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ACIDS + BASES
ACIDS• Properties: (other than tasting sour and being
corrosive)
1) React with metals
2) React with carbonates
3) Conduct electricity
4) Turn blue litmus paper red
5) Neutralize bases
ACIDS ARE CORROSIVE
1) ACIDS REACT WITH METALS
If you swallowed a penny,
what would happen?
(DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME!!!)
1) ACIDS REACT WITH METALS
2HCl(aq) + Zn(s)  H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)
2) ACIDS REACT WITH CARBONATES
What happens when you put baking soda
(sodium bicarbonate) into vinegar?
HC2H3O2(aq) + NaHCO3(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l) + NaC2H3O2(aq)
3) ACIDS CONDUCT ELECTRICITY
Acids are made of ions, so in water these ions
separate and can conduct electricity
HCl(aq)  H+
(aq) + Cl-
(aq)
IONIZATION IN WATER
H+
Cl-
H+
Cl-
H+
Cl-
Strong acids
ionize completely
in water, while
weak acids only
ionize slightly
NEGATIVELY-CHARGEDELECTRODE
POSITIVELY-CHARGEDELECTRODE
IONIZATION IN WATER
H+
Cl-
H+Cl-
H+
Cl-
H+
Cl-
- +
4) ACIDS TURN BLUE LITMUS PAPER RED
Blue litmus paper is an indicator and turns red when
it touches acid
5) ACIDS NEUTRALIZE BASES
Acids can neutralize bases, so adding an acid to a
base can eliminate their corrosiveness
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide  water + salt (sodium chloride)
Corrosive + corrosive  non-corrosive + non-corrosive
BASES
Properties: (other than tasting bitter, feeling slippery)
1) Conduct electricity
2) Turn red litmus paper blue
3) Neutralize acids
BASES ARE CAUSTIC
1) BASES CONDUCT ELECTRICITY
Bases are made of ions, so in water these ions
separate and can conduct electricity
NaOH(aq)  Na+
(aq) + OH-
(aq)
2) BASES TURN RED LITMUS PAPER BLUE
Red litmus paper is an indicator and turns blue when
it touches base
3) BASES NEUTRALIZE ACIDS
Bases can neutralize acids, so adding a base to an acid can
eliminate their corrosiveness
Example: Antacids to neutralize stomach acid
2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq)
H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)
HOW TO MAKE ACIDS + BASES
ACIDS:
1) Non-metal + oxygen  non-metal oxide
2) Non-metal oxide + water  ACID!
EXAMPLE:
N2 + 2O2  2NO2
NO2 + H2O  HNO3
BASES:
1) Metal + oxygen  Metal oxide
2) Metal oxide + water  BASE!
EXAMPLE:
Mg + O2  MgO
MgO + H2O  Mg(OH)2
ACID-BASE INDICATORS
Indicators change color depending on whether a substance is
acidic or basic
pH Scale
From 1 to 14, with 7 being NEUTRAL
Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases
An acid is a substance that dissociates in
water to produce one or more hydrogen
ions (H+
)
ex. HBr(aq)  H+
(aq) + Br-
(aq)
A base is a substance that dissociates in
water to form one or more hydroxide ions
(OH-
)
ex. LiOH(aq)  Li+
(aq) + OH-
(aq)
Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases
My theory has a
limitation…
HBr(aq)  H+
(aq) + Br-
(aq)
This reaction takes place in water!
Without water, acid properties and
reactions can’t exist.
A hydronium ion is actually
produced (H3O+
) to enable the
effects of water.
HBr(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+
(aq) + Br-
(aq)
Arrhenius’s theory
does not account for
the hydronium ion
Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases
…more like 2
limitations…
NH3(aq) is a base
and does NOT have OH!!!!
Actual reaction:
NH3(aq) + H2O(l)  NH4
+
(aq) + OH-
(aq)
Arrhenius’s theory does not account for
bases without OH groups
Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
An acid is a
substance from which
a proton (H+
ion) can
be removed
A base is a substance
that can remove a
proton (H+
ion) from
an acid
Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
H2O(l) + HCl(aq)  H3O+
(aq) + Cl-
(aq)
Two molecules or ions that are related by the transfer of a
proton are called a conjugate acid-base pair
Conjugate acid-base pair
Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
HBr(g) + H2O(l)  H3O+
(aq) + Br-
(aq)
Examples of conjugate acid-base pairs
Conjugate acid-base pair
Conjugate acid-base pair
Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
NH3(g) + H2O(l)  NH4
+
(aq) + OH-
(aq)
Examples of conjugate acid-base pairs
Conjugate acid-base pair
Conjugate acid-base pair
Strong and Weak Acids
Strong acid/base: dissociates completely in water
Examples: HCl, H2SO4 NaOH, Ba(OH)2
Weak acid/base: dissociates very slightly in water
Examples: CH3OOH (acetic acid) NH3
Conjugate acid-base pair
Conjugate acid-base pair Reversible…at equilibrium
Strong and Weak Acids
Monoprotic acid: Acid only has one hydrogen ion
Ex: HCl
Diprotic acid: Acid has two hydrogen ions
Ex: H2SO4
Triprotic acid: Acid has three hydrogen ions
Ex: H3PO4
ACIDS
Strong and Weak Acids
Looking at a triprotic acid…
H3PO4
First ion dissociates: H3PO4(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+
(aq) + H2PO4
-
(aq)
Second ion dissociates: H2PO4
-
(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+
(aq) + HPO4
2-
(aq)
Third ion dissociates: HPO4
2-
(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+
(aq) + PO4
3-
(aq)
STRONGEST acid (easiest to dissociate)
WEAKEST acid (hardest to dissociate)
ACIDS
If the pH is greater than 7,
then the substance is basic
If the pH is less than 7, then
the substance is acidic
NEUTRAL
Power of Hydrogen (pH)
Power of Hydrogen (pH)
H2O(l) + H2O(l) H3O+
(aq) + OH-
(aq)
[H3O+
] = [OH-
] = 1.0 x 10-7
mol/L
In a neutral solution at 25ºC…
Concentration of H3O+
Concentration of OH-
pH
Negative
logarithm of…
Or
-log
Concentration
of H3O+
ions
(in mol/L)
Or
[H3O+
]
Power of Hydrogen (pH)
Therefore pH of water = -log [H3O+
]
= -log [1.0x10-7
]
= -(-7.00)
= 7.00
Power of Hydrogen (pH)
pH = - log [H3
O+
]
pOH = - log [OH-
]
[H3
O+] = 10 –pH
[OH-] = 10-pOH
pH + pOH = 14
Formulae involving pH:
Power of Hydrogen (pH)
pOH = -log [OH-
]
= -log [3.8x10-3
]
= 2.42
pH = 14 – pOH
= 14 – (2.42)
= 11.58
= 12
Calculate the pH of a solution with [OH-
] = 3.8x10-3
mol/L
HOMEWORK: Page 393 #8, 9
CALCULATIONS INVOLVING
NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS
Stoichiometry calculations:
1) Write the balanced chemical reaction
2) Convert all measurements to moles (if you can)
3) Work with molar ratios to find out how much an acid is needed
to neutralize a given amount of base, or vice versa.
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)
For example:
How many moles of HCl would you need to neutralize 2 moles of NaOH?
ANSWER: 2 moles of HCl
CALCULATIONS INVOLVING
NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS
What volume of 0.250 mol/L H2SO4(aq) is needed to react
completely with 37.2mL of 0.650mol/L KOH(aq)?
CALCULATIONS INVOLVING
NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS
What volume of 0.250 mol/L H2SO4(aq) is needed to react
completely with 37.2mL of 0.650mol/L KOH(aq)?
H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) 2H2O(l) + K2SO4(aq)
Step 1: Write the balanced chemical reaction
Step 2: Convert everything to moles
nKOH = C x V
= (0.650mol/L) x (0.0372L)
= 0.02418mol KOH
Step 3: Work with molar ratios
1mol H2SO4 = x
2mol KOH 0.02418mol KOH
x = 0.01209mol H2SO4
NOT DONE YET! Need to solve for volume of H2SO4
CALCULATIONS INVOLVING
NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS
What volume of 0.250 mol/L H2SO4(aq) is needed to react
completely with 37.2mL of 0.650mol/L KOH(aq)?
V = n/C
= (0.01209mol)/(0.250mol/L)
= 0.04836L H2SO4
Therefore the volume of H2SO4 needed is 48.4mL
HOMEWORK: Page 398 #13 + Page 406 #15
New Acid-Base TheoryNew Acid-Base Theory
Lewis Acids and BasesLewis Acids and Bases
Identify the acids and bases.
H2SO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  CaSO3(s) + 2 H2O
Identify the acid and base.
CaO(s) + SO2(g)  CaSO3(s)
Are the two reactions the same?
acid base
Lewis acidLewis base
Lewis Acids and BasesLewis Acids and Bases
Not all acid-base reactions involve proton
transfer.
acid – chemical substance that can accept a
pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
base – chemical substance that can donate a
pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
neutralization – formation of a covalent bond
between an acid and base reactant
Example #1Example #1
a) H+
(aq) + OH-
(aq) <===> H2O(l)
b) NH3 + BCl3  ?
Lewis acid Lewis base
Lewis acidLewis base
BCl3:NH3
adduct: often formed between Lewis acids and bases, resulting
in a single product containing all atoms of all components.
ExamplesExamples
c) sulfur dioxide + oxide ion  sulfite ion
d) Identify the Lewis acid and base given:
OH-
+ CO2  HCO3
-
SO2 + O2-
 SO3
2-
Lewis acid Lewis base
Lewis acidLewis base

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22 acids + bases

  • 2. ACIDS• Properties: (other than tasting sour and being corrosive) 1) React with metals 2) React with carbonates 3) Conduct electricity 4) Turn blue litmus paper red 5) Neutralize bases ACIDS ARE CORROSIVE
  • 3. 1) ACIDS REACT WITH METALS If you swallowed a penny, what would happen? (DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME!!!)
  • 4. 1) ACIDS REACT WITH METALS 2HCl(aq) + Zn(s)  H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)
  • 5. 2) ACIDS REACT WITH CARBONATES What happens when you put baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) into vinegar? HC2H3O2(aq) + NaHCO3(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l) + NaC2H3O2(aq)
  • 6. 3) ACIDS CONDUCT ELECTRICITY Acids are made of ions, so in water these ions separate and can conduct electricity HCl(aq)  H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
  • 7. IONIZATION IN WATER H+ Cl- H+ Cl- H+ Cl- Strong acids ionize completely in water, while weak acids only ionize slightly
  • 9. 4) ACIDS TURN BLUE LITMUS PAPER RED Blue litmus paper is an indicator and turns red when it touches acid
  • 10. 5) ACIDS NEUTRALIZE BASES Acids can neutralize bases, so adding an acid to a base can eliminate their corrosiveness HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide  water + salt (sodium chloride) Corrosive + corrosive  non-corrosive + non-corrosive
  • 11. BASES Properties: (other than tasting bitter, feeling slippery) 1) Conduct electricity 2) Turn red litmus paper blue 3) Neutralize acids BASES ARE CAUSTIC
  • 12. 1) BASES CONDUCT ELECTRICITY Bases are made of ions, so in water these ions separate and can conduct electricity NaOH(aq)  Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
  • 13. 2) BASES TURN RED LITMUS PAPER BLUE Red litmus paper is an indicator and turns blue when it touches base
  • 14. 3) BASES NEUTRALIZE ACIDS Bases can neutralize acids, so adding a base to an acid can eliminate their corrosiveness Example: Antacids to neutralize stomach acid 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  • 15. HOW TO MAKE ACIDS + BASES ACIDS: 1) Non-metal + oxygen  non-metal oxide 2) Non-metal oxide + water  ACID! EXAMPLE: N2 + 2O2  2NO2 NO2 + H2O  HNO3 BASES: 1) Metal + oxygen  Metal oxide 2) Metal oxide + water  BASE! EXAMPLE: Mg + O2  MgO MgO + H2O  Mg(OH)2
  • 16. ACID-BASE INDICATORS Indicators change color depending on whether a substance is acidic or basic
  • 17. pH Scale From 1 to 14, with 7 being NEUTRAL
  • 18. Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that dissociates in water to produce one or more hydrogen ions (H+ ) ex. HBr(aq)  H+ (aq) + Br- (aq) A base is a substance that dissociates in water to form one or more hydroxide ions (OH- ) ex. LiOH(aq)  Li+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
  • 19. Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases My theory has a limitation… HBr(aq)  H+ (aq) + Br- (aq) This reaction takes place in water! Without water, acid properties and reactions can’t exist. A hydronium ion is actually produced (H3O+ ) to enable the effects of water. HBr(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+ (aq) + Br- (aq) Arrhenius’s theory does not account for the hydronium ion
  • 20. Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases …more like 2 limitations… NH3(aq) is a base and does NOT have OH!!!! Actual reaction: NH3(aq) + H2O(l)  NH4 + (aq) + OH- (aq) Arrhenius’s theory does not account for bases without OH groups
  • 21. Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases An acid is a substance from which a proton (H+ ion) can be removed A base is a substance that can remove a proton (H+ ion) from an acid
  • 22. Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases H2O(l) + HCl(aq)  H3O+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) Two molecules or ions that are related by the transfer of a proton are called a conjugate acid-base pair Conjugate acid-base pair
  • 23. Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases HBr(g) + H2O(l)  H3O+ (aq) + Br- (aq) Examples of conjugate acid-base pairs Conjugate acid-base pair Conjugate acid-base pair
  • 24. Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases NH3(g) + H2O(l)  NH4 + (aq) + OH- (aq) Examples of conjugate acid-base pairs Conjugate acid-base pair Conjugate acid-base pair
  • 25. Strong and Weak Acids Strong acid/base: dissociates completely in water Examples: HCl, H2SO4 NaOH, Ba(OH)2 Weak acid/base: dissociates very slightly in water Examples: CH3OOH (acetic acid) NH3 Conjugate acid-base pair Conjugate acid-base pair Reversible…at equilibrium
  • 26. Strong and Weak Acids Monoprotic acid: Acid only has one hydrogen ion Ex: HCl Diprotic acid: Acid has two hydrogen ions Ex: H2SO4 Triprotic acid: Acid has three hydrogen ions Ex: H3PO4 ACIDS
  • 27. Strong and Weak Acids Looking at a triprotic acid… H3PO4 First ion dissociates: H3PO4(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+ (aq) + H2PO4 - (aq) Second ion dissociates: H2PO4 - (aq) + H2O(l) H3O+ (aq) + HPO4 2- (aq) Third ion dissociates: HPO4 2- (aq) + H2O(l) H3O+ (aq) + PO4 3- (aq) STRONGEST acid (easiest to dissociate) WEAKEST acid (hardest to dissociate) ACIDS
  • 28. If the pH is greater than 7, then the substance is basic If the pH is less than 7, then the substance is acidic NEUTRAL Power of Hydrogen (pH)
  • 29. Power of Hydrogen (pH) H2O(l) + H2O(l) H3O+ (aq) + OH- (aq) [H3O+ ] = [OH- ] = 1.0 x 10-7 mol/L In a neutral solution at 25ºC… Concentration of H3O+ Concentration of OH- pH Negative logarithm of… Or -log Concentration of H3O+ ions (in mol/L) Or [H3O+ ]
  • 30. Power of Hydrogen (pH) Therefore pH of water = -log [H3O+ ] = -log [1.0x10-7 ] = -(-7.00) = 7.00
  • 31. Power of Hydrogen (pH) pH = - log [H3 O+ ] pOH = - log [OH- ] [H3 O+] = 10 –pH [OH-] = 10-pOH pH + pOH = 14 Formulae involving pH:
  • 32. Power of Hydrogen (pH) pOH = -log [OH- ] = -log [3.8x10-3 ] = 2.42 pH = 14 – pOH = 14 – (2.42) = 11.58 = 12 Calculate the pH of a solution with [OH- ] = 3.8x10-3 mol/L HOMEWORK: Page 393 #8, 9
  • 33. CALCULATIONS INVOLVING NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS Stoichiometry calculations: 1) Write the balanced chemical reaction 2) Convert all measurements to moles (if you can) 3) Work with molar ratios to find out how much an acid is needed to neutralize a given amount of base, or vice versa. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) For example: How many moles of HCl would you need to neutralize 2 moles of NaOH? ANSWER: 2 moles of HCl
  • 34. CALCULATIONS INVOLVING NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS What volume of 0.250 mol/L H2SO4(aq) is needed to react completely with 37.2mL of 0.650mol/L KOH(aq)?
  • 35. CALCULATIONS INVOLVING NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS What volume of 0.250 mol/L H2SO4(aq) is needed to react completely with 37.2mL of 0.650mol/L KOH(aq)? H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) 2H2O(l) + K2SO4(aq) Step 1: Write the balanced chemical reaction Step 2: Convert everything to moles nKOH = C x V = (0.650mol/L) x (0.0372L) = 0.02418mol KOH Step 3: Work with molar ratios 1mol H2SO4 = x 2mol KOH 0.02418mol KOH x = 0.01209mol H2SO4 NOT DONE YET! Need to solve for volume of H2SO4
  • 36. CALCULATIONS INVOLVING NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS What volume of 0.250 mol/L H2SO4(aq) is needed to react completely with 37.2mL of 0.650mol/L KOH(aq)? V = n/C = (0.01209mol)/(0.250mol/L) = 0.04836L H2SO4 Therefore the volume of H2SO4 needed is 48.4mL HOMEWORK: Page 398 #13 + Page 406 #15
  • 37. New Acid-Base TheoryNew Acid-Base Theory
  • 38. Lewis Acids and BasesLewis Acids and Bases Identify the acids and bases. H2SO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  CaSO3(s) + 2 H2O Identify the acid and base. CaO(s) + SO2(g)  CaSO3(s) Are the two reactions the same? acid base Lewis acidLewis base
  • 39. Lewis Acids and BasesLewis Acids and Bases Not all acid-base reactions involve proton transfer. acid – chemical substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond base – chemical substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond neutralization – formation of a covalent bond between an acid and base reactant
  • 40. Example #1Example #1 a) H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) <===> H2O(l) b) NH3 + BCl3  ? Lewis acid Lewis base Lewis acidLewis base BCl3:NH3 adduct: often formed between Lewis acids and bases, resulting in a single product containing all atoms of all components.
  • 41. ExamplesExamples c) sulfur dioxide + oxide ion  sulfite ion d) Identify the Lewis acid and base given: OH- + CO2  HCO3 - SO2 + O2-  SO3 2- Lewis acid Lewis base Lewis acidLewis base

Editor's Notes

  1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5p540KucRc8 penny hydrochloric acid http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLZB0sneSQE penny HCl http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmvMdtIM1aA penny acid
  2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m55kgyApYrY