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By- AZHAR HUSSAIN ANSARI
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
BIRLA CAMPUS H.N.B.G.U.
SRINAGAR GARHWAL
Nutrients are compounds in foods essential to life and health, providing us with
energy, the building blocks for repair and growth and substances necessary to
regulate chemical processes.
Nutrients are the constituents in food that must be supplied to the body in
suitable amounts.
Nutrition
Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food, how the body uses them, and the
relationship between diet, health, and disease.
Types of
Nutrients
Micronutrients
Minerals
Vitamins
Macronutrients
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Macronutrients
macronutrients are the elements in food needed for a person to grow and function. They are
needed in large quantities in comparison to other nutrients which is why they are called
“macro” nutrients and are commonly referred to as "macros".
Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy and are required in large amounts to
maintain body functions and carry out the activities of daily life.
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk
products. Though often criticized in trendy diets, carbohydrates — one of the basic food groups — are
important to a healthy diet.
 Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy.
 I Gram Carbs= 4 Calories
 Carbohydrate is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
 Carbohydrates can be represented by the formula (CH2O)n where n is the number of carbons in the
molecule. Therefore, the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 1:2:1 in carbohydrate molecules.
 Digestion of Carbs Begin from the mouth where Salivary Gland release the Enzyme AMYLASE
that breakdown starchy foods to individual Glucose molecules.
 This stored form of glucose is called Glycogen and is primarily found in the liver and muscle.
 Total Carbohydrate which can be stored is around 1600-2400 Kcal. (2000 kcal.)
 The liver contains approximately 100 grams of glycogen.
 Muscle glycogen content varies from person to person, but it’s approximately 300-500 grams.
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
(One Sugar Molecule)
Disaccharides
(Two Sugar Molecule)
Oligosaccharides
(Two to Ten Sugar
Molecule)
Polysaccharides
(Ten or More Sugar
Molecule)
Galactose
C6H12O6
Glucose
C6H12O6
Fructose
C6H12O6
Maltose (C12H12O11)
(Glucose + Glucose)
Lactose (C12H12O11)
(Glucose + Galactose)
Sucrose (Table sugar)
(Glucose + Fructose)
(C12H12O11)
Raffinose
(C18H32O16)
Stachyose
(C24H42O21)
Starch
(C6H10O5)n
Glycogen
(C6H10O5)n
Cellulose
(C6H10O5)n
Maltose is an interesting compound because of its use in alcohol production.
Complex
Simple
Function of carbohydrates
Role in the Body
1.Fuel during high intensity exercise
2.Spares protein (to preserve muscle mass during exercise)
3.Fuel for the Central Nervous System.
Recommended Allowance
1.Sedentary Individuals: 40-50% of your total daily calories should be carbohydrates
2.Exercises Regularly: 50-60% of your total daily calories should be carbohydrates
3.Athletes or persons involved in heavy training: 60-70% of your total daily calories should be carbohydrates
(3.5-4.5 grams of carbohydrate per pound/8 to 10 Grams of Carbohydrate per Kg of body weight)
Sources of carbohydrates
Food Item Raw % of Carbs Cooked % of
Carbs
% of Carbs
Quinoa 64.16 % 21.3%
Oats 66%
Buckwheat 71.5% 20%
Bananas 23%
Potatoes 66–90% 18–21%
Blueberries 14.5%
brown rice 23%
wheat flour 72 %
Sugar 100%
Dates Dry 75%
Intensity of activity
Recommended intake (per kg
body weight per day)*
Light
Low intensity/
skill based
3-5g
Moderate
Moderate exercise programme
(1 hour/day)
5-7g
High
Endurance programme
(1-3 hours/day moderate-high
intensity exercise)
6-10g
Very high
Extreme commitment
(4-5 hours/day moderate-high
intensity exercise)
8-12g
Need of carbohydrates on the basis of Intensity of Exercise
The glycemic index is a
value assigned to foods
based on how slowly or
how quickly those
foods cause increases
in blood glucose
levels. Foods low on
the glycemic index
(GI) scale tend to
release glucose slowly
and steadily. Foods
high on the glycemic
index release glucose
rapidly.
Use of carbohydrates During Sports
A carbohydrate rich meal within the 4 hour period before exercise has been show to improve endurance and
performance for prolonged, moderate intensity exercise. It depends very much on the individual and the type of
exercise they are performing. However, for most people it is helpful to have a meal or snack with a moderate to
low GI a few hours before exercise to supply a steady release of fuel before and during exercise
Some ideas include:
•A grainy bread sandwich with tuna and salad.
•Smoothie with low fat milk, yoghurt, small banana and oats
•Hot oats with berries and low fat milk
•Chicken pasta salad
•Bran and berry muffin with low fat yoghurt
For those who train very early in the morning, or find lighter snacks work better for them before training, cereal
bar, fruit and yoghurt, creamed rice or smoothies are suitable.
The pre-exercise meal
For prolonged exercise your body is likely to need additional carbohydrate to fuel the workout and improve exercise
capacity and performance. You should ideally consume food and/or drink which is easy to digest and will be rapidly
absorbed by the body, providing an instant supply of energy. To achieve this, high GI options are likely to be helpful,
with the aim of including 30-60g of carbohydrate per hour of intense, prolonged exercise.
High GI ideas include:
•White bread with jam or honey
•Jelly beans
•Pikelets or crumpets
•Sports drinks and bars
•Sports gels taken with water
During Exercise
The goal after exercise is to replenish muscle glycogen (carbohydrate stores) and allow muscles to recover and
repair. If you are exercising a couple of times a week, a carbohydrate rich snack like
• a baked fruit bar,
• fruit
• yoghurt,
• sandwich
• creamed rice
• or your planned next meal is likely to be adequate for recovery.
If training sessions are every day and/or twice a day, a more rapid approach to recovery drinks and snacks might
include
• sports drinks,
• ripe bananas,
• honey or jam on white bread,
• pikelets or crumpets
After exercise
Proteins
Protein is a macronutrient that is essential to building muscle mass. It is commonly found in animal products,
though is also present in other sources, such as nuts and legumes.
 Chemically, protein is composed of amino acids, which are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, oxygen.
 Proteins are built from a set of twenty amino acids. which are important for the body.
 The nine essential amino acids can’t be produced by your body and must be obtained through your diet.
 The basic amino acid structure is R-CH(NH2)-COOH.
 1 Gram Protein= 4 Calories
 “A safe level of protein ranges from 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight up to 2 grams of
protein per kilogram for very active athletes,”
 amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds.
 Gluconeogenesis is the term that describes how protein converted to Glycogen for energy.
 There is no storage tank for protein.
 Protein digestion begins when the food reaches the stomach and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid
(HCl) by the parietal cells
Classification based on Function
 Contractile proteins
 Hormones
 Transport proteins
 Storage proteins
 Structural proteins
 Defense protein
 Enzymes
 Respiratory Pigments
Classification based on Structure
 Fibrous proteins
 Globular proteins
 Intermediate Proteins
Classification based on Composition
 Simple proteins
 Conjugated proteins
 Derived proteins
Type About Example
Fibrous
proteins
 They are linear (long fibrous) in shape.
 Also known as sclero proteins
 perform the structural functions in the cells.
Collagen,
Myosin, Silk and
Keratin, Elastin
Globular
proteins
Globular proteins are spherical or globular in
shape.
Functions: Form enzymes, antibodies and some
hormones.
Insulin,
Haemoglobin,
DNA Polymerase
and RNA
Polymerase
Intermediate
Proteins
Their structure is intermediate to linear and
globular strictures.
Function: blood clotting proteins
Fibrinogen
Classification based on Structure
Type About Example
Simple proteins  Simple proteins composed of ONLY amino acids.
 Proteins may be fibrous or globular.
 They possess relatively simple structural organization.
Collagen, Myosin,
Insulin, Keratin
Conjugated
proteins
 Conjugated proteins are complex proteins.
 They contain one or more non-amino acid components.
 Most of the enzymes are conjugated proteins.
 Here the protein part is tightly or loosely bound to one or more non-protein part(s).
 The non-protein parts of these proteins are called prosthetic groups.
 The prosthetic group may be metal ions, carbohydrates, lipids, phosphoric acids,
nucleic acids and FAD.
 The prosthetic group is essential for the biological functions of these proteins.
Based on the nature of prosthetic groups, the conjugated proteins are further classified as follows:
 Phosphoprotein: Prosthetic group is phosphoric acid, Example- Casein of milk, Vitellin of egg yolk.
 Glycoproteins: Prosthetic group is carbohydrates, Example — Most of the membrane proteins, Mucin (component of saliva).
 Nucleoprotein: Prosthetic group is nucleic acid, Example — proteins in chromosomes, structural proteins of ribosome.
 Chromoproteins: Prosthetic group is pigment or chrome, Example: Hemoglobin, Phytochrome and Cytochrome.
 Lipoproteins: Prosthetic group is Lipids, Example: Membrane proteins
 Flavoproteins: Prosthetic group is FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide), Example: Proteins of Electron Transport System (ETS).
 Metalloproteins: Prosthetic group is Metal ions, Example: Nitrate Reductase.
Classification based on Composition
Type About Example
Contractile
proteins
 They are the force generators of muscles
 They can contract with the expense of energy from ATP molecules.
Actin, Myosin
Hormones  They include the proteinaceous hormones in the cells Insulin, Glucagon, ACH
Transport
proteins
 They transport the materials in the cells They form channels in the plasma
membrane
 They also form one of the components of blood and lymph in animals.
Serum albumin
Storage
proteins
 They act as the store of metal ions and amino acids in the cells.
 Found in seeds, egg and milk
 Abundantly seen in pulses (legume seeds).
Ferritin which stores
iron, Casein, Ovalbumin,
Gluten of Wheat
Structural
proteins
 Form the component of the connective tissue, bone, tendons, cartilage, skin,
feathers, nail, hairs and horn.
Collagen, Keratin and
Elastin.
Defense
protein
 These proteins work for protection purpose against the invading microbes
and foreign substances
Immunoglobin
Fibrinogen
Enzymes  They are the biological catalysts.
 Reduce the activation energy of reactants and speed-up the metabolic reactions
in the cells.
 Most of them are globular conjugated proteins
DNA Polymerase,
Nitrogenase, Lipase
Respiratory
Pigments
 They are coloured proteins
 All of them are conjugated proteins and they contain pigments (chrome) as their
Hemoglobin, Myoglobin
Classification based on Function
Sources of protein
Soya beans -
35.9g
Cheese - 30.9g
Venison(Deer
meat)
- 30.21
Pumpkin
seeds - 28.8g
Lobster -
26.41
Canned tuna
fish - 26.3g
Tuna fish -
25.6g
Here are examples of foods high in protein with the number of grams per 100 grams of the food:
Role in the Body
1.Tissue structure (part of organ tissues, muscle, hair, skin, nails, bones, tendons, ligaments and blood plasma)
2.Repair and build body’s tissues.
3.Involved in metabolic, transport, and hormone systems
4.Make up enzymes that regulate metabolism
5.Involved in acid/base balance to maintain a neutral environment in our bodies
Recommended Daily Allowance
1.Sedentary Individuals: 0.8 grams of protein per Kg of body weight
2.Recreationally Active: 1-1.5 grams of protein per Kg of body weight
3.Competitive Athlete: 1.2-1.8 grams of protein per Kg of body weight
4.Teenage Athlete: 1.8-2 grams of protein per Kg of body weight
5.Body Builder: 1.4-2 grams of protein per Kg of body weight
6.Maximum amount of protein the body can utilize: 2 grams of protein per Kg of body weight
Function of Proteins
Fats
Fats are an essential part of a healthful diet. Fats are necessary for nervous system function, energy, absorption of
certain vitamins, and for skin, hair, and joint health.
Fats occur in both animal and plant foods. There are several main types of fats, and some are more healthful than
others:
 1 Gram Fat= 9 Calories
 fat contains essential fatty acids.
 Fats are stored in human body as adipose tissue.
 Most fat stored in the human body is subcutaneous (which means "under the skin").
 Fat belong to a group of components known as“Lipids”.
 insoluble in water
 Essential Fatty Acids Are also called Vitamin F.
 vitamin F is a term for two fats — alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA). They are essential for regular
body functions, including aspects of brain and heart health.
 ALA is a member of the omega-3 fat family, while LA belongs to the omega-6 family.
 Triglycerides are a type of fat. They are the most common type of fat in your body. They come from foods,
especially butter, oils, and other fats you eat. Triglycerides also come from extra calories. Should be less than
150mg/dL
 Enzymes called lipases are used to break down the stored triglycerides.
Group Healthy HDL Level
Age 19 or younger More than 45mg/dl
Men age 20 or older More than 40mg/dl
Women age 20 or older More than 50mg/dl
HDL and LDL are two types of lipoproteins. They are a combination of fat (lipid) and protein. The lipids need to
be attached to the proteins so they can move through the blood. HDL and LDL have different purposes:
•HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the "good" cholesterol because it carries
cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your
body.
•LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level
leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries.
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a type of fat found in the blood. Cholesterol is vital in the body, not only does it play a role in how
all cells work but it is also a ‘building block’ for other essential chemicals that the body produces. Cholesterol is
carried around the body in the bloodstream combined with proteins, these are called lipoproteins. There are two
main types of lipoprotein that are used to measure cholesterol levels in the blood.
Types of Fatty Acid
Unsaturated fats
liquid at room temperature
Saturated Fats
solid at room temperature
Trans Fats
animal foods plant foods
Coconut
coconut oil
palm oil
palm kernel oil.
Monounsaturated
fats
Polyunsaturated fats
Omega-3 omega-6
fatty cuts of
•beef
•pork
•lamb
Most trans fat is formed
through an industrial process
that adds hydrogen to
vegetable oil, which causes
the oil to become solid at
room temperature.
• Microwave popcorn
• Frozen pizza
• Refrigerated dough, such
as biscuits and rolls
• Fried foods, including
French fries, doughnuts
and fried chicken
•Olive oil
•Nuts, such as
almonds, cashews,
pecans and
macadamias
•Avocados
•Olives
•Peanut oil
Use of Fats During Sports
The pre-exercise meal
 It is recommended not to have fat 4 hours prior to exercise.
 Only can have small amount of Unsaturated fats just for taste.
 Fat gives feeling of satiety.
The post-exercise meal
The During-exercise meal
 It is recommended not to have fat during Exercise.
 It is not that much important to have fat after the exercise is over as in carbohydrates and protein.
 As there is ample amount of fat storage in the body.
Fats serve as a primary energy
source.
 At rest
 Recovery between intense bouts
of activity.
 Light to moderate intensity
exercises.
 hiking, cycling, and long-
distance running or swimming.
Fats
Role in the Body
1.Energy reserve
2.Protects vital organs
3.Insulation
4.Absorb and Transport fat soluble vitamins
Recommended Allowance
1.20-35% of your total daily calories should come from fat
2.Saturated 7% to 10% of total daily calories should come from
3.Trans Fat 1% of total calories
4.Unsaturated
Monounsaturated 15% to 20%
Polyunsaturated 10% to 15%
Omega 3 0.6 % to 1.2%
Omega 6 5% to 10%

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Nutrients and their functions

  • 1. By- AZHAR HUSSAIN ANSARI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION BIRLA CAMPUS H.N.B.G.U. SRINAGAR GARHWAL
  • 2. Nutrients are compounds in foods essential to life and health, providing us with energy, the building blocks for repair and growth and substances necessary to regulate chemical processes. Nutrients are the constituents in food that must be supplied to the body in suitable amounts. Nutrition Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food, how the body uses them, and the relationship between diet, health, and disease.
  • 4. Macronutrients macronutrients are the elements in food needed for a person to grow and function. They are needed in large quantities in comparison to other nutrients which is why they are called “macro” nutrients and are commonly referred to as "macros". Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy and are required in large amounts to maintain body functions and carry out the activities of daily life.
  • 5. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. Though often criticized in trendy diets, carbohydrates — one of the basic food groups — are important to a healthy diet.  Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy.  I Gram Carbs= 4 Calories  Carbohydrate is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.  Carbohydrates can be represented by the formula (CH2O)n where n is the number of carbons in the molecule. Therefore, the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 1:2:1 in carbohydrate molecules.  Digestion of Carbs Begin from the mouth where Salivary Gland release the Enzyme AMYLASE that breakdown starchy foods to individual Glucose molecules.  This stored form of glucose is called Glycogen and is primarily found in the liver and muscle.  Total Carbohydrate which can be stored is around 1600-2400 Kcal. (2000 kcal.)  The liver contains approximately 100 grams of glycogen.  Muscle glycogen content varies from person to person, but it’s approximately 300-500 grams.
  • 6. Carbohydrates Monosaccharides (One Sugar Molecule) Disaccharides (Two Sugar Molecule) Oligosaccharides (Two to Ten Sugar Molecule) Polysaccharides (Ten or More Sugar Molecule) Galactose C6H12O6 Glucose C6H12O6 Fructose C6H12O6 Maltose (C12H12O11) (Glucose + Glucose) Lactose (C12H12O11) (Glucose + Galactose) Sucrose (Table sugar) (Glucose + Fructose) (C12H12O11) Raffinose (C18H32O16) Stachyose (C24H42O21) Starch (C6H10O5)n Glycogen (C6H10O5)n Cellulose (C6H10O5)n Maltose is an interesting compound because of its use in alcohol production. Complex Simple
  • 7. Function of carbohydrates Role in the Body 1.Fuel during high intensity exercise 2.Spares protein (to preserve muscle mass during exercise) 3.Fuel for the Central Nervous System. Recommended Allowance 1.Sedentary Individuals: 40-50% of your total daily calories should be carbohydrates 2.Exercises Regularly: 50-60% of your total daily calories should be carbohydrates 3.Athletes or persons involved in heavy training: 60-70% of your total daily calories should be carbohydrates (3.5-4.5 grams of carbohydrate per pound/8 to 10 Grams of Carbohydrate per Kg of body weight)
  • 8. Sources of carbohydrates Food Item Raw % of Carbs Cooked % of Carbs % of Carbs Quinoa 64.16 % 21.3% Oats 66% Buckwheat 71.5% 20% Bananas 23% Potatoes 66–90% 18–21% Blueberries 14.5% brown rice 23% wheat flour 72 % Sugar 100% Dates Dry 75%
  • 9. Intensity of activity Recommended intake (per kg body weight per day)* Light Low intensity/ skill based 3-5g Moderate Moderate exercise programme (1 hour/day) 5-7g High Endurance programme (1-3 hours/day moderate-high intensity exercise) 6-10g Very high Extreme commitment (4-5 hours/day moderate-high intensity exercise) 8-12g Need of carbohydrates on the basis of Intensity of Exercise
  • 10. The glycemic index is a value assigned to foods based on how slowly or how quickly those foods cause increases in blood glucose levels. Foods low on the glycemic index (GI) scale tend to release glucose slowly and steadily. Foods high on the glycemic index release glucose rapidly.
  • 11. Use of carbohydrates During Sports A carbohydrate rich meal within the 4 hour period before exercise has been show to improve endurance and performance for prolonged, moderate intensity exercise. It depends very much on the individual and the type of exercise they are performing. However, for most people it is helpful to have a meal or snack with a moderate to low GI a few hours before exercise to supply a steady release of fuel before and during exercise Some ideas include: •A grainy bread sandwich with tuna and salad. •Smoothie with low fat milk, yoghurt, small banana and oats •Hot oats with berries and low fat milk •Chicken pasta salad •Bran and berry muffin with low fat yoghurt For those who train very early in the morning, or find lighter snacks work better for them before training, cereal bar, fruit and yoghurt, creamed rice or smoothies are suitable. The pre-exercise meal
  • 12. For prolonged exercise your body is likely to need additional carbohydrate to fuel the workout and improve exercise capacity and performance. You should ideally consume food and/or drink which is easy to digest and will be rapidly absorbed by the body, providing an instant supply of energy. To achieve this, high GI options are likely to be helpful, with the aim of including 30-60g of carbohydrate per hour of intense, prolonged exercise. High GI ideas include: •White bread with jam or honey •Jelly beans •Pikelets or crumpets •Sports drinks and bars •Sports gels taken with water During Exercise
  • 13. The goal after exercise is to replenish muscle glycogen (carbohydrate stores) and allow muscles to recover and repair. If you are exercising a couple of times a week, a carbohydrate rich snack like • a baked fruit bar, • fruit • yoghurt, • sandwich • creamed rice • or your planned next meal is likely to be adequate for recovery. If training sessions are every day and/or twice a day, a more rapid approach to recovery drinks and snacks might include • sports drinks, • ripe bananas, • honey or jam on white bread, • pikelets or crumpets After exercise
  • 14. Proteins Protein is a macronutrient that is essential to building muscle mass. It is commonly found in animal products, though is also present in other sources, such as nuts and legumes.  Chemically, protein is composed of amino acids, which are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen.  Proteins are built from a set of twenty amino acids. which are important for the body.  The nine essential amino acids can’t be produced by your body and must be obtained through your diet.  The basic amino acid structure is R-CH(NH2)-COOH.  1 Gram Protein= 4 Calories  “A safe level of protein ranges from 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight up to 2 grams of protein per kilogram for very active athletes,”  amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds.  Gluconeogenesis is the term that describes how protein converted to Glycogen for energy.  There is no storage tank for protein.  Protein digestion begins when the food reaches the stomach and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells
  • 15. Classification based on Function  Contractile proteins  Hormones  Transport proteins  Storage proteins  Structural proteins  Defense protein  Enzymes  Respiratory Pigments Classification based on Structure  Fibrous proteins  Globular proteins  Intermediate Proteins Classification based on Composition  Simple proteins  Conjugated proteins  Derived proteins
  • 16. Type About Example Fibrous proteins  They are linear (long fibrous) in shape.  Also known as sclero proteins  perform the structural functions in the cells. Collagen, Myosin, Silk and Keratin, Elastin Globular proteins Globular proteins are spherical or globular in shape. Functions: Form enzymes, antibodies and some hormones. Insulin, Haemoglobin, DNA Polymerase and RNA Polymerase Intermediate Proteins Their structure is intermediate to linear and globular strictures. Function: blood clotting proteins Fibrinogen Classification based on Structure
  • 17. Type About Example Simple proteins  Simple proteins composed of ONLY amino acids.  Proteins may be fibrous or globular.  They possess relatively simple structural organization. Collagen, Myosin, Insulin, Keratin Conjugated proteins  Conjugated proteins are complex proteins.  They contain one or more non-amino acid components.  Most of the enzymes are conjugated proteins.  Here the protein part is tightly or loosely bound to one or more non-protein part(s).  The non-protein parts of these proteins are called prosthetic groups.  The prosthetic group may be metal ions, carbohydrates, lipids, phosphoric acids, nucleic acids and FAD.  The prosthetic group is essential for the biological functions of these proteins. Based on the nature of prosthetic groups, the conjugated proteins are further classified as follows:  Phosphoprotein: Prosthetic group is phosphoric acid, Example- Casein of milk, Vitellin of egg yolk.  Glycoproteins: Prosthetic group is carbohydrates, Example — Most of the membrane proteins, Mucin (component of saliva).  Nucleoprotein: Prosthetic group is nucleic acid, Example — proteins in chromosomes, structural proteins of ribosome.  Chromoproteins: Prosthetic group is pigment or chrome, Example: Hemoglobin, Phytochrome and Cytochrome.  Lipoproteins: Prosthetic group is Lipids, Example: Membrane proteins  Flavoproteins: Prosthetic group is FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide), Example: Proteins of Electron Transport System (ETS).  Metalloproteins: Prosthetic group is Metal ions, Example: Nitrate Reductase. Classification based on Composition
  • 18. Type About Example Contractile proteins  They are the force generators of muscles  They can contract with the expense of energy from ATP molecules. Actin, Myosin Hormones  They include the proteinaceous hormones in the cells Insulin, Glucagon, ACH Transport proteins  They transport the materials in the cells They form channels in the plasma membrane  They also form one of the components of blood and lymph in animals. Serum albumin Storage proteins  They act as the store of metal ions and amino acids in the cells.  Found in seeds, egg and milk  Abundantly seen in pulses (legume seeds). Ferritin which stores iron, Casein, Ovalbumin, Gluten of Wheat Structural proteins  Form the component of the connective tissue, bone, tendons, cartilage, skin, feathers, nail, hairs and horn. Collagen, Keratin and Elastin. Defense protein  These proteins work for protection purpose against the invading microbes and foreign substances Immunoglobin Fibrinogen Enzymes  They are the biological catalysts.  Reduce the activation energy of reactants and speed-up the metabolic reactions in the cells.  Most of them are globular conjugated proteins DNA Polymerase, Nitrogenase, Lipase Respiratory Pigments  They are coloured proteins  All of them are conjugated proteins and they contain pigments (chrome) as their Hemoglobin, Myoglobin Classification based on Function
  • 19. Sources of protein Soya beans - 35.9g Cheese - 30.9g Venison(Deer meat) - 30.21 Pumpkin seeds - 28.8g Lobster - 26.41 Canned tuna fish - 26.3g Tuna fish - 25.6g Here are examples of foods high in protein with the number of grams per 100 grams of the food:
  • 20. Role in the Body 1.Tissue structure (part of organ tissues, muscle, hair, skin, nails, bones, tendons, ligaments and blood plasma) 2.Repair and build body’s tissues. 3.Involved in metabolic, transport, and hormone systems 4.Make up enzymes that regulate metabolism 5.Involved in acid/base balance to maintain a neutral environment in our bodies Recommended Daily Allowance 1.Sedentary Individuals: 0.8 grams of protein per Kg of body weight 2.Recreationally Active: 1-1.5 grams of protein per Kg of body weight 3.Competitive Athlete: 1.2-1.8 grams of protein per Kg of body weight 4.Teenage Athlete: 1.8-2 grams of protein per Kg of body weight 5.Body Builder: 1.4-2 grams of protein per Kg of body weight 6.Maximum amount of protein the body can utilize: 2 grams of protein per Kg of body weight Function of Proteins
  • 21. Fats Fats are an essential part of a healthful diet. Fats are necessary for nervous system function, energy, absorption of certain vitamins, and for skin, hair, and joint health. Fats occur in both animal and plant foods. There are several main types of fats, and some are more healthful than others:  1 Gram Fat= 9 Calories  fat contains essential fatty acids.  Fats are stored in human body as adipose tissue.  Most fat stored in the human body is subcutaneous (which means "under the skin").  Fat belong to a group of components known as“Lipids”.  insoluble in water  Essential Fatty Acids Are also called Vitamin F.  vitamin F is a term for two fats — alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA). They are essential for regular body functions, including aspects of brain and heart health.  ALA is a member of the omega-3 fat family, while LA belongs to the omega-6 family.  Triglycerides are a type of fat. They are the most common type of fat in your body. They come from foods, especially butter, oils, and other fats you eat. Triglycerides also come from extra calories. Should be less than 150mg/dL  Enzymes called lipases are used to break down the stored triglycerides.
  • 22. Group Healthy HDL Level Age 19 or younger More than 45mg/dl Men age 20 or older More than 40mg/dl Women age 20 or older More than 50mg/dl HDL and LDL are two types of lipoproteins. They are a combination of fat (lipid) and protein. The lipids need to be attached to the proteins so they can move through the blood. HDL and LDL have different purposes: •HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body. •LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries. Cholesterol Cholesterol is a type of fat found in the blood. Cholesterol is vital in the body, not only does it play a role in how all cells work but it is also a ‘building block’ for other essential chemicals that the body produces. Cholesterol is carried around the body in the bloodstream combined with proteins, these are called lipoproteins. There are two main types of lipoprotein that are used to measure cholesterol levels in the blood.
  • 23. Types of Fatty Acid Unsaturated fats liquid at room temperature Saturated Fats solid at room temperature Trans Fats animal foods plant foods Coconut coconut oil palm oil palm kernel oil. Monounsaturated fats Polyunsaturated fats Omega-3 omega-6 fatty cuts of •beef •pork •lamb Most trans fat is formed through an industrial process that adds hydrogen to vegetable oil, which causes the oil to become solid at room temperature. • Microwave popcorn • Frozen pizza • Refrigerated dough, such as biscuits and rolls • Fried foods, including French fries, doughnuts and fried chicken •Olive oil •Nuts, such as almonds, cashews, pecans and macadamias •Avocados •Olives •Peanut oil
  • 24. Use of Fats During Sports The pre-exercise meal  It is recommended not to have fat 4 hours prior to exercise.  Only can have small amount of Unsaturated fats just for taste.  Fat gives feeling of satiety. The post-exercise meal The During-exercise meal  It is recommended not to have fat during Exercise.  It is not that much important to have fat after the exercise is over as in carbohydrates and protein.  As there is ample amount of fat storage in the body. Fats serve as a primary energy source.  At rest  Recovery between intense bouts of activity.  Light to moderate intensity exercises.  hiking, cycling, and long- distance running or swimming.
  • 25. Fats Role in the Body 1.Energy reserve 2.Protects vital organs 3.Insulation 4.Absorb and Transport fat soluble vitamins Recommended Allowance 1.20-35% of your total daily calories should come from fat 2.Saturated 7% to 10% of total daily calories should come from 3.Trans Fat 1% of total calories 4.Unsaturated Monounsaturated 15% to 20% Polyunsaturated 10% to 15% Omega 3 0.6 % to 1.2% Omega 6 5% to 10%