1<br />Gardner’s Art Through the Ages:The Western Perspective<br />Chapter 11<br />Europe After the Fall of Rome:<br />Ear...
2<br />Early Medieval Sites in Europe<br />
3<br />Goals<br /><ul><li>Understand the distinctive artistic traditions of the European peoples beyond the Roman Empire.
Know the different types of art, media, and their respective cultures.
Trace influences of medieval art styles.
Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the early middle ages.</li></li></ul><li>4<br />Northern European...
Know the different types of art and the respective cultures associated with the Merovingians, Anglo-Saxons, and Vikings.
Examine the artistic traditions applied to a variety of media, such as wood, stone, and metal.</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Me...
Know the different types of art and the respective cultures associated with the Merovingians and Saxons.</li></li></ul><li...
7<br />Figure 11-2  Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England, ca. 625. Gold, glass, and enamel clo...
8<br />The Interlaced Animal Style<br /><ul><li>Examine the European artistic traditions applied to a variety of media, su...
10<br />Figure 11-4  Wooden portal of the stave church at Urnes, Norway, ca. 1050–1070.<br />
11<br />Figure 11-5  Man (symbol of Saint Matthew), folio 21 verso of the Book of Durrow, possibly from Iona, Scotland, ca...
12<br />Figure 11-6  Cross and carpet page, folio 26 verso of the Lindisfarne Gospels, from Northumbria, England, ca. 698–...
13<br />Hiberno-Saxon Art<br /><ul><li>Understand the Saxon artistic influence in the British Isles.
Understand the early influence of Christianity and the ways in which indigenous art forms serve the cause of Christianity.
Describe the specific art elements and principles of design applied to the illuminated manuscripts, Celtic crosses and oth...
Examine the ways in which indigenous art forms are adapted in the manuscripts to serve the cause of Christianity.</li></li...
16<br />Figure 11-8  Chi-rho-iota page, folio 34 recto of the Book of Kells, probably from Iona, Scotland, late eighth or ...
17<br />The Celtic Crosses<br /><ul><li>Describe the specific art elements and principles of design applied to the Celtic ...
19<br />Figure 11-11  Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne or Charles the Bald, from Metz, France, ninth century. Bronze, or...
20<br />Carolingian Art<br /><ul><li>Understand the cultural impetus of art and architecture in the Carolingian period und...
Understand the ‘revival of learning’ and the art of the book as a result of Charlemagne’s interests.
Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the Carolingian period.</li></li></ul><li>21<br />The Carolingian...
Understand the ‘revival of learning’ and the art of the book.</li></li></ul><li>22<br />Figure 11-12  Saint Matthew, folio...
23<br />
24<br />Figure 11-13  Saint Matthew, folio 18 verso of the Ebbo Gospels (Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims), from Ha...
25<br />
26<br />Art of Charlemagne’s Court<br /><ul><li>Examine the gold and jeweled secular and religious court art under Charlem...
28<br />Figure 11-17  Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792–805.<br />
29<br />Figure 11-18  Torhalle (gatehouse), Lorsch, Germany, ninth century.<br />
30<br />Figure 11-20  Westwork of the abbey church, Corvey, Germany, 873–885.<br />
31<br />Figure 11-21  Nave of the church of Saint Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961–973.<br />
32<br />Carolingian Architecture<br /><ul><li>Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the Carolingian per...
Understand the architectural and free standing sculptural traditions of the Ottonians.
Understand the cultural impetus for art in the Ottonian period, particularly in contrast to the Carolingian period.
Examine the styles of the Ottonian illuminated manuscripts.</li></li></ul><li>34<br />Architecture of the Ottonians<br /><...
36<br />Figure 11-23  Longitudinal section (top) and plan (bottom) of the abbey church of Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Ger...
37<br />Figure 11-24  Doors with relief panels (Genesis, left door; life of Christ, right door), commissioned by Bishop Be...
38<br />
39<br />Figure 11-25  Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ, commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Micha...
40<br />Figure 11-26  Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, Germany, ca. 970. Painted wood, heig...
41<br />Ottonian Sculpture<br /><ul><li>Understand the architectural sculpture associated with St. Michael’s at Hildesheim...
Examine the free standing sculptural traditions of the Ottonians.</li></li></ul><li>42<br />The Ottonian Manuscript<br /><...
Examine the styles of the Ottonian illuminated manuscripts.</li></li></ul><li>43<br />Figure 11-28  Annunciation to the Sh...
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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

  1. 1. 1<br />Gardner’s Art Through the Ages:The Western Perspective<br />Chapter 11<br />Europe After the Fall of Rome:<br />Early Medieval Art in the West<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Early Medieval Sites in Europe<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Goals<br /><ul><li>Understand the distinctive artistic traditions of the European peoples beyond the Roman Empire.
  4. 4. Know the different types of art, media, and their respective cultures.
  5. 5. Trace influences of medieval art styles.
  6. 6. Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the early middle ages.</li></li></ul><li>4<br />Northern European Art Beyond Rome<br /><ul><li>Understand the artistic, technical and stylistic traditions of the northern European peoples.
  7. 7. Know the different types of art and the respective cultures associated with the Merovingians, Anglo-Saxons, and Vikings.
  8. 8. Examine the artistic traditions applied to a variety of media, such as wood, stone, and metal.</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Merovingian and Saxon Art<br /><ul><li>Understand the artistic, technical and stylistic traditions.
  9. 9. Know the different types of art and the respective cultures associated with the Merovingians and Saxons.</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Figure 11-1 Merovingian looped fibula, from Jouy-le-Comte, France, mid sixth century. Silver gilt worked in filigree, with inlays of garnets and other stones, 4” long. Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye.<br />
  10. 10. 7<br />Figure 11-2 Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England, ca. 625. Gold, glass, and enamel cloisonné with garnets and emeralds, 7 1/2” long. British Museum, London.<br />
  11. 11. 8<br />The Interlaced Animal Style<br /><ul><li>Examine the European artistic traditions applied to a variety of media, such as wood, stone, and metal.</li></li></ul><li>9<br />Figure 11-3 Animal-head post, from the Oseberg, Norway, ship burial, ca. 825. Wood, head approx. 5” high. Vikingskipshuset, Oslo.<br />
  12. 12. 10<br />Figure 11-4 Wooden portal of the stave church at Urnes, Norway, ca. 1050–1070.<br />
  13. 13. 11<br />Figure 11-5 Man (symbol of Saint Matthew), folio 21 verso of the Book of Durrow, possibly from Iona, Scotland, ca. 660–680. Ink and tempera on parchment, 9 5/8” X 6 1/8”. Trinity College Library, Dublin.<br />
  14. 14. 12<br />Figure 11-6 Cross and carpet page, folio 26 verso of the Lindisfarne Gospels, from Northumbria, England, ca. 698–721. Tempera on vellum, 1’ 1 1/2” X 9 1/4”. British Library, London.<br />
  15. 15. 13<br />Hiberno-Saxon Art<br /><ul><li>Understand the Saxon artistic influence in the British Isles.
  16. 16. Understand the early influence of Christianity and the ways in which indigenous art forms serve the cause of Christianity.
  17. 17. Describe the specific art elements and principles of design applied to the illuminated manuscripts, Celtic crosses and other objects.</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Hiberno-Saxon Books<br /><ul><li>Understand the Saxon artistic influence in the British Isles and the early influence of Christianity.
  18. 18. Examine the ways in which indigenous art forms are adapted in the manuscripts to serve the cause of Christianity.</li></li></ul><li>15<br />Figure 11-7 Saint Matthew, folio 25 verso of the Lindisfarne Gospels, from Northumbria, England, ca. 698–721. Tempera on vellum, 1’ 1 1/2” X 9 1/4”. British Library, London.<br />
  19. 19. 16<br />Figure 11-8 Chi-rho-iota page, folio 34 recto of the Book of Kells, probably from Iona, Scotland, late eighth or early ninth century. Tempera on vellum, 1’ 1” X 9 1/2”. Trinity College Library, Dublin.<br />
  20. 20. 17<br />The Celtic Crosses<br /><ul><li>Describe the specific art elements and principles of design applied to the Celtic crosses.</li></li></ul><li>18<br />Figure 11-9 High Cross of Muiredach (east face), Monasterboice, Ireland, 923. Sandstone, approx. 18’ high.<br />
  21. 21. 19<br />Figure 11-11 Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne or Charles the Bald, from Metz, France, ninth century. Bronze, originally gilt, 9 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.<br />
  22. 22. 20<br />Carolingian Art<br /><ul><li>Understand the cultural impetus of art and architecture in the Carolingian period under Charlemagne and his successors.
  23. 23. Understand the ‘revival of learning’ and the art of the book as a result of Charlemagne’s interests.
  24. 24. Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the Carolingian period.</li></li></ul><li>21<br />The Carolingian Renovation<br /><ul><li>Understand the cultural impetus in art under Charlemagne and his successors.
  25. 25. Understand the ‘revival of learning’ and the art of the book.</li></li></ul><li>22<br />Figure 11-12 Saint Matthew, folio 15 recto of the Coronation Gospels (Gospel Book of Charlemagne), from Aachen, Germany, ca. 800–810. Ink and tempera on vellum, 1’ 3/4” X 10”. Schatzkammer, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.<br />
  26. 26. 23<br />
  27. 27. 24<br />Figure 11-13 Saint Matthew, folio 18 verso of the Ebbo Gospels (Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims), from Hautvillers (near Reims), France, ca. 816–835. Ink and tempera on vellum, 10 1/4” X 8 3/4”. Bibliothèque Municipale, Épernay.<br />
  28. 28. 25<br />
  29. 29. 26<br />Art of Charlemagne’s Court<br /><ul><li>Examine the gold and jeweled secular and religious court art under Charlemagne and his successors.</li></li></ul><li>27<br />Figure 11-15 Crucifixion, front cover of the Lindau Gospels, from Saint Gall, Switzerland, ca. 870. Gold, precious stones, and pearls, 1’ 1 3/8” X 10 3/8”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.<br />
  30. 30. 28<br />Figure 11-17 Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792–805.<br />
  31. 31. 29<br />Figure 11-18 Torhalle (gatehouse), Lorsch, Germany, ninth century.<br />
  32. 32. 30<br />Figure 11-20 Westwork of the abbey church, Corvey, Germany, 873–885.<br />
  33. 33. 31<br />Figure 11-21 Nave of the church of Saint Cyriakus, Gernrode, Germany, 961–973.<br />
  34. 34. 32<br />Carolingian Architecture<br /><ul><li>Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the Carolingian period.</li></li></ul><li>33<br />Ottonian Art<br /><ul><li>Examine the architecture associated with the Ottonians, its formal origins and its later influence.
  35. 35. Understand the architectural and free standing sculptural traditions of the Ottonians.
  36. 36. Understand the cultural impetus for art in the Ottonian period, particularly in contrast to the Carolingian period.
  37. 37. Examine the styles of the Ottonian illuminated manuscripts.</li></li></ul><li>34<br />Architecture of the Ottonians<br /><ul><li>Examine the architecture, its formal origins and its later influence.</li></li></ul><li>35<br />Figure 11-22 Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001–1031.<br />
  38. 38. 36<br />Figure 11-23 Longitudinal section (top) and plan (bottom) of the abbey church of Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001–1031.<br />
  39. 39. 37<br />Figure 11-24 Doors with relief panels (Genesis, left door; life of Christ, right door), commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1015. Bronze, 16’ 6” high. Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim.<br />
  40. 40. 38<br />
  41. 41. 39<br />Figure 11-25 Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ, commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, ca. 1015–1022. Bronze, 12’ 6” tall. Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim.<br />
  42. 42. 40<br />Figure 11-26 Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral, Germany, ca. 970. Painted wood, height of figure 6’ 2”.<br />
  43. 43. 41<br />Ottonian Sculpture<br /><ul><li>Understand the architectural sculpture associated with St. Michael’s at Hildesheim, Germany.
  44. 44. Examine the free standing sculptural traditions of the Ottonians.</li></li></ul><li>42<br />The Ottonian Manuscript<br /><ul><li>Understand the cultural impetus for art in the Ottonian period, in contrast to the Carolingian period.
  45. 45. Examine the styles of the Ottonian illuminated manuscripts.</li></li></ul><li>43<br />Figure 11-28 Annunciation to the Shepherds, folio in the Lectionary of Henry II, from Reichenau, Germany, 1002–1014. Tempera on vellum, approx. 1’ 5” X 1’ 1”. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich.<br />
  46. 46. 44<br />Figure 11-29 Otto III enthroned, folio 24 recto of the Gospel Book of Otto III, from Reichenau, Germany, 997–1000. Tempera on vellum, 1’ 1” x 9 3/8”. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich.<br />
  47. 47. 45<br />Discussion Questions<br /><ul><li>Why is the art of the peoples outside the Roman Empire significantly different from classical Roman art and architecture?
  48. 48. Compare the three major manuscript styles that developed in the middle ages.
  49. 49. What previous styles of art influenced medieval art?</li>

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