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Periodic Trends
NUCLEUSNUCLEUS
ENERGY LEVELSENERGY LEVELS
Review: The Atom
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
PROTONPROTON
NEUTRONNEUTRON
Review: The Atom
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
e
e e
e
ELECTRONELECTRON
Review: The Atom
P
N
N
N
N
P
e
e
LOWER ENERGYLOWER ENERGY
HIGHER ENERGYHIGHER ENERGY
ATTRACTION TOATTRACTION TO
POSITIVELY-CHARGEDPOSITIVELY-CHARGED
NUCLEUSNUCLEUS
Review: The Atom
2 X2 X e
8 X8 X e
18 X18 X e
Review: Octet Rule
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
e
e e
e
BERYLLIUM
Full energyFull energy
level?level? YesYes
Full octet?Full octet? NoNo
Needs to gain 6 moreNeeds to gain 6 more
or lose 2 electronsor lose 2 electrons
Review: Octet Rule
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
e
e e
e
BERYLLIUM
To gain a stableTo gain a stable
octet, berylliumoctet, beryllium
must lose 2must lose 2
electronselectrons
Review: Octet Rule
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
e
e
e e
BERYLLIUMe
e
e
e
Review: Lewis Dot Diagram
CHLORINE
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
g2 8 7
Review: Lewis Dot Diagram
Try drawing the following atoms
using Lewis dot diagrams
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
Review: Lewis Dot Diagram
Group: All
elements in a
group have the
same number of
valence electrons
Period: All
elements in a
period have the
same number of
energy levels
Periodic Table
All of the Group 1
elements have
one valence
electron, hence
elements in a
group often have
similar properties
Periodic Table: Group
Elements in the same group share similar properties
Metalloidsk Noble Gasesk
Periodic Table: Period
Periodic Law:
1. When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass,
certain sets of properties recur periodically
2. the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic
numbers
Periodic Law
Certain chemical and
physical properties repeat
themselves when the
elements are arranged in
order of increasing atomic
number
Periodic Law devised by
Dmitri Mendeleev and
Lothar Meyer in 1869.
Mendeleev produced a
periodic table which
predicted the properties of
8 elements that were not
discovered yet.
Periodic Law: Origins
Atoms get smaller
from left to right in a
period
Atoms get larger from
top to bottom in a
group
Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius
e
e e
e
P P
P
N
N
N
NP
e
e e
e
P P
P
N
N
N
NP
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
e
ee
e
Beryllium Oxygen
When atoms share the same highest energy level, there is a
stronger pull on the electrons when there are more protons
Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius
Page 60 #2 a, c, e
Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius
Practice:
Using only their location in the periodic table,
rank each of the following sets of elements in
order of increasing atomic size. Explain your
answer in each case.
a)Mg, S, Cl b) Al, B, In
c) Ne, Ar, Xe d) Rb, Xe, Te
e) P, Na, F f) O, S, N
Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius
e
e e
e
P P
P
N
N
N
NP
e
e e
e
P P
P
N
N
N
NP
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
e
ee
e
Beryllium Oxygen
Which atom has a greater ability to attract
electrons?
Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
g2 1 g2 2 g2 4 g2 5 g2 6 g2 7
The closer an atom is to achieving a full octet, the greater its
ability to attract electrons.
Electronegativity is the measure of an atom’s ability to attract
electrons.
Which atom should have the highest
electronegativity? Which is second highest?
Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
g2 7
Electrons are closer to the
nucleus = stronger pull on
electrons
Electrons are farther from
the nucleus = weaker pull on
electrons
Stronger
electronegativity
g2 87
Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
Page 74 #4 a, b
Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
Practice:
Based only on their position in the periodic table,
arrange the elements in each set in order of
increasing electronegativity
a) Li, Br, Zn, La, Si b) P, Ga, Cl, Y, Cs
Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
Beryllium
The energy it takes to remove
the outermost electron in an
atom (expressed as kJ/mol)
If the electronegativity is high,
is it harder or easier to remove
an electron? i.e. Does it require
more or less energy?
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
e
e e
e
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
g2 1 g2 2 g2 4 g2 5 g2 6 g2 7
RECAP: An atom’s ability to attract electrons increases as it gets
closer to achieving a full octet
Stronger
electronegativity
RECAP: An atom’s ability to attract electrons increases when its
nucleus is closer to the outermost electrons
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
Practice:
Based only on their position in the periodic table,
arrange the elements in order of increasing ionization
energy
Li, Br, Zn, La, Si, P, Ga, Cl, Y, Cs
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
Practice:
Based only on their position in the periodic table,
arrange the elements in order of increasing ionization
energy
ANSWER: Cs, Li, La, Y, Zn, Ga, Si, P, Br, Cl
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
Practice:
Using only their location in a periodic table, rank each of
the following sets of elements in order of decreasing
ionization energy.
a) Cl, Br, I b) Ga, Ge, Se c) K, Ca, Kr
d) Na, Li, Cs e) S, Cl, Br f) Cl, Ar, K
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
A measure of the change in energy that occurs when
an electron is added to an atom.
Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity
e
e e
e
P P
P
N
N
N
NP
P
P
P
N
N
N
N
P
e e
e
e
P
e
e
The closer an atom is to
achieving an octet, the
more stable it will become
when an electron is
added.
The resulting increase in
stability causes a release
of energy.
Hence electron affinity
increases from left to right
across a period.
Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity
The distance of the valence
electrons from the nucleus
increases going down a
periodic table.
This results in less attraction
for the valence electrons, as
well as any extra electrons
that may be added.
The decreased attraction
results in less energy
released. Thus electron
affinity increases going up a
group in the periodic table.
A measure of the change in energy that occurs when
an electron is added to an atom.
Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity
Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity
Complete pg 60 #4 a), b), c), d)
Which element in each of the following pairs will
have the lower electron affinity? Explain your
answer in each case
a) K or Ca b) O or Li
c) S or Se d) Cs or F
Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity
Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity
Periodic Trends: Summary

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04 periodic trends v2

  • 5. P N N N N P e e LOWER ENERGYLOWER ENERGY HIGHER ENERGYHIGHER ENERGY ATTRACTION TOATTRACTION TO POSITIVELY-CHARGEDPOSITIVELY-CHARGED NUCLEUSNUCLEUS Review: The Atom
  • 6. 2 X2 X e 8 X8 X e 18 X18 X e Review: Octet Rule
  • 7. P P P N N N N P e e e e BERYLLIUM Full energyFull energy level?level? YesYes Full octet?Full octet? NoNo Needs to gain 6 moreNeeds to gain 6 more or lose 2 electronsor lose 2 electrons Review: Octet Rule
  • 8. P P P N N N N P e e e e BERYLLIUM To gain a stableTo gain a stable octet, berylliumoctet, beryllium must lose 2must lose 2 electronselectrons Review: Octet Rule
  • 11. Try drawing the following atoms using Lewis dot diagrams e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e Review: Lewis Dot Diagram
  • 12. Group: All elements in a group have the same number of valence electrons Period: All elements in a period have the same number of energy levels Periodic Table
  • 13. All of the Group 1 elements have one valence electron, hence elements in a group often have similar properties Periodic Table: Group
  • 14. Elements in the same group share similar properties Metalloidsk Noble Gasesk Periodic Table: Period
  • 15. Periodic Law: 1. When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically 2. the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers Periodic Law Certain chemical and physical properties repeat themselves when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
  • 16. Periodic Law devised by Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer in 1869. Mendeleev produced a periodic table which predicted the properties of 8 elements that were not discovered yet. Periodic Law: Origins
  • 17. Atoms get smaller from left to right in a period Atoms get larger from top to bottom in a group Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius
  • 18. e e e e P P P N N N NP e e e e P P P N N N NP P P P N N N N P e ee e Beryllium Oxygen When atoms share the same highest energy level, there is a stronger pull on the electrons when there are more protons Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius
  • 19. Page 60 #2 a, c, e Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius
  • 20. Practice: Using only their location in the periodic table, rank each of the following sets of elements in order of increasing atomic size. Explain your answer in each case. a)Mg, S, Cl b) Al, B, In c) Ne, Ar, Xe d) Rb, Xe, Te e) P, Na, F f) O, S, N Periodic Trends: Atomic Radius
  • 21. e e e e P P P N N N NP e e e e P P P N N N NP P P P N N N N P e ee e Beryllium Oxygen Which atom has a greater ability to attract electrons? Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
  • 22. g2 1 g2 2 g2 4 g2 5 g2 6 g2 7 The closer an atom is to achieving a full octet, the greater its ability to attract electrons. Electronegativity is the measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons. Which atom should have the highest electronegativity? Which is second highest? Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
  • 23. g2 7 Electrons are closer to the nucleus = stronger pull on electrons Electrons are farther from the nucleus = weaker pull on electrons Stronger electronegativity g2 87 Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
  • 24. Page 74 #4 a, b Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
  • 25. Practice: Based only on their position in the periodic table, arrange the elements in each set in order of increasing electronegativity a) Li, Br, Zn, La, Si b) P, Ga, Cl, Y, Cs Periodic Trends: Electronegativity
  • 26. Beryllium The energy it takes to remove the outermost electron in an atom (expressed as kJ/mol) If the electronegativity is high, is it harder or easier to remove an electron? i.e. Does it require more or less energy? P P P N N N N P e e e e Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
  • 27. g2 1 g2 2 g2 4 g2 5 g2 6 g2 7 RECAP: An atom’s ability to attract electrons increases as it gets closer to achieving a full octet Stronger electronegativity RECAP: An atom’s ability to attract electrons increases when its nucleus is closer to the outermost electrons Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
  • 29. Practice: Based only on their position in the periodic table, arrange the elements in order of increasing ionization energy Li, Br, Zn, La, Si, P, Ga, Cl, Y, Cs Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
  • 30. Practice: Based only on their position in the periodic table, arrange the elements in order of increasing ionization energy ANSWER: Cs, Li, La, Y, Zn, Ga, Si, P, Br, Cl Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
  • 31. Practice: Using only their location in a periodic table, rank each of the following sets of elements in order of decreasing ionization energy. a) Cl, Br, I b) Ga, Ge, Se c) K, Ca, Kr d) Na, Li, Cs e) S, Cl, Br f) Cl, Ar, K Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy
  • 34. A measure of the change in energy that occurs when an electron is added to an atom. Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity e e e e P P P N N N NP P P P N N N N P e e e e P e e The closer an atom is to achieving an octet, the more stable it will become when an electron is added. The resulting increase in stability causes a release of energy. Hence electron affinity increases from left to right across a period.
  • 35. Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity The distance of the valence electrons from the nucleus increases going down a periodic table. This results in less attraction for the valence electrons, as well as any extra electrons that may be added. The decreased attraction results in less energy released. Thus electron affinity increases going up a group in the periodic table.
  • 36. A measure of the change in energy that occurs when an electron is added to an atom. Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity
  • 38. Complete pg 60 #4 a), b), c), d) Which element in each of the following pairs will have the lower electron affinity? Explain your answer in each case a) K or Ca b) O or Li c) S or Se d) Cs or F Periodic Trends: Electron Affinity