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  1. 1. nutrition Hasimah Azit
  2. 2. Types of nutrition
  3. 3. Autotrophic <ul><li>Green plants </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic process </li></ul>
  4. 4. Heterotrophic : <ul><li>Any living organism that obtains its energy from organic substances produced by other organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>herbivores , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carnivores , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saprophytes , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul></ul>holozoic
  5. 5. HERBIVORES <ul><li>Animal that feeds on green plants </li></ul><ul><li>or photosynthetic single-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>or their products, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including seeds, fruit, and nectar. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herbivores are more numerous than other animals </li></ul>
  6. 7. CARNIVORES <ul><li>Organism that eats other animals. </li></ul>
  7. 8. SAPROPHYTES <ul><li>Organism that feeds on the excrement or the dead bodies or tissues of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Saprophytes cannot make food for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most fungi (the rest being parasites); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many bacteria and protozoa; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animals such as dung beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a few unusual plants, including several orchids. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Parasites <ul><li>Organism that feeds on the living bodies or tissues of others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Balance diet <ul><li>All major nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Correct proportion </li></ul><ul><li>Able to fulfill daily requirement of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Daily energy requirement depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. BALANCED DIET <ul><li>A balanced diet must contain carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fiber: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates : these provide a source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins : these provide a source of materials for growth and repair. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats : these provide a source of energy and contain fat soluble vitamins. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins : these are required in very small quantities to keep you healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Salts : these are required for healthy teeth, bones, muscles etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Fibre : this is required to help your intestines function correctly; it is not digested. </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Diets : we must have the above items in the correct proportions. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Carbohydrates <ul><li>the most important source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>In the form of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sugar [ sucrose] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>digestive system turns all these carbohydrates into glucose – the simplest form of carbohydrate </li></ul>
  12. 14. Proteins <ul><li>required for growth and repair </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins can also be used as a source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>turned into amino-acids by digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>excess amino-acids are removed from the body is excreted as a nitrogen chemical compound called urea </li></ul>
  13. 15. Fats <ul><li>Fats are used as a source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>also stored beneath the skin – to insulate us against the cold. </li></ul><ul><li>To solute vitamin A, D, E and K </li></ul>
  14. 16. Vitamin <ul><li>required in very small quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat soluble vitamin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water soluble vitamin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List down the importance of these vitamins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In each vitamin above, give an example of food </li></ul>
  15. 17. Mineral <ul><li>also needed in small quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Iron: required to make haemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium: required for healthy teeth, bones and muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium: all cells need this, especially nerve cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine: used to make a hormone called thyroxin. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Fibre [roughage] <ul><li>To prevent excess water absorption in the the colon, prevent constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Important for peristalsis movement along </li></ul><ul><li>digestive tract </li></ul>
  17. 19. Food pyramid <ul><li>What is food pyramid? </li></ul><ul><li>Why we don’t have to take same amount of different type of food? </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Healthy Diet Food Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable and Fruits 5 to 12 servings per day </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broccoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bananas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grain Products 5 to 10 servings per day </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bagel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buns </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Dairy Products 2 to 4 servings per day </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yogurt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meat and Alternative Products 2 to 3 servings per day </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peanut butter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soy products (i.e.. Tofu) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Suggest what extra food should be taken by these people <ul><li>Pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Baby </li></ul><ul><li>Old man </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetic people </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete </li></ul><ul><li>Active teenagers </li></ul>
  21. 24. Group the following list of food into their respective class. State one function for each class of food . <ul><li>Fish Sweet potato Meat </li></ul><ul><li>Honey Rice Fish oil </li></ul><ul><li>Milk Egg yolk Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Palm oil Lime Butter </li></ul><ul><li>Bread Star fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Egg white Jackfruit </li></ul>
  22. 25. MALNUTRITION what is malnutrition? What is the effects of malnutrition?
  23. 26. No food? marasmus
  24. 28. Kwashiorkor
  25. 29. rickets
  26. 30. Beriberi
  27. 31. arteriosclerosis
  28. 32. pellagra
  29. 34. Gout
  30. 36. scurvi
  31. 38. xeropthalmia
  32. 39. Too much food?
  33. 40. Anorexia nervosa
  34. 42. Diabetic patient
  35. 43. Human digestive system
  36. 44. <ul><li>is made up of the alimentary canal [digestive tract] other abdominal organs that play a part in digestion, such as the liver and pancreas. </li></ul><ul><li>is the long tube of organs including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>esophagus, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stomach, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intestines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>runs from the mouth to the anus, is about 30 feet (about 9 meters) long. </li></ul>
  37. 47. Mouth <ul><li>teeth - tear and chop the food, </li></ul><ul><li>saliva moistens it for easy swallowing. </li></ul><ul><li>amylase , which is found in saliva, starts to break down some of the carbohydrates </li></ul>
  38. 48. Esophagus <ul><li>a muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>peristalsis force food </li></ul><ul><li>down through the esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>to the stomach. </li></ul>
  39. 51. Stomach <ul><li>mix the food with acids and enzymes, breaking it into much smaller, digestible pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Glands in the stomach lining produce about 3 quarts (2.8 liters) of the digestive juices each day. </li></ul>
  40. 53. Volume? <ul><li>Empty = 1.6 fluid ounces </li></ul><ul><li>Full = 64 fluid ounces </li></ul>
  41. 55. <ul><li>The food has been processed into a thick liquid called chyme . </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymatic reaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepsin : protein >>>> polipeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renin: caseinogen >>>> casein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coagulate milk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to digest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiydrocloric Acid : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kill germs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acidic medium for enzymatic reaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>the outlet of the stomach called the pylorus keeps chyme in the stomach until it reaches the right consistency to pass into the small intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Chyme is then squirted down into the small intestine </li></ul>
  42. 56. Small intestine
  43. 57. Small intestine <ul><li>is made up of three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the duodenum , the C-shaped first part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the jejunum , the coiled midsection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ileum , the final section that leads into the large intestine </li></ul></ul>
  44. 58. Duodenum
  45. 59. duodenum
  46. 60. Duodenum didn’t secrete any enzyme, All the enzymes are from pancreas, and bile juice from liver
  47. 61. <ul><li>Gall bladder secrete bile juice containing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium bicarbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralise stomach acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaline medium for enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pancreas :enzyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipase : lipid >>> fatty acid and glycerol Amylase : starch >>> maltose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trypsin : polypeptide >>> peptide </li></ul></ul>
  48. 63. ileum
  49. 64. Digestion in ileum <ul><li>Enzyme : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrase: sucrose >>>> glucose + fructose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactase: lactose >>> glucose + galactose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erepsin: peptide >>> amino acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltase: maltose >>> glucose. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 65. A PR LAT SLEM List the names of enzymes that involve in digestion
  51. 66. digestive system in ruminants and rodents
  52. 68. Ruminant digestion <ul><li>Mouth Rumen Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Abomasums Omasom </li></ul><ul><li>esophagus small intestine colon </li></ul><ul><li>rectum </li></ul>
  53. 70. Rumination <ul><li>Re chewing food after store in rumen and reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and protozoa are stored in rumen and reticulum for digestion of cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>They produced cellulase enzyme </li></ul>
  54. 71. Rodent Digestive tract
  55. 74. Inside the cecum <ul><li>Protozoa and bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Produce cellulase </li></ul><ul><li>To digest cellulose </li></ul>
  56. 75. Cecum
  57. 76. Rodent digestion <ul><li>Double digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Eat their own first faeces </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain vitamin and glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Produce second hard faeces </li></ul>
  58. 77. absorption Name digestion products
  59. 78. Small intestine – jejunum
  60. 82. Label the figure
  61. 83. Absorption <ul><li>Water soluble digested substances will absorb into the blood capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin B and C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipid soluble digested substances will absorb into lacteal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid and glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin A, D, E, K </li></ul></ul>
  62. 84. In what way, villi are adapted for efficient food absorption ?
  63. 86. Food Assimilation <ul><li>Glucose : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be distributed to all body parts for cell respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess glucose will converted into glycogen by insulin hormone for storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amino acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be distributed to all body parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess amino acid will converted into urea and turn into urine </li></ul></ul>
  64. 87. <ul><li>All digested food absorb by capillaries will be transported to the liver via vena portal hepar </li></ul><ul><li>All digested food absorb by lacteal will be transported by lymph system to the blood system </li></ul>
  65. 88. lipids <ul><li>Glycerol and fatty acid will combine to form fat </li></ul><ul><li>Store in adipose tissue </li></ul>
  66. 89. Colon Large intestine
  67. 92. water absorption
  68. 93. Formation of faeces <ul><li>Colon, rectum and anus almost 1 m length </li></ul><ul><li>Water will be absorb into the blood, eliminate undigested food and fibre </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposed by bacteria in colon </li></ul><ul><li>The faeces formed and moved by peristalsis in the rectum to anus </li></ul>
  69. 94. <ul><li>Removal of unabsorbed and undigested materials from digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Control by anal sphincter muscle </li></ul><ul><li>What is diarrhoea? </li></ul><ul><li>What is constipation? </li></ul>Defecation
  70. 96. overview