical themes• ChurchForms:• Stylized and conceptual figures• Expressive exaggeration• Basilica• Monumental sculpture Section and plan Saint Michael’s, 1001–1031, Hildesheim, Germany Fig. 6-11.
  17. 17. Early Medieval: aislesOttonian transepthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQsE4ZGkOCw&feature=related Saint Michael’s,1001–1031. Fig. 6-10. nave
  18. 18. Early Medieval: Saint Michael’s, 1001–1031. Fig. 6-10.Ottonian• Basilica (first Roman, then Christian)• Towers at both ends• Alternate-support system• Modular plan based on crossing• Two transepts Plan and cutaway, Old Saint Peter’s, begun ca. 319.
  19. 19. RomanesqueDates and Places:• 1000-1200• Western EuropePeople:• Pilgrimage• Crusades• Fear of judgment• Church building boom• Cult of relics Head Reliquary of St. Alexander, 1145, Belgium, Fig. 6-24
  20. 20. The Modern Pilgrimage Antietam National Battlefield, Maryland On right: William Eggleston Untitled (Portrait of Elvis At Graceland) 1982-83
  21. 21. RomanesqueThemes:• Biblical themes• Judgment• Saints and martyrs• RelicsForms:• Expressive exaggeration• Cruciform pilgrimage churches• Barrel vaults, buttressing• Bestiaries Initial R, Moralia in Job, France, ca. 1115–1125. Fig. 6-22.
  22. 22. Romanesque: France ambulatory radiating chapels Saint-Sernin, ca. 1070–1120 Toulouse, France, Fig. 6-14. Plan, Saint-Sernin, ca.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlNTI1Cs2qw 1070–1120. Fig. 6-15.
  23. 23. Romanesque: France• Pilgrimage church• Radiating chapels• Ambulatory• Side aisles• Barrel and groin vaults Saint-Sernin , ca. 1070–1120. Fig. 6-14.• Nave bays, crossing• Engaged columns, compound piers• Crossing tower Plan, Saint-Sernin, ca. 1070– 1120. Fig. 6-15.
  24. 24. Romanesque: France
  25. 25. Romanesque: FranceGISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment, St. Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120–1135. Fig. 6-20. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PATkTJhAUhM
  26. 26. Romanesque• Tympanum sculpture• Fear of judgment• Door to salvation• Expressive exaggeration• Christ in mandorla• For illiterate GISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment (details), ca. 1120–1135. Fig. 6-20.
  27. 27. Romanesque:Holy RomanEmpire Hildegard from Scivias, ca. 1180, detail of facsimile, Bingen, Germany, Fig. 6-23.
  28. 28. Romanesque:Holy Roman Empire• Nun (Hildegard of Bingen) with visions• Abbess of convent• Illustration of own vision• Picturing scribe work• Conceptual treatment of figures and space Hildegard from Scivias, ca. 1180. Fig. 6-23.
  29. 29. Romanesque: Normandy Battle of Hastings, Bayeux Tapestry, ca. 1070–1080. Fig. 6-26. http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/bayeux-tapestry.html
  30. 30. Romanesque: Normandy• Rare secular object• Embroidered pictorial narrative (230 ft long)• Duke William (Norman) conquers King Harold (England) following betrayal• Above is the funeral of King Edward• Narrative framed by Funeral Procession to border designs Westminster Abbey, showing fallen Bayeux Tapestry, ca. soldiers and animal 1070–1080. Fig. 6- motifs 26.• History as told by the victor• Battle conventions from Greece and Rome
  31. 31. Greco-Roman Battle Scenes Philoxenos of Eretria, Battle of Issus, ca. 310BCE, Late Classical Period, Greece Column of Trajan & detail, 112CE. High Empire Rome
  32. 32. Romanesque: England Saint Matthew, Ebbo Gospels, ca. 816–835. Fig. 6-6.Eadwine the Scribe, Eadwine Psalter, ca. 1160–1170. Fig. 6-32.
  33. 33. Romanesque: England• Identifiable artist (Eadwine the Scribe)• For psalter• Author portrait mimics evangelist portrait• Scribe at work• Divisions of drapery not related to body beneath• Conceptual treatment of figure and space• To establish artist’s fame & honor God Eadwine the Scribe, Eadwine Psalter, ca. 1160–1170. Fig. 6-32.