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Romanesque Art     Feudalism             Urbanization and Christianity Agricultural economy         Pilgrimages and Crusad...
THEME: Romanesque                        Stone masonry, new vaultingChurch building                        techniques, “bl...
interior of Saint EtienneVignory, Franceca. 1050-1057
Radiating chapelsplan of Saint EtienneVignory, Franceca. 1050-1057
Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
Plan of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
Interior of Santa Sabina, 422, Rome         *compartments of        space replaced long             flat wallsInterior of ...
Barrel Vaulted ceilingTribune (second story      gallery)    Compound piers   (engaged columns       attached)Nave of Sain...
St. Catherine’s, Egypt, 565Bernardus GelduinusChrist in Majestyrelief in the ambulatory of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca....
Cluny, France
Restored cutaway view of the third abbeychurch (Cluny III)Cluny, Franceca. 1088-1130
Moissac, France – important stop along pilgrimage to St. James’s tomb at Santiago de                 Compostela
Tympanum of the south portal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca. 1115-1135
Historiated capitalsCloister of Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. 1100-1115marblepiers approximately 6 ft. high
Cloister of Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. 1100-1115marblepiers approximately 6 ft. high
Christ in Majestywith angels and the Twenty-Four EldersTympanum of the southportal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca....
Christ in Majestywith angels and the Twenty-Four EldersTympanum of the s. portal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca. 1...
Lions and Old Testament prophet(Jeremiah or Isaiah?)From the trumeau of the south portalof Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. ...
GislebertusLast Judgment of West tympanum ofSaint-LazareAutun, Franceca. 1120-1135marbleapproximately 21’ wide at base
GislebertusLast Judgment (plaster cast)West tympanum of Saint-LazareAutun, Franceca. 1120-1135marbleapproximately 21’ wide...
THE BLESSED
THE DAMNED“may this terror terrify those whom earthly error binds, for the horror of these            images here in this ...
Ascension of Christ andMission of the ApostlesTympanum of the centerportal of the narthex of LaMadeleineVézelay, France112...
Abbey of Notre-DameFontenay, Burgundy, France1139-47
Initial R with knight fightingdragonfrom the Moralia in Jobfrom Cîteaux, Franceca. 1115-1125ink and tempera on vellum13 3/...
Christ in Majestyapse fresco from Santa María de Muirnear Lérida, Spainmid-twelfth centuryfresco22 x 24 ft.
Virgin and Child ( Morgan Madonna)from Auvergne, Francesecond half of twelfth centurypainted wood2 ft. 7 in. high
Romanesque       HOLY ROMAN EMPIREChurch as center of Medieval Life•Towns outdoing each other building churches  civic pr...
Speyer CathedralSpeyer,Germanybegun 1030nave vaults ca.1082-1106
1st Romanesque church in Germany•Stone roof•Typical arches and bays•1st building constructed entirely ofstone in Europe   ...
Plan of Speyer CathedralSpeyer, Germanybegun 1030
Dedicated to St. Ambrose  - Begun in 1080, vaulted  after an earthquake in 1117Aerial view of Sant’ AmbrogioMilan, Italyla...
Plan of Sant’ AmbrogioMilan, Italylate eleventh to early twelfth century
Interior of Sant’ Ambrogio               -NO CLERESTORY                                         -Compound piers with 3 hug...
*Role of women inRomanesque EuropeThe Vision of Hildegard of BingenDetail of facsimile of a lost folioin the Scivias by Hi...
Rainer of HuyBaptism of ChristBaptismal fontfrom Notre-Dame-des-FontsLiege, Belgium1107-1118bronze2 ft. 1 in. high
Head Reliquary of Saint Alexanderfrom Stavelot Abbey, Belgium1145silver repoussé, gilt bronze, gems, enamel17 1/2 in. high
Romanesque in   ITALY
baptistery                                      cathedral   campanilePisa Cathedral complexPisa, Italycathedral begun 1063...
Pisa Cathedral campanilePisa, Italybegun 1174
Interior of Pisa CathedralPisa, Italycathedral begun 1063
Baptistery of San GiovanniFlorence, ItalyCa. 1059
West façadeSan Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
West façadeSan Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
Diaphragm archesInterior of San Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
WiligelmoCreation of Adam and Eve, frieze on the west façade, Modena CathedralModena, Italyca. 1110marbleapproximately 3 f...
Benedetto Antelami,King Davidon the west façade of Fidenza CathedralFidenza, Italyca. 1180-1190marbleapproximately life-size
RomanesqueNORMANDY AND ENGLAND
* William the Conqueror buried here in 1087West façade of Saint-EtienneCaen, Francebegun 1067, ca. 1115-1120
- Converted from timber roof to stone  masonry vault after 1120  - Follows vertical element of  Carolingian architectsInte...
The THREE TIERS OF         CHURCH BAYS                        Clerestory                             Gallery              ...
Legacy of William the Conqueror (Norman Conquest of England in 1066)Exterior of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1...
ENGLISH INNOVATION: Ribvaults•Long narrow nave•Huge composite piers alternate withcarved columns•Stone ribs strengthened g...
Interior of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
Cruciform layout, quadrant archesPlan & transverse section of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
Funeral of Edward the Confessor         Misnomer – actually an embroideryprocession to Westminster Abbeydetail of the Baye...
Battle of Hastingsdetail of the Bayeux TapestryFrom Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, Franceca. 1070-1080embroidered wool on linen...
Master HugoMoses Expounding the Lawfolio 94 recto of the Bury Biblefrom Bury Saint Edmunds, Englandca. 1135ink and tempera...
Signing work vs. anonymity: The roleof the individual artistEadwine the Scribe(?)Eadwine the Scribe at workfolio 283 verso...
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Romanesque

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Romanesque

  1. 1. Romanesque Art Feudalism Urbanization and Christianity Agricultural economy Pilgrimages and Crusades -Barons (Nobles) -travel and trade -Vassals (Knights) -new middle class-Peasants/serfs (slaves) -growth of cities -influences of Muslims and Byzantines
  2. 2. THEME: Romanesque Stone masonry, new vaultingChurch building techniques, “blocky” appearance • Build it (block by block) and they will come pilgrimages
  3. 3. interior of Saint EtienneVignory, Franceca. 1050-1057
  4. 4. Radiating chapelsplan of Saint EtienneVignory, Franceca. 1050-1057
  5. 5. Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
  6. 6. Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
  7. 7. Plan of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
  8. 8. Interior of Santa Sabina, 422, Rome *compartments of space replaced long flat wallsInterior of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
  9. 9. Barrel Vaulted ceilingTribune (second story gallery) Compound piers (engaged columns attached)Nave of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1070-1120
  10. 10. St. Catherine’s, Egypt, 565Bernardus GelduinusChrist in Majestyrelief in the ambulatory of Saint-SerninToulouse, Franceca. 1096marble4 ft. 2 in. high
  11. 11. Cluny, France
  12. 12. Restored cutaway view of the third abbeychurch (Cluny III)Cluny, Franceca. 1088-1130
  13. 13. Moissac, France – important stop along pilgrimage to St. James’s tomb at Santiago de Compostela
  14. 14. Tympanum of the south portal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca. 1115-1135
  15. 15. Historiated capitalsCloister of Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. 1100-1115marblepiers approximately 6 ft. high
  16. 16. Cloister of Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. 1100-1115marblepiers approximately 6 ft. high
  17. 17. Christ in Majestywith angels and the Twenty-Four EldersTympanum of the southportal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca. 1115-1135approximately 16 ft. 6 in. wide atbase
  18. 18. Christ in Majestywith angels and the Twenty-Four EldersTympanum of the s. portal of Saint-PierreMoissac, Francemarbleca. 1115-1135approximately 16 ft. 6 in. wide at base
  19. 19. Lions and Old Testament prophet(Jeremiah or Isaiah?)From the trumeau of the south portalof Saint-PierreMoissac, Franceca. 1115-1130marbleapproximately life-size
  20. 20. GislebertusLast Judgment of West tympanum ofSaint-LazareAutun, Franceca. 1120-1135marbleapproximately 21’ wide at base
  21. 21. GislebertusLast Judgment (plaster cast)West tympanum of Saint-LazareAutun, Franceca. 1120-1135marbleapproximately 21’ wide at base
  22. 22. THE BLESSED
  23. 23. THE DAMNED“may this terror terrify those whom earthly error binds, for the horror of these images here in this manner truly depicts what will be”
  24. 24. Ascension of Christ andMission of the ApostlesTympanum of the centerportal of the narthex of LaMadeleineVézelay, France1120-1132
  25. 25. Abbey of Notre-DameFontenay, Burgundy, France1139-47
  26. 26. Initial R with knight fightingdragonfrom the Moralia in Jobfrom Cîteaux, Franceca. 1115-1125ink and tempera on vellum13 3/4 x 9 1/4 in.
  27. 27. Christ in Majestyapse fresco from Santa María de Muirnear Lérida, Spainmid-twelfth centuryfresco22 x 24 ft.
  28. 28. Virgin and Child ( Morgan Madonna)from Auvergne, Francesecond half of twelfth centurypainted wood2 ft. 7 in. high
  29. 29. Romanesque HOLY ROMAN EMPIREChurch as center of Medieval Life•Towns outdoing each other building churches  civic pride•Record keeping, birth, wedding, death, worship•Medieval masons: master builders, architects and artiststhat learn through experience and apprenticeship vs. formalstudy
  30. 30. Speyer CathedralSpeyer,Germanybegun 1030nave vaults ca.1082-1106
  31. 31. 1st Romanesque church in Germany•Stone roof•Typical arches and bays•1st building constructed entirely ofstone in Europe Groin vaultsInterior of Speyer CathedralSpeyer,Germanybegun 1030nave vaults ca.1082-1106
  32. 32. Plan of Speyer CathedralSpeyer, Germanybegun 1030
  33. 33. Dedicated to St. Ambrose - Begun in 1080, vaulted after an earthquake in 1117Aerial view of Sant’ AmbrogioMilan, Italylate eleventh to early twelfth century
  34. 34. Plan of Sant’ AmbrogioMilan, Italylate eleventh to early twelfth century
  35. 35. Interior of Sant’ Ambrogio -NO CLERESTORY -Compound piers with 3 huge ribbed groinMilan, Italy vaultslate eleventh to early twelfth century
  36. 36. *Role of women inRomanesque EuropeThe Vision of Hildegard of BingenDetail of facsimile of a lost folioin the Scivias by Hildegard of Bingenfrom Trier or Bingen, Germanyca. 1050-1079
  37. 37. Rainer of HuyBaptism of ChristBaptismal fontfrom Notre-Dame-des-FontsLiege, Belgium1107-1118bronze2 ft. 1 in. high
  38. 38. Head Reliquary of Saint Alexanderfrom Stavelot Abbey, Belgium1145silver repoussé, gilt bronze, gems, enamel17 1/2 in. high
  39. 39. Romanesque in ITALY
  40. 40. baptistery cathedral campanilePisa Cathedral complexPisa, Italycathedral begun 1063baptistery begun 1153campanile begun 1174
  41. 41. Pisa Cathedral campanilePisa, Italybegun 1174
  42. 42. Interior of Pisa CathedralPisa, Italycathedral begun 1063
  43. 43. Baptistery of San GiovanniFlorence, ItalyCa. 1059
  44. 44. West façadeSan Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
  45. 45. West façadeSan Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
  46. 46. Diaphragm archesInterior of San Miniato al MonteFlorence, Italy1062 and twelfth century
  47. 47. WiligelmoCreation of Adam and Eve, frieze on the west façade, Modena CathedralModena, Italyca. 1110marbleapproximately 3 ft. high
  48. 48. Benedetto Antelami,King Davidon the west façade of Fidenza CathedralFidenza, Italyca. 1180-1190marbleapproximately life-size
  49. 49. RomanesqueNORMANDY AND ENGLAND
  50. 50. * William the Conqueror buried here in 1087West façade of Saint-EtienneCaen, Francebegun 1067, ca. 1115-1120
  51. 51. - Converted from timber roof to stone masonry vault after 1120 - Follows vertical element of Carolingian architectsInterior of Saint-Etienne (nave)Caen, Franceca. 1115-1120
  52. 52. The THREE TIERS OF CHURCH BAYS Clerestory Gallery Nave/ArcadeInterior of Saint-Etienne (elevation)Caen, Franceca. 1115-1120
  53. 53. Legacy of William the Conqueror (Norman Conquest of England in 1066)Exterior of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
  54. 54. ENGLISH INNOVATION: Ribvaults•Long narrow nave•Huge composite piers alternate withcarved columns•Stone ribs strengthened groin vaults carrymore weight•Strong VERTICAL emphasis  GothicpredecessorInterior of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
  55. 55. Interior of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
  56. 56. Cruciform layout, quadrant archesPlan & transverse section of Durham CathedralDurham, Englandbegun ca. 1093
  57. 57. Funeral of Edward the Confessor Misnomer – actually an embroideryprocession to Westminster Abbeydetail of the Bayeux TapestryFrom Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, Franceca. 1070-1080embroidered wool on linen229 ft. 8 in. overall
  58. 58. Battle of Hastingsdetail of the Bayeux TapestryFrom Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, Franceca. 1070-1080embroidered wool on linen229 ft. 8 in. overall Compare: Column of Trajan
  59. 59. Master HugoMoses Expounding the Lawfolio 94 recto of the Bury Biblefrom Bury Saint Edmunds, Englandca. 1135ink and tempera on vellum20 x 14 in.
  60. 60. Signing work vs. anonymity: The roleof the individual artistEadwine the Scribe(?)Eadwine the Scribe at workfolio 283 verso of the Eadwine Psalterca. 1160-1170ink and tempera on vellum

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