Biochemistry and nutrition 2011


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Biochemistry and nutrition 2011

  1. 1. Nutrition and Health<br />Biochemistry of Food<br />
  2. 2. Elements<br />What are they?<br />Common Elements in Biology<br />N, C, O, H 96% of human body<br />Other 4% = trace elements<br />EX: S, K, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg, P, I, Fe, F<br />How important are trace elements?<br />Sulfur<br />Sodium<br />
  3. 3. Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components<br />
  4. 4. Monomer to polymer<br />
  5. 5. Carbohydrates<br />C, H, O<br />Simple sugars (monomer)<br />Monosaccharides- glucose, fructose<br />Complex sugars (polymer)<br />Dissacharides - Sucrose<br />Polysaccharides– starch, glycogen, cellulose<br />Functions:<br />Provide energy <br />Monosaccharid + Monosaccharid = Disaccharid<br />Hydrolysis<br />
  6. 6. Dehydration Synthesis<br />
  7. 7. Carbohydrates and Diet<br />Pasta, bread, potatoes, cereal, rice, fruits,<br />Complex carbs are broken into simple carbs<br />Simple carbs are absorbed through the intestines into the bloodstream<br />The blood delivers the glucose to the body cells to make ATP (energy)<br />Extra sugars taken to liver and stored as glycogen<br />Excess sugars stored as fat<br />
  8. 8. Lipids <br />C, H, and a small amount of O<br />Fatty Acids (monomer)<br />Triglyceride (polymer)<br />Fats, oils, waxes, steroids<br />Insoluble in water<br />Functions:<br />Composes the cell membrane<br />Shock absorption and protection<br />Insulation <br />
  9. 9. Lipids and Diet<br />Fats are essential nutrient<br />Fats create the cell membrane<br />Used to synthesize hormones<br />insulate our nerve cells<br />keeps us warm<br />Meats, nuts, dairy products, cooking oils<br />Broken into fatty acids and glycerol and absorbed by small intestines<br />Trans fats = preservative<br />Saturated = bad<br />Unsaturated = useful<br />
  10. 10. Proteins<br />C, H, O, N, and sometimes S<br />Made up of amino acids (monomer)<br />20 total amino acids<br />Polypeptide (polymer)<br />Peptide bond<br />Functions:<br />Muscle contraction<br />Structural components – hair, nails, skin<br />Transports O2 in the blood<br />Provides immunity<br />Enzymes<br />
  11. 11. Proteins and Diet<br />Meats, beans, whole grains, eggs, dairy<br />Proteins broken down into amino acids by digestion<br />Absorbed by intestines, sent through blood to liver and cells<br />Cells store amino acids until they need to make proteins<br />Essential amino acids (8)<br />Non-essential amino acids (12)<br />
  12. 12. Enzymes<br />Protein structures<br />Usually end is ‘ase’<br />Catalyze a reaction (usually speeds it up)<br />Affected by temperature and pH<br />Substrates<br />Active sites<br />Lock and key<br />
  13. 13. Enzymes<br />Enzymes are protein catalyst<br />Catalyst- speed up the rate of a chemical reaction<br />Activation energy w/o enzyme<br />Activation energy with enzyme<br />
  14. 14. Calories and Metabolism<br />Calorie – energy content of food<br />2000 calories a day – AVERAGE, depends on a persons metabolism<br />Metabolism – the rate at which energy is burned or how fast your body processes <br />Metabolism controlled by thyroid gland<br />Factors affecting metabolism<br />Age<br />Gender<br />Level of activity<br />Weight<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Nucleic Acids<br /><ul><li>DNA and RNA
  17. 17. Building blocks are nucleotides
  18. 18. Nucleotides – phosphate, sugar, nitrogen base
  19. 19. Store hereditary information that is translated into proteins</li></ul>- ATP<br /> - Energy molecule of cell<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Water<br />Structure<br />2 hydrogen covalently bonded to 1 oxygen<br />Polar<br />Uneven charge<br />Results in hydrogen bonding<br />
  24. 24. Solution<br />Water is the universal solvent!<br />Ionic compounds disassociate in water<br />Solvent<br />Does the “dissolving”<br />Solute<br />Gets “dissolved”<br />
  25. 25. Hydrogen bonding<br />
  26. 26. Surface tension<br />Adhesion - Attraction between two different substances – capillary action<br />Cohesion - Attraction between particles of the same substance<br />
  27. 27. pH<br />pH scale<br />Acid (higher H+)<br />Below 7<br />Base (higher OH-)<br />Above 7<br />Neutral (H+ = OH -)<br />=7<br />
  28. 28. Ice, water, vapor<br />
  29. 29. Bubbling Potatoes<br />Place a couple of drops of hydrogen peroxide on the potato and the potato chip.<br />Write your observations.<br />Hypothesize what is occurring.<br />