Gothic art student slides


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Gothic art student slides

  1. 1. GOTHIC ART: APAH Student Slides Gothic art as described by Amity’s finest young art historians
  2. 2. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • page 521 (Elements of Architecture: Rib Vaulting- summary and visual) Eeman 16-9 (Masons at Work) Catie C. page 525 (Art and its Context: Master Builders – summary and visual) Ben page 528 (Technique: Stained-Glass Windows – summary and visual) Mollie 16-14 (Chartres Cathedral, North Transept, Rose Window…)Priya 16-21 (Quatrefoils, West Façade, Amiens Cathedral) Phil 16-22 (Christ: Beau Dieu) Grace 16-26 (Abraham, Sarah, and the Three Strangers…) Tori 16-27 (Psalm 1) Guillermo 16-31 (Stokesay Castle) Aliyah 16-32 (Church of St. Elizabeth) Shoba 16-34 (Interior, Antneuschul) Jason 16-35 (Shrine of the Three Kings) Kavita 16-37 (Saint Maurice) Mary page 546 (Church of St. Francis at Assisi) George 16. 16-43 (Crucifix) Katie Z. 16-44 (Life of Saint Francis, Miracle of the Crib at Greccio) Mike
  3. 3. Architecture: Ribbed Vaulting • Innovation of Romanesque and Gothic builders • Groin vault: ridges (groins) formed by intersecting vaults which rest on and are covered by curved ribs • Used timber scaffolding to support masonry ribs • Web of vault laid on forms (built on ribs) • Ribs provide strength at intersections of webbing to channel vaults’ thrust out and down to base • Ribs form skeleton of vault, while webbing makes skin • Late Gothic buildings have extra, decorative ribs, providing a lacelike appearance
  4. 4. Masons at Work Painting, 12th-13th century, France • Exhibits masons (stone workers) rebuilding the Chartres Cathedral after it burnt down in 1194 • Shows scaffolding, platforms at different heights, and lifting pulleys • Masons carefully measured and cut the stone • Often signed their work with “mason marks” or personalized symbol, carved into the stone : • Most masons part of the Mason’s Guild (much like a labor union), and a Master Builder would have several simple workmen working beneath him
  5. 5. Master Builders • • • • • • • • • • • Master Builders took charge of all parts of church construction (Design, Structural Engineering, Decoration) In charge of coordinating people and work effort Funding shortages and technical delays needed to be accounted for Less than 100 master builders were responsible for all the major projects around Paris More than 3000 names of master builders are known today Master Builders trained rigorously, were relatively well educated, and were acquainted with high Church officials and aristocrats. Some Master Builders were knighted Often inscribed their names on buildings they built Geometric figures for the construction of buildings by Villard de Honnecourt, a master builder
  6. 6. Stained Glass Windows Charters Cathedral, “Rose of France” -Basic technique to making stained glass has been known since Ancient Egypt -Stained Glass windows were extremely expensive to make and took a lot of time -A designer first drew a composition on a wood panel that was the same size as the window -Glassblowers produced sheets of colored glass & artisans cut pieces from these large sheets and laid them out on the wooden template -Painters added details w/ enamel emulsion & the glass was reheated to fuse the enamel to it -The pieces were finally joined together with narrow lead strips called cames -Early colored glass was so dark it was nearly opaque & uncolored glass was full of impurities -By the 13th century, many newer and brighter colors were found -Flashing- one layer of color was fused to another layer of color and produced an almost infinite range of hues -12th century windows known for their remarkable simple geometric designs -Blue signified heaven / fidelity, red- the passion, white- purity, green-fertility / springtime, yellowsubstitute for gold & represents the presence of god / sun / truth, plain yellow- deceit / cowardice
  7. 7. • • • • • • • • • • Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral Tracery, and many geometric patterns Over 42 feet diameter Glass changes color depending on quality of light 5 lancets and a rose window May have been a royal gift from the Queen Blanche of Castile, whose heraldic castles symbolizing the country of Castile (Spain) join the golden lilies of France in spandrels In the lancets, Saint and the infant Mary have the place of honor In the center of the rose window, Mary is enthroned with the Christ Child Radiating from the holy air are lattice-filled panels displaying 4 doves (Gospels) and 8 angels, the prophets, and the Old Testament ancestors of Christ Very Colorful- similar to other gothic stained glass Rose Window- a circular window, filled with stained glass, placed at the end of a transept or façade if a church Lancet- a slender, pointed window. They are often separated by mullions. Lancets are especially characteristic of Gothic architecture. 16-4 Chartres Cathedral, North Transept, Rose Window and Lancets, known as the The “Rose of France”, c.1220
  8. 8. Rose Window Lancet
  9. 9. Quatrefoils, West Façade, Amiens Cathedral •Amiens, France •Purpose is to honor 1. Christ and the apostles, 2. Mary as the Queen of Heaven, 3. and the local saints with Saint Firmin, first bishop of the church •Artist does this with the three main portals; each represents one of the three glorified groups •Use of sculpture, good contrast between light and dark features, sculpture beautifully hangs above the doors of the arches, many long windows from the exterior visible •1120, 13th century construction •Medium is stone •Like other works of Gothic architecture, has pointed arch, ribbed vault, and the flying buttress •Also, it is a cathedral that evokes a very emotional response, like many other gothic works •The quatrefoils, or medallions shows virtues vs. evil influences in daily life, the periods and labors of the moths, the existences of the saints, and the biblical tales-all extremely important to the Gothic culture
  10. 10. Close up! •Closer view of the quatrefoils
  11. 11. The Beau Dieu(Handsome God) By: HuguesLibergier Location: Notre-Dame, Paris Slide by: Grace Leyden • Medium: mixed stones, mostly limestone • Sculpted during time when artists were recognized • On the top half pillar, dividing the central portal • Standing above Solomon, surrounded by apostles • Crowned by the scenes from the Last Judgment • Purpose is to be noticed, focal point when one walks into Cathedral • Framed by the pointed arches and gables, which all point up the heavens • Holding the bible, with two fingers raised, shows that he is a teacher • Like most Gothic sculptors, designed to be approachable and attractive to the viewer
  12. 12. Abraham, Sarah, and the Three Strangers from the Psalter of Saint Louis (1253-70 CE)Paris. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum. • Apart of a book of Psalms – Style of book defines Court style in manuscript illumination • Depicts Old Testament story of Abraham and Sarah’s hospitality to three strangers (angels representing Gods) – Sarah watches from entryway of their tent, while strangers tell elderly couple that Sarah will bear a child, Isaac – 3 strangers were symbols of the Trinity – God’s promise to Sarah foreshadowed angel’s annunciation of the Christ Child’s birth to Mary • • • • The radiance of stained glass probably inspired the glowing color of the Psalter of Saint Louis The painted architectural setting reflects the design of royal buildings such as Sainte-Chapelle The elegant proportions, facial expressions, theatrical gestures, and swaying poses of the painted figures are characteristic of the mannered Parisian court style New awareness of time and place, along with natural elements in the frame, reflect movement to natural world – New spatial sense • Rendered in a style that reflects the sculpture of the Master of the Smiling Angel of Reims; also similar to Queen Blanche of Castile and Louis IX in style
  13. 13. PSALM 1 OF THE WINDMILL PSALTER Artist: ??? Location: London, England Date: 1270-1280 CE Medium: Ink, pigments, and gold on vellum Period: Gothic Purpose: Illuminated manuscript to portray and explain the “Tree of Jesse” How artist achieves purpose: This technique was learned from the French, though the inner ribboning was borrowed from the Celtics, detailed illustration of the family of Mary mother of Jesus dating back to King David Unique features: Four evangelists depicted in corners, windmill = religious symbol, animal motifs, depiction of King Solomon, threedimensional angel, intricately detailed “tree” Similar works: Abraham, Sarah, and the Three Strangers from the Psalter of Saint Louis Aspects of Gothic Culture: French Gothic - elongated proportions, dainty heads, English Gothic interlaced tendrils and stylized drapery
  14. 14. Stokesay Castle Late 13th century • • • • England, near the Welsh Border Stone and earthworks Served as fortress, manor house Lawrence of Ludlow, a wool merchant, bought the property from King Edward I, and got permission to build the fortified home • Featured new privacy rooms and thick towers near the water • Like other Gothic architecture, the castle is made of stone and features stained glass windows and the pointed arch
  15. 15. Church of Saint Elizabeth • Said to be first true Gothic hall church and one of the earliest Gothic buildings in Germany(Marburg, Germany 1235-1283). • The Church serves as the mausoleum and center for pilgrimage for The Hungarian Princess Elizabeth, who devoted her life to caring for people with incurable diseases. • Features: It is built from sandstone in a cruciform layout. The nave has vaulted ceiling more than 20 m high. The triple quire consists of the Elisabeth quire, the High quire and the Landgrave quire. Buttresses run the full height of the building. The two rows of windows suggest a two story building, but this is not the case. Light from the large windows fill the interior of the church. • The interior vaults, buttresses and two story windows all make the gothic origin evident. • This Church is similar to other Gothic forms, especially those of Germanic and Jewish architecture.
  16. 16. Location- Prague,Bohemia Date- built in the late 13th century Artists- no real artist, mainly constructed by the jews Medium- the interior has a very complex design, mainly made from various materials. Would was greatly used along with stone pillars Purpose-The main purpose of this design was to provide a place for the rabbi to be worshipped. This interior also shows the great adaptability of the Gothic Hall Church. A key component of this place is the Bema, where the Rabbi can be centered in the building. How does author acheive this- They achieve this by placing a bimah in the center of the interior in order for the rabbi to be worshipped. Also include numerous pillars to show adversability of gothic style Unique features- a variety of unique features. Six bays of seating are included in the interior, along with a centered bimah. The bays have four-part bayed vaulting Similar works-The Shrine of the three kings is a similar peice. Both works are similar in a way where they both have a place to honor the main man Aspects of Gothic cultural-rib vaults are a large aspect which are included in the bays Interior, Altneuschull
  17. 17. Shrine of the Three Kings • • • • • • Cologne, Germany Placed above and behind the high altar of Cologne Cathedral Reliquary said to contain the bones of the Biblical Magi (Three Kings or Three Wise Men) Large gilded and decorated triple sarcophagus Considered the high point of Mosan art (regional style of art from valley of Meuse) Parts of shrine designed by famous medieval goldsmith Nicholas of Verdun • • • • • • Began work on it in 1180 or 1181 Has elaborate gold sculptures of the prophets and apostles, and scenes from the life of Christ Completed around 1225 Appx. 43 inches wide, 60 inches high, and 87 inches long) Shaped like a basilica: two sarcophagi stand next to each other, with the third resting on their roof ridges Basic structure is made of wood, with gold and silver overlay decorated with filigree, enamel, and over 1000 jewels and beads
  18. 18. Close-up Images of the Shrine of the Three Kings
  19. 19. Saint Maurice Magdeburg Cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany. Dark sandstone; traces of polychromy. c. 1240-1250. • Purpose of artwork was to represent Saint Maurice (patron saint of Magdeburg) in the Magdeburg Cathedral • Saint Maurice was a martyred Egyptian Christian troop leader in Rome’s Army. Dressed in military gear. Portrayal of dark skin comes from his Egyptian background • Saint Maurice favored by Ottonian emperors and military officials of the time. Represents the ideal of these people • Not very emotionally expressive like other works, but was definitely part of the realistic theme that was also present in German Gothic sculpture. Could have been sculpted with a live model as a reference
  20. 20. Church of St. Francis at Assisi(Italy) •Finished in 1239, dedicated 1253 •After St. Francis’s death, in his birthplace •Unusually elaborate in design for a Gothic church •Spacious to provide for people and rituals •Large unbroken walls support paintings for teaching and inspiration •Decorated much more richly than other Franciscan churches •Surprising decoration-dedicated to poverty and service •Earthquake Sept. 27, 1997 caused great damage to the church •Groups began to raise funds to restore it immediately, shows importance of religion and art
  21. 21. SMO CAM (sorry George, I couldn’t resist putting one of my own photos in)
  22. 22. Crucifix Coppo Di Marcovaldo. Tuscany, Italy. 1250-1270. Tempure on gold on wood panel. • • • • • • Constantinople conquered, brought relics to France, resulted in an influx of Byzantine art to Italy. ManieraGreca(“in the Greek manner”) influenced Italian painting in style and technique, introduced new emphasis on pathos and emotion. Represents the Christuspatiens, or suffering of Christ: Byzantine type (closed eyes and bleeding, slumped body that resembles emotional realism “Historiated crucifix”- scenes at each side the tell Passion story Mounted on the choir screen that separated the clergy in the sanctuary from the lay people in the nave Portraying the body unrealistically was a hallmark of Italo-Bryzantineart Some lines that were added to possibly create a 3-D effect, but the image as a whole is not realistic as an accurate portrayal of the human form
  23. 23. Life of Francis, Miracle of the Crib at Greccio (late 13th century)               Part of a series of fresco murals at church of Saint Francis in Assissi, Italy Date debatable, as early as 1290 Artist uncertain, “Saint Francis Masster” Shows Francis making first Christmas manger scene in church at Greccio—this is, like, not even biblical; it's metabiblical Shows the establishment (well, sort of—the canonical first example, more or less) of a religious tradition Shows appearance of an Italism Gothic church: wood crucifix with stand, reinforced, tilted forward; baldacchino (canopy) over altar Francis in foreground holding the Jesus Animals nearby represent those which could have been present at Nativity Miracle: the Christ Child appears in the manger I'm not quite sure what that means, but it sounds like Francis' model of the baby Jesus magically turned into a real baby Jesus, kind of like either Pinocchio or the transubstantiation of the Eucharist Basis of a religious tradition; the tableau is commonly recreated by Christians at Christmastime today Like a lot of the period art, it's religious in nature, but it's starting to depart from always Bible, all the time, and more into the practices of worship Its very bright and colorful! The setting reflects Italian Gothic architecture and church design