SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 38
Solutions
Solubility&
SOLVEN
T
SOLUTE
Solutions
Solubility&
Solutions
Solubility&
SOLUTION
A homogenous
mixture
(looks uniform
throughout)
SOLVENT
In a solution, the
solvent is present in
the largest amount
by volume, mass, or
number of moles
SOLUTE
Other substances
present in a solution
other than the
solvent.
Solutions
Solubility&
Original state of solute Solvent Example
Gas Gas
Gas Liquid
Gas Solid
Hydrogen in palladium
Liquid Gas
Liquid Liquid
Liquid Solid
Amalgams
(i.e. mercury in silver)
Solid Gas
Solid Liquid
Solid Solid
 ACTIVITY 1: Examples of Solutions
Observe the samples of solutions and classify each solution under one category:
3
Oxygen in air
CO2 in pop
Water droplets in air
Alcohol in water
Dust in the air
Sugar in water
Copper in bronze
Solutions
Solubility&
 ACTIVITY 1: Examples of Solutions
Hydrogen in palladium: A method for storing hydrogen gas
as fuel
Solutions
Solubility&
 ACTIVITY 1: Examples of Solutions
Amalgam: A metal and mercury solution
By mass: 43% to 54% mercury,
~20-35% silver, ~10% copper,
~2% zinc, and some tin
Remains soft for a
short time and then
forms a hard and
durable compound
Solutions
Solubility&
Identify the components of these solutions:
Solutions
Solubility&
Common Types of Solutions:
Alloys: Solid solutions of metal
Stainless steel: Iron, chromium, nickel, manganese, vanadium
Solutions
Solubility&
Common Types of Solutions:
Alloys: Solid solutions of metal
Brass: Copper and zinc
Solutions
Solubility&
Common Types of Solutions:
Liquid solution: A solution with two or more miscible liquids
Miscible = Can dissolve in
one-another
Immiscible = Cannot dissolve
in one-another
Rubbing alcohol Oil and water
Solutions
Solubility&
Common Types of Solutions:
Gas solution: A solution of two or more gases
Air: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide
Solutions
Solubility&
Common Types of Solutions:
Aqueous solution: A solution where water is the solvent
Tap water
Solutions
Solubility&
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SOLUBLE VS. INSOLUBLE
Not all substances dissolve equally in water.
Recall the solubility table (dissolving solids in water):
Although substances are classified as
either soluble or insoluble in this table,
substances are almost never completely
insoluble or completely soluble in
water.
The solubility of a solute is the amount of
solute that dissolves in a given quantity of
solvent, at a certain temperature.
For example, the solubility of sodium
chloride in water at 20ºC is 36g per
100mL of water.
Solutions
Solubility&
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SOLUBLE VS. INSOLUBLE
Soluble Partly or
slightly
soluble
Insoluble
More than 1g in
100mL
OR
greater than
0.1mol/L
Between 1g
and 0.1g in
100mL
OR
Between
0.1mol/L and
0.01mol/L
Less than 0.1g
in 100mL
OR
Less than
0.01mol/L
Solutions
Solubility&
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED
One cannot endlessly dissolve salt in water
Solutions
Solubility&
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED
Saturated solution:
Formed when no more solute will
dissolve in a solution, with excess
solute present.
Unsaturated solution:
A solution that is not yet saturated
Supersaturated solution:
Formed when a solution dissolves
more solute than allowed at a
specific temperature. No excess
solute is present.
Solutions
Solubility&
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED
In a saturated solution with
excess solute present, the
rate of dissolution and
precipitation are the same
PbSO4(s) Pb2+
(aq) + SO4
2-
(aq)
precipitate dissolved ions
Solutions
Solubility&
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF
DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY
ACTIVITY 2: Who Can Dissolve the Most Salt?
Solutions
Solubility&
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY
ACTIVITY 2: Who Can Dissolve the Most Salt? (10 min)
6) You must not have precipitate in your solution, and your
solution cannot be boiling.
1) Work in groups of 3-4
2) Each group will be given a graduated cylinder of salt and 250mL
of water
3) Try to dissolve as much salt as you can
4) Try to alter the physical properties of your solvent and solute to
increase the amount of salt that you can dissolve
5) You cannot add water
Solutions
Solubility&
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY
ACTIVITY 2: Who Can Dissolve the Most Salt?
Factor Affect on rate of dissolving/solubility
Temperature Higher temperatures allow more
molecules to dissolve
Agitation Stirring/agitation allows more
molecules to dissolve
Surface area Increasing the surface area allows
more molecules to dissolve
At higher temperatures, solvent molecules
move faster, and collide with undissolved
solid molecules more frequently
Temperature
WARMER COOLER
Solutions
Solubility&
Agitation brings fresh solvent into contact with
undissolved solid
Agitation
MORE MOLECULES IN
CONTACT
FEWER MOLECULES IN
CONTACT
Solutions
Solubility&
Surface Area
The greater the surface area of the reactant,
the greater the molecules are in contact with
the solvent
LOWER SURFACE AREA HIGHER SURFACE AREA
Molecules on the
inside are exposed,
enabling them to
collide with solvent
molecules
Solutions
Solubility&
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
1) Molecule polarity
- Compounds dissolve due to the intermolecular forces
between solvent and solute molecules
Sugar: Forms H-bonds with water
O
H
H
OH
H
O
H
OH
H
O
H
H
O
H
H
O
H
H
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
1) Molecule polarity
- Compounds dissolve due to the intermolecular forces
between solvent and solute molecules
Ethanol: Forms H-bonds with water
O
H
H
O
H
H
O
H
H
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
1) Molecule polarity
- Compounds dissolve due to the intermolecular forces
between solvent and solute molecules
Methanol: Forms H-bonds with water
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
1) Molecule polarity
- Compounds dissolve due to the intermolecular forces
between solvent and solute molecules
Octane: Cannot form H-bonds with water
O
H
H
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
1) Molecule polarity
CH3OH vs. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3OH
Which has greater solubility in water?
CH3OH vs. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3OH
Which has greater solubility in oil?
The more attractive intermolecular forces exist
between solvent and solute molecules, the
greater the solubility
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
1) Molecule polarity
The addition of
solute raises
the boiling point
of a solvent
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
2) Temperature
- Greater temperatures result in greater solubility of
most solids
Instant coffee powder + water at 20°C vs. Instant coffee powder + water at 70°C
Which has greater solubility in water?
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
2) Temperature
- The greater the temperature,
the lower the solubility of
gases
As temperature increases,
gas molecules gain kinetic
energy and are able to
leave a solution. Gases
become LESS soluble with
increasing temperature.
Factors that affect solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
3) Molecule charge
- Molecules that are charged can form dipole-ion
attractions or Van der Waals forces between solute and
solvent molecules
Cl-Na+
Salt: Ions exert dipole-ion attractive forces with water
O
HH
O
H H
O
HH
O
HH
O
HH
O
HH
O
HH
O
H H
Factors that affect ion solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
Factors that affect ion solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
1) Ion charge
- Ions with small charges tend to be soluble
- Increasing the charge increases the force that holds the
ions together
- (i.e. phosphates, PO4
3+
, tend to be insoluble)
1+ 1- 3+ 3-
Factors that affect ion solubility
Solutions
Solubility&
2) Ion size
- Small ions tend to be less soluble than large ions
- Small ions bond more closely together than large ions
- Thus the bond between small ions is stronger than the
bond between large ions with the same charge
2+ 2-2+ 2-
Net Ionic Equations
Solutions
Solubility&
K2CO3(aq) + CuSO4(aq)  ?K2SO4(aq) + CuCO3(s)
Chemical equation:
Ionic equation:
 Anything that is aqueous must be separated into its component ions
2K+
(aq) + CO3
2-
(aq) + Cu2+
(aq) + SO4
2-
(aq)  2K+
(aq) + SO4
2-
(aq) + CuCO3(s)
Net Ionic equation:
 Spectator ions* are eliminated
Cu2+
(aq) + CO3
2-
(aq)  CuCO3(s)
*Spectator ions are ions that do not participate in the actual reaction
Use the
solubility
table
Solubility curves
Solutions
Solubility&
A graph that displays the
maximum solute that can dissolve
in 100g of water at various
temperatures.
Why does the solubility curve of
NH3 have a negative slope?
NH3 is a gas. Gases become LESS
soluble with increasing
temperature.
Solubility curves
Solutions
Solubility&
1) Is 50g of NH4Cl in 100g of
water at 40ºC saturated,
unsaturated, or supersaturated?
Supersaturated
2) How many grams of KNO3 can
dissolve in 50g of water at 70ºC?
65g
3) How much water is required to
dissolve 60g of NaNO3 at 50ºC?
115g NaNO3 = 60g NaNO3
100g water x
x = 52g water

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

CVD AND PVD THIN FILM TECHNIQUES
CVD AND PVD THIN FILM TECHNIQUESCVD AND PVD THIN FILM TECHNIQUES
CVD AND PVD THIN FILM TECHNIQUES
 
Analytical class potetiometry conductomtry, P K MANI
Analytical class   potetiometry conductomtry, P K MANIAnalytical class   potetiometry conductomtry, P K MANI
Analytical class potetiometry conductomtry, P K MANI
 
Wafer cleaning
Wafer cleaningWafer cleaning
Wafer cleaning
 
Coulometry.pptx presentation assignment copy
Coulometry.pptx presentation assignment   copyCoulometry.pptx presentation assignment   copy
Coulometry.pptx presentation assignment copy
 
Electroanalytical chemistry
Electroanalytical chemistryElectroanalytical chemistry
Electroanalytical chemistry
 
Chemical sensors
Chemical sensorsChemical sensors
Chemical sensors
 
Photoconductivity.pptx
Photoconductivity.pptxPhotoconductivity.pptx
Photoconductivity.pptx
 
Dye sensitized solar cells
Dye sensitized solar cellsDye sensitized solar cells
Dye sensitized solar cells
 
Basics of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Basics of Electrochemical Impedance SpectroscopyBasics of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Basics of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
 
Anodic protection for corrosion prevention
Anodic protection for corrosion preventionAnodic protection for corrosion prevention
Anodic protection for corrosion prevention
 
Voltammetry
VoltammetryVoltammetry
Voltammetry
 
CHM260 - UV-VIS
CHM260 - UV-VISCHM260 - UV-VIS
CHM260 - UV-VIS
 
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)
 
Photodetectors
PhotodetectorsPhotodetectors
Photodetectors
 
An Introduction to QUASICRYSTALS, by Mr.Govahi
An Introduction to QUASICRYSTALS, by Mr.GovahiAn Introduction to QUASICRYSTALS, by Mr.Govahi
An Introduction to QUASICRYSTALS, by Mr.Govahi
 
(Pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion)
(Pitting  corrosion  and crevice  corrosion)(Pitting  corrosion  and crevice  corrosion)
(Pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion)
 
Dye laser
Dye laserDye laser
Dye laser
 
Photocatalyst Principle and Application
Photocatalyst Principle and ApplicationPhotocatalyst Principle and Application
Photocatalyst Principle and Application
 
Silicon Manufacturing
Silicon ManufacturingSilicon Manufacturing
Silicon Manufacturing
 
Electroluminesecnce
ElectroluminesecnceElectroluminesecnce
Electroluminesecnce
 

Viewers also liked (20)

22 solution stoichiometry new
22 solution stoichiometry new22 solution stoichiometry new
22 solution stoichiometry new
 
01 significant digits
01 significant digits01 significant digits
01 significant digits
 
22 acids + bases
22 acids + bases22 acids + bases
22 acids + bases
 
23 gases
23 gases23 gases
23 gases
 
Tang 02 wave quantum mechanic model
Tang 02   wave quantum mechanic modelTang 02   wave quantum mechanic model
Tang 02 wave quantum mechanic model
 
18 percentage yield
18 percentage yield18 percentage yield
18 percentage yield
 
21 water treatment
21 water treatment21 water treatment
21 water treatment
 
10 naming and formula writing 2012
10 naming and formula writing 201210 naming and formula writing 2012
10 naming and formula writing 2012
 
20 concentration of solutions
20 concentration of solutions20 concentration of solutions
20 concentration of solutions
 
17 stoichiometry
17 stoichiometry17 stoichiometry
17 stoichiometry
 
05 intramolecular bonds
05 intramolecular bonds05 intramolecular bonds
05 intramolecular bonds
 
11 balancing chemical equations
11 balancing chemical equations11 balancing chemical equations
11 balancing chemical equations
 
14 the mole!!!
14 the mole!!!14 the mole!!!
14 the mole!!!
 
Tang 04 periodic trends
Tang 04   periodic trendsTang 04   periodic trends
Tang 04 periodic trends
 
13 isotopes
13   isotopes13   isotopes
13 isotopes
 
07 lewis dot diagrams
07 lewis dot diagrams07 lewis dot diagrams
07 lewis dot diagrams
 
09 lens applications
09   lens applications09   lens applications
09 lens applications
 
09 polarity 2016
09 polarity 201609 polarity 2016
09 polarity 2016
 
13 nuclear reactions
13 nuclear reactions13 nuclear reactions
13 nuclear reactions
 
04 periodic trends v2
04 periodic trends v204 periodic trends v2
04 periodic trends v2
 

Similar to 19 solutions and solubility

19 solutions and solubility
19 solutions and solubility19 solutions and solubility
19 solutions and solubility
mrtangextrahelp
 
Chapter 12 solutions and molarity
Chapter 12  solutions and molarityChapter 12  solutions and molarity
Chapter 12 solutions and molarity
tanzmanj
 
General Chemistry 2 Q1L4 Solutions properties.pptx
General Chemistry 2 Q1L4 Solutions properties.pptxGeneral Chemistry 2 Q1L4 Solutions properties.pptx
General Chemistry 2 Q1L4 Solutions properties.pptx
Jeffrey Alemania
 
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxXXXX
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxXXXXphysical-properties-of-solution.pptxXXXX
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxXXXX
AliceRivera13
 

Similar to 19 solutions and solubility (20)

19 solutions and solubility
19 solutions and solubility19 solutions and solubility
19 solutions and solubility
 
Chem 1 unit 11 presentation
Chem 1 unit 11 presentationChem 1 unit 11 presentation
Chem 1 unit 11 presentation
 
Chem 1 unit 11 presentation
Chem 1 unit 11 presentationChem 1 unit 11 presentation
Chem 1 unit 11 presentation
 
Chem 1 unit 11 presentation
Chem 1 unit 11 presentationChem 1 unit 11 presentation
Chem 1 unit 11 presentation
 
Solutions
SolutionsSolutions
Solutions
 
Estado liquido
Estado liquidoEstado liquido
Estado liquido
 
Chapter12 solutionsandmolarity-120416153446-phpapp02
Chapter12 solutionsandmolarity-120416153446-phpapp02Chapter12 solutionsandmolarity-120416153446-phpapp02
Chapter12 solutionsandmolarity-120416153446-phpapp02
 
Chemunit11presentation 120308075246-phpapp01
Chemunit11presentation 120308075246-phpapp01Chemunit11presentation 120308075246-phpapp01
Chemunit11presentation 120308075246-phpapp01
 
Soluciones
SolucionesSoluciones
Soluciones
 
Chem 1 unit 11 presentation
Chem 1 unit 11 presentationChem 1 unit 11 presentation
Chem 1 unit 11 presentation
 
Chapter 12 solutions and molarity
Chapter 12  solutions and molarityChapter 12  solutions and molarity
Chapter 12 solutions and molarity
 
presentation of solution of chemistry ppt
presentation of solution of chemistry pptpresentation of solution of chemistry ppt
presentation of solution of chemistry ppt
 
Solutions2587
Solutions2587Solutions2587
Solutions2587
 
General Chemistry 2 Q1L4 Solutions properties.pptx
General Chemistry 2 Q1L4 Solutions properties.pptxGeneral Chemistry 2 Q1L4 Solutions properties.pptx
General Chemistry 2 Q1L4 Solutions properties.pptx
 
Chapter 16
Chapter 16Chapter 16
Chapter 16
 
Solutions
SolutionsSolutions
Solutions
 
Is Matter Around Us Pure
Is Matter Around Us PureIs Matter Around Us Pure
Is Matter Around Us Pure
 
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxXXXX
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxXXXXphysical-properties-of-solution.pptxXXXX
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxXXXX
 
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxxphysical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
physical-properties-of-solution.pptxxxxx
 
Physical Properties of solution
Physical Properties of solutionPhysical Properties of solution
Physical Properties of solution
 

More from mrtangextrahelp (10)

17 stoichiometry
17 stoichiometry17 stoichiometry
17 stoichiometry
 
23 gases
23 gases23 gases
23 gases
 
22 acids + bases
22 acids + bases22 acids + bases
22 acids + bases
 
22 acids + bases
22 acids + bases22 acids + bases
22 acids + bases
 
12 types of chemical reactions
12 types of chemical reactions12 types of chemical reactions
12 types of chemical reactions
 
08 lewis dot diagrams to 3 d diagrams
08 lewis dot diagrams to 3 d diagrams08 lewis dot diagrams to 3 d diagrams
08 lewis dot diagrams to 3 d diagrams
 
06 intermolecular forces
06 intermolecular forces06 intermolecular forces
06 intermolecular forces
 
04 periodic trends and effective nuclear charge supplement
04 periodic trends and effective nuclear charge supplement04 periodic trends and effective nuclear charge supplement
04 periodic trends and effective nuclear charge supplement
 
04 periodic trends v2
04 periodic trends v204 periodic trends v2
04 periodic trends v2
 
08 lens equations
08   lens equations08   lens equations
08 lens equations
 

Recently uploaded

Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discsContinuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Sérgio Sacani
 
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceThe solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
Sérgio Sacani
 
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
Sérgio Sacani
 

Recently uploaded (20)

RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptxRACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
RACEMIzATION AND ISOMERISATION completed.pptx
 
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discsContinuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
Continuum emission from within the plunging region of black hole discs
 
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptxIn-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
In-pond Race way systems for Aquaculture (IPRS).pptx
 
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
 
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdf
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdfThe Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdf
The Scientific names of some important families of Industrial plants .pdf
 
Errors: types, determination and elimination
Errors: types, determination and eliminationErrors: types, determination and elimination
Errors: types, determination and elimination
 
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyanPlasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
Plasma proteins_ Dr.Muralinath_Dr.c. kalyan
 
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM life cycle .pdf
SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM life cycle  .pdfSCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM life cycle  .pdf
SCHISTOSOMA HEAMATOBIUM life cycle .pdf
 
Triploidy ...............................pptx
Triploidy ...............................pptxTriploidy ...............................pptx
Triploidy ...............................pptx
 
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surfaceThe solar dynamo begins near the surface
The solar dynamo begins near the surface
 
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdfMODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
MODERN PHYSICS_REPORTING_QUANTA_.....pdf
 
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C KalyanErythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
Erythropoiesis- Dr.E. Muralinath-C Kalyan
 
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptxMicrobial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
Microbial bio Synthesis of nanoparticles.pptx
 
Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone...
Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone...Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone...
Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone...
 
Gliese 12 b, a temperate Earth-sized planet at 12 parsecs discovered with TES...
Gliese 12 b, a temperate Earth-sized planet at 12 parsecs discovered with TES...Gliese 12 b, a temperate Earth-sized planet at 12 parsecs discovered with TES...
Gliese 12 b, a temperate Earth-sized planet at 12 parsecs discovered with TES...
 
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Green Manures_Bionomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
The importance of continents, oceans and plate tectonics for the evolution of...
 
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdfFilm Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
Film Coated Tablet and Film Coating raw materials.pdf
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday LifeGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 7) Microbiology in Everyday Life
 

19 solutions and solubility

  • 2. Solutions Solubility& SOLUTION A homogenous mixture (looks uniform throughout) SOLVENT In a solution, the solvent is present in the largest amount by volume, mass, or number of moles SOLUTE Other substances present in a solution other than the solvent.
  • 3. Solutions Solubility& Original state of solute Solvent Example Gas Gas Gas Liquid Gas Solid Hydrogen in palladium Liquid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Solid Amalgams (i.e. mercury in silver) Solid Gas Solid Liquid Solid Solid  ACTIVITY 1: Examples of Solutions Observe the samples of solutions and classify each solution under one category: 3 Oxygen in air CO2 in pop Water droplets in air Alcohol in water Dust in the air Sugar in water Copper in bronze
  • 4. Solutions Solubility&  ACTIVITY 1: Examples of Solutions Hydrogen in palladium: A method for storing hydrogen gas as fuel
  • 5. Solutions Solubility&  ACTIVITY 1: Examples of Solutions Amalgam: A metal and mercury solution By mass: 43% to 54% mercury, ~20-35% silver, ~10% copper, ~2% zinc, and some tin Remains soft for a short time and then forms a hard and durable compound
  • 7. Solutions Solubility& Common Types of Solutions: Alloys: Solid solutions of metal Stainless steel: Iron, chromium, nickel, manganese, vanadium
  • 8. Solutions Solubility& Common Types of Solutions: Alloys: Solid solutions of metal Brass: Copper and zinc
  • 9. Solutions Solubility& Common Types of Solutions: Liquid solution: A solution with two or more miscible liquids Miscible = Can dissolve in one-another Immiscible = Cannot dissolve in one-another Rubbing alcohol Oil and water
  • 10. Solutions Solubility& Common Types of Solutions: Gas solution: A solution of two or more gases Air: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide
  • 11. Solutions Solubility& Common Types of Solutions: Aqueous solution: A solution where water is the solvent Tap water
  • 12. Solutions Solubility& AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SOLUBLE VS. INSOLUBLE Not all substances dissolve equally in water. Recall the solubility table (dissolving solids in water): Although substances are classified as either soluble or insoluble in this table, substances are almost never completely insoluble or completely soluble in water. The solubility of a solute is the amount of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent, at a certain temperature. For example, the solubility of sodium chloride in water at 20ºC is 36g per 100mL of water.
  • 13. Solutions Solubility& AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SOLUBLE VS. INSOLUBLE Soluble Partly or slightly soluble Insoluble More than 1g in 100mL OR greater than 0.1mol/L Between 1g and 0.1g in 100mL OR Between 0.1mol/L and 0.01mol/L Less than 0.1g in 100mL OR Less than 0.01mol/L
  • 14. Solutions Solubility& AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED One cannot endlessly dissolve salt in water
  • 15. Solutions Solubility& AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED Saturated solution: Formed when no more solute will dissolve in a solution, with excess solute present. Unsaturated solution: A solution that is not yet saturated Supersaturated solution: Formed when a solution dissolves more solute than allowed at a specific temperature. No excess solute is present.
  • 16. Solutions Solubility& AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED In a saturated solution with excess solute present, the rate of dissolution and precipitation are the same PbSO4(s) Pb2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) precipitate dissolved ions
  • 17. Solutions Solubility& FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY ACTIVITY 2: Who Can Dissolve the Most Salt?
  • 18. Solutions Solubility& FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY ACTIVITY 2: Who Can Dissolve the Most Salt? (10 min) 6) You must not have precipitate in your solution, and your solution cannot be boiling. 1) Work in groups of 3-4 2) Each group will be given a graduated cylinder of salt and 250mL of water 3) Try to dissolve as much salt as you can 4) Try to alter the physical properties of your solvent and solute to increase the amount of salt that you can dissolve 5) You cannot add water
  • 19. Solutions Solubility& FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY ACTIVITY 2: Who Can Dissolve the Most Salt? Factor Affect on rate of dissolving/solubility Temperature Higher temperatures allow more molecules to dissolve Agitation Stirring/agitation allows more molecules to dissolve Surface area Increasing the surface area allows more molecules to dissolve
  • 20. At higher temperatures, solvent molecules move faster, and collide with undissolved solid molecules more frequently Temperature WARMER COOLER Solutions Solubility&
  • 21. Agitation brings fresh solvent into contact with undissolved solid Agitation MORE MOLECULES IN CONTACT FEWER MOLECULES IN CONTACT Solutions Solubility&
  • 22. Surface Area The greater the surface area of the reactant, the greater the molecules are in contact with the solvent LOWER SURFACE AREA HIGHER SURFACE AREA Molecules on the inside are exposed, enabling them to collide with solvent molecules Solutions Solubility&
  • 23. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility&
  • 24. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 1) Molecule polarity - Compounds dissolve due to the intermolecular forces between solvent and solute molecules Sugar: Forms H-bonds with water O H H OH H O H OH H O H H O H H O H H
  • 25. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 1) Molecule polarity - Compounds dissolve due to the intermolecular forces between solvent and solute molecules Ethanol: Forms H-bonds with water O H H O H H O H H
  • 26. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 1) Molecule polarity - Compounds dissolve due to the intermolecular forces between solvent and solute molecules Methanol: Forms H-bonds with water
  • 27. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 1) Molecule polarity - Compounds dissolve due to the intermolecular forces between solvent and solute molecules Octane: Cannot form H-bonds with water O H H
  • 28. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 1) Molecule polarity CH3OH vs. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3OH Which has greater solubility in water? CH3OH vs. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3OH Which has greater solubility in oil? The more attractive intermolecular forces exist between solvent and solute molecules, the greater the solubility
  • 29. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 1) Molecule polarity The addition of solute raises the boiling point of a solvent
  • 30. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 2) Temperature - Greater temperatures result in greater solubility of most solids Instant coffee powder + water at 20°C vs. Instant coffee powder + water at 70°C Which has greater solubility in water?
  • 31. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 2) Temperature - The greater the temperature, the lower the solubility of gases As temperature increases, gas molecules gain kinetic energy and are able to leave a solution. Gases become LESS soluble with increasing temperature.
  • 32. Factors that affect solubility Solutions Solubility& 3) Molecule charge - Molecules that are charged can form dipole-ion attractions or Van der Waals forces between solute and solvent molecules Cl-Na+ Salt: Ions exert dipole-ion attractive forces with water O HH O H H O HH O HH O HH O HH O HH O H H
  • 33. Factors that affect ion solubility Solutions Solubility&
  • 34. Factors that affect ion solubility Solutions Solubility& 1) Ion charge - Ions with small charges tend to be soluble - Increasing the charge increases the force that holds the ions together - (i.e. phosphates, PO4 3+ , tend to be insoluble) 1+ 1- 3+ 3-
  • 35. Factors that affect ion solubility Solutions Solubility& 2) Ion size - Small ions tend to be less soluble than large ions - Small ions bond more closely together than large ions - Thus the bond between small ions is stronger than the bond between large ions with the same charge 2+ 2-2+ 2-
  • 36. Net Ionic Equations Solutions Solubility& K2CO3(aq) + CuSO4(aq)  ?K2SO4(aq) + CuCO3(s) Chemical equation: Ionic equation:  Anything that is aqueous must be separated into its component ions 2K+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq) + Cu2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq)  2K+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + CuCO3(s) Net Ionic equation:  Spectator ions* are eliminated Cu2+ (aq) + CO3 2- (aq)  CuCO3(s) *Spectator ions are ions that do not participate in the actual reaction Use the solubility table
  • 37. Solubility curves Solutions Solubility& A graph that displays the maximum solute that can dissolve in 100g of water at various temperatures. Why does the solubility curve of NH3 have a negative slope? NH3 is a gas. Gases become LESS soluble with increasing temperature.
  • 38. Solubility curves Solutions Solubility& 1) Is 50g of NH4Cl in 100g of water at 40ºC saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated? Supersaturated 2) How many grams of KNO3 can dissolve in 50g of water at 70ºC? 65g 3) How much water is required to dissolve 60g of NaNO3 at 50ºC? 115g NaNO3 = 60g NaNO3 100g water x x = 52g water

Editor's Notes

  1. What is a solution? What is a solute? What is a solvent? Example of solute and solvent (food colouring and water)