Nutrition
Nutrition
1) Macromolecules:
(can provide energy)

-Proteins
-Nucleic acids
-Carbohydrates
-Fats
2) Vitamins
3) Minerals
4...
Nutrition: Macromolecules
Macromolecules are
broken down by
enzymes
Enzymes are the
proteins responsible
for breaking down...
Nutrition: Macromolecules
Nutrition

In general, enzymes
are named according
to the chemical they
act upon followed by
an ...
Nutrition: Macromolecules
Nutrition
The majority of
enzymes are active in
the small intestines.
Release of these
enzymes i...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Liver
The LIVER:
• stores and releases
excess glucose
(glycogen and fats)
• produce bile salts
from c...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Liver
The LIVER…
• major organ for
detoxification
• a variety of
enzymes that
recognize uncommon
mole...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Liver

Too much
alcohol
consumption
or infection
(i.e. Hepatitis
A, B, and C)
can lead to
cirrhosis
Nutrition:
Nutrition Minerals
Minerals are inorganic
compounds (non-carbon
containing) which the
body needs in small
amoun...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Minerals
If you are getting enough
minerals through your diet,
should you still take
multivitamins/mu...
Nutrition: Vitamins
Nutrition
Vitamins are organic
compounds which the
body needs in small
amounts.
• essential for enzyme...
Nutrition: Vitamins
Nutrition
2 types:
1) water soluble –
vitamin Bs and C, folic acid
• easily removed from the
body
• ea...
Nutrition Carbohydrates
Nutrition:
• Main source of energy for
the human body
• Made up of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen
• H...
Nutrition Carbohydrates
Nutrition:
Monosaccharide
• Single sugar molecule
that can exist in chain
or ring structure
• Exam...
Nutrition Carbohydrates
Nutrition:
Disaccharide
• Two simple sugars joined
together
• Examples:
- Lactose (glucose +
galac...
Nutrition Carbohydrates
Nutrition:
Polysaccharide
• Consist of chains of
monosaccharides
• Example: starch,
chitin, cellul...
Nutrition Fibre
Nutrition:
Fibre is cellulose
We do not have
enzymes to digest
cellulose.
Cellulose passes
through our
dig...
Nutrition Fibre
Nutrition:
Choose 100%
whole wheat
products.
Vegetables and
fruit have some
fibre as well.
We should all
c...
Nutrition Proteins
Nutrition:
• Proteins are building
blocks of cells and
perform a wide range
of functions.
• Hormones: c...
Nutrition Proteins
Nutrition:
Protein structure:
• Made up of chains of amino
acids
• A chain of amino acids is
also known...
Nutrition Proteins
Nutrition:
Levels of Protein Structure:
Monomer: amino acids
Polymer: polypeptide
Protein: a group of p...
Nutrition Proteins
Nutrition:
Protein in the diet:
• Many animal and plant
sources of protein
• Animal protein has
higher ...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Fats
Fats are made of
fatty acids and
glycerol groups.
Fatty acids have
several chemical
bonds betwee...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Fats
Fatty acids and glycerol can form the following combinations:

Triglyceride:
3 fatty acids
+ 1 g...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Fats
There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats:
Saturated fats:
-All fatty acids have
single bond...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Fats
There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats:

Saturated fats:
-All fatty acids have
single bon...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Fats
There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats:

Unsaturated fats:
-Fatty acids have
some double ...
Nutrition: Cholesterol
Nutrition
Cholesterol:
-Essential to cell membranes,
steroids, nerve insulation, fat
digestion (bil...
Nutrition: Cholesterol
Nutrition
Cholesterol:
-Cholesterol CANNOT
dissolve in water, so it
must be transported in the
bloo...
Nutrition: Cholesterol
Nutrition
Cholesterol:
HDL = high density
lipoprotein
(more protein, less
cholesterol)
LDL = low de...
Nutrition: Cholesterol
Nutrition
Cholesterol:
-High levels of LDL
are associated with
a higher risk of
heart disease
-Some...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Regulating Sugars
Regulating blood sugar:
Insulin allows
sugar to enter cells
-lowers blood
sugar lev...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Regulating Sugars
Regulating blood sugar:
The liver stores sugar as
glycogen
-glycogen can easily be
...
Nutrition:
Nutrition Regulating Sugars
Type II diabetes:
Chronic high levels
of blood sugar can
lead to the
overproduction...
Nutrition Energy requirements
Nutrition:
Factors that affect energy requirements:
• Endothermic vs.
Ectothermic animals
• ...
Nutrition Metabolic rate
Nutrition:
Metabolic rate:
• Rate at which body
converts stored energy
into working energy
• Depe...
Nutrition Metabolic rate
Nutrition:
Measuring energy:
•Measured in SI unit: Joule (J)
•Energy stored in foods is
measured ...
Nutrition Metabolic rate
Nutrition:
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
•Minimum amount of energy required to keep you
alive
Nutrition Anorexia
Nutrition:
Anorexia nervosa
•Eating disorder
characterized by
restriction of eating
•Anorexics often ha...
Nutrition Bulimia
Nutrition:
Bulimia nervosa
•Eating disorder
characterized by binge
eating and purging
•Bulimics also hav...
Nutrition Anorexia & Bulimia
Nutrition:
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02 nutrition

  1. 1. Nutrition
  2. 2. Nutrition 1) Macromolecules: (can provide energy) -Proteins -Nucleic acids -Carbohydrates -Fats 2) Vitamins 3) Minerals 4) Fibre
  3. 3. Nutrition: Macromolecules Macromolecules are broken down by enzymes Enzymes are the proteins responsible for breaking down molecules in your body.
  4. 4. Nutrition: Macromolecules Nutrition In general, enzymes are named according to the chemical they act upon followed by an “ase” ending. protease  proteins carbohydrase  carbohydrates lipase  lipids Some exceptions: Erepsin, pepsin, and trypsin are enzymes that digest proteins, and don’t end in “ase”
  5. 5. Nutrition: Macromolecules Nutrition The majority of enzymes are active in the small intestines. Release of these enzymes is controlled by hormones.
  6. 6. Nutrition: Nutrition Liver The LIVER: • stores and releases excess glucose (glycogen and fats) • produce bile salts from cholesterol to break down fat globules to droplets in small intestines  easier for lipases to break down and lacteal absorption
  7. 7. Nutrition: Nutrition Liver The LIVER… • major organ for detoxification • a variety of enzymes that recognize uncommon molecules • recycling of old molecules
  8. 8. Nutrition: Nutrition Liver Too much alcohol consumption or infection (i.e. Hepatitis A, B, and C) can lead to cirrhosis
  9. 9. Nutrition: Nutrition Minerals Minerals are inorganic compounds (non-carbon containing) which the body needs in small amounts. essential for enzyme activity / cellular function • • consumed through diet Ex. calcium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc •
  10. 10. Nutrition: Nutrition Minerals If you are getting enough minerals through your diet, should you still take multivitamins/multiminerals? No! Some minerals prevent other minerals from being absorbed optimally
  11. 11. Nutrition: Vitamins Nutrition Vitamins are organic compounds which the body needs in small amounts. • essential for enzyme activity / cellular function • consumed through diet or produced though beneficial bacteria
  12. 12. Nutrition: Vitamins Nutrition 2 types: 1) water soluble – vitamin Bs and C, folic acid • easily removed from the body • easily removed during cooking 2) fat soluble – vitamin A, D, E, K • not easily removed from body  do not need to consume regularly
  13. 13. Nutrition Carbohydrates Nutrition: • Main source of energy for the human body • Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen • Healthy diet has at least 55% of person’s energy needs fulfilled by carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are made up of either single sugar molecules or chains • Example: vegetables, potatoes, grains
  14. 14. Nutrition Carbohydrates Nutrition: Monosaccharide • Single sugar molecule that can exist in chain or ring structure • Examples: Glucose and fructose • Glucose: used during cellular respiration and provides energy for physical activity and cellular processes
  15. 15. Nutrition Carbohydrates Nutrition: Disaccharide • Two simple sugars joined together • Examples: - Lactose (glucose + galactose) - sucrose (fructose + glucose) - maltose (2 glucose)
  16. 16. Nutrition Carbohydrates Nutrition: Polysaccharide • Consist of chains of monosaccharides • Example: starch, chitin, cellullose and glycogen • Glycogen: made and stored in liver and muscle tissues in animals (can be converted to glucose when needed)
  17. 17. Nutrition Fibre Nutrition: Fibre is cellulose We do not have enzymes to digest cellulose. Cellulose passes through our digestive system intact, but sticks to water and cholesterol along the way.
  18. 18. Nutrition Fibre Nutrition: Choose 100% whole wheat products. Vegetables and fruit have some fibre as well. We should all consume ~30g of fibre a day.
  19. 19. Nutrition Proteins Nutrition: • Proteins are building blocks of cells and perform a wide range of functions. • Hormones: chemical messengers that coordinate cellular functions
  20. 20. Nutrition Proteins Nutrition: Protein structure: • Made up of chains of amino acids • A chain of amino acids is also known as polypeptide (joined by peptide bonds) • Variable in size and shape • 20 amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms - we can only make twelve - eight has to be obtained from food and are called essential amino acids
  21. 21. Nutrition Proteins Nutrition: Levels of Protein Structure: Monomer: amino acids Polymer: polypeptide Protein: a group of polymers
  22. 22. Nutrition Proteins Nutrition: Protein in the diet: • Many animal and plant sources of protein • Animal protein has higher concentration of protein than plant • Recommended daily for 14 to 18 years is 0.85g of protein for each kilogram of body mass • Provide energy in small amount
  23. 23. Nutrition: Nutrition Fats Fats are made of fatty acids and glycerol groups. Fatty acids have several chemical bonds between hydrogen and carbon atoms, making them rich in energy. 1g 1g 1g 1g fat = 9 Calories carb = 4 Calories protein = 4 Calories alcohol = 7 Calories
  24. 24. Nutrition: Nutrition Fats Fatty acids and glycerol can form the following combinations: Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol Diglyceride: 2 fatty acids + 1 glycerol Monoglyceride: 1 fatty acid + 1 glycerol
  25. 25. Nutrition: Nutrition Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats: Saturated fats: -All fatty acids have single bonds -Usually solid at room temperature Unsaturated fats: -Fatty acids have some double bonds -Usually liquid at room temperature
  26. 26. Nutrition: Nutrition Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats: Saturated fats: -All fatty acids have single bonds -Usually solid at room temperature
  27. 27. Nutrition: Nutrition Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats: Unsaturated fats: -Fatty acids have some double bonds -Usually liquid at room temperature
  28. 28. Nutrition: Cholesterol Nutrition Cholesterol: -Essential to cell membranes, steroids, nerve insulation, fat digestion (bile), and produces vitamin D -Body manufactures ~2/3 of cholesterol required; ~1/3 of cholesterol acquired through the diet
  29. 29. Nutrition: Cholesterol Nutrition Cholesterol: -Cholesterol CANNOT dissolve in water, so it must be transported in the blood in packages known as lipoprotein -lipoproteins are complexes of lipids, cholesterol, and proteins
  30. 30. Nutrition: Cholesterol Nutrition Cholesterol: HDL = high density lipoprotein (more protein, less cholesterol) LDL = low density lipoprotein (less protein, more cholesterol)
  31. 31. Nutrition: Cholesterol Nutrition Cholesterol: -High levels of LDL are associated with a higher risk of heart disease -Some people call HDL’s “happy cholesterol” Colloquial terms: HDL = “good” cholesterol LDL = “bad” cholesterol
  32. 32. Nutrition: Nutrition Regulating Sugars Regulating blood sugar: Insulin allows sugar to enter cells -lowers blood sugar levels after a meal Glucagon releases sugar from cells -raises blood sugar levels when energy is required (between meals)
  33. 33. Nutrition: Nutrition Regulating Sugars Regulating blood sugar: The liver stores sugar as glycogen -glycogen can easily be converted back to glucose by glucagon when blood sugar levels are too low -glycogen reserves can be converted to fat to be stored in cells
  34. 34. Nutrition: Nutrition Regulating Sugars Type II diabetes: Chronic high levels of blood sugar can lead to the overproduction of insulin. Over time, the cells develop insulin resistance (they stop responding to insulin). Sugar is left in the bloodstream, which causes damage to other tissues.
  35. 35. Nutrition Energy requirements Nutrition: Factors that affect energy requirements: • Endothermic vs. Ectothermic animals • Size of the animal • Metabolism -Catabolism: breakdown of large molecules -Anabolism: produce large molecules from small subunits • Metabolic Rate
  36. 36. Nutrition Metabolic rate Nutrition: Metabolic rate: • Rate at which body converts stored energy into working energy • Depends on various factors – Body size – Physical activity – Sex – Age – Hereditary factors
  37. 37. Nutrition Metabolic rate Nutrition: Measuring energy: •Measured in SI unit: Joule (J) •Energy stored in foods is measured in kJ •Calorie is another unit used to measure amount of energy - 1 c (calorie with small c): amount of energy required to raise temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius -1 C = 1000c or 4180 J
  38. 38. Nutrition Metabolic rate Nutrition: Basal metabolic rate (BMR) •Minimum amount of energy required to keep you alive
  39. 39. Nutrition Anorexia Nutrition: Anorexia nervosa •Eating disorder characterized by restriction of eating •Anorexics often have irrational fears of weight gain and a distorted body self-perception
  40. 40. Nutrition Bulimia Nutrition: Bulimia nervosa •Eating disorder characterized by binge eating and purging •Bulimics also have irrational fears of weight gain and a distorted body self-perception •Several cases of bulimia start out as anorexia nervosa
  41. 41. Nutrition Anorexia & Bulimia Nutrition:

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