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Nutrition
Nutrition <ul><li>1) Macromolecules: </li></ul><ul><li>(big molecules) </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Carboh...
Nutrition:  Macromolecules Macromolecules  are   broken down by  enzymes Enzymes are the  proteins  responsible for breaki...
Nutrition In general, enzymes are named according to the chemical they break-down followed by an  –ase  ending.   protease...
Nutrition The majority of enzymes are active in the  small intestines . Release of these enzymes is controlled by  hormone...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the body's main source of  energy .  Can be single molecules called ...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Carbohydrates Excess carbohydrates are stored by the body as  glycogen  and (if too many)  body fat ...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Proteins - The average human is 3% nitrogen by mass, and most of this is N is found in  protein . - ...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Fats Fats are made of  fatty acids  and  glycerol groups . Fatty acids have several chemical bonds b...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Fats Fatty acids and glycerol can form the following combinations: Triglyceride:  3 fatty acids + 1 ...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Fats There are  saturated fats  and  unsaturated fats : Saturated fats: -All fatty acids have single...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Fats There are  saturated fats  and  unsaturated fats : Saturated fats: -All fatty acids have single...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Fats There are  saturated fats  and  unsaturated fats : Unsaturated fats: -Fatty acids have some dou...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Fats Some fatty acids are  essential : Essential fatty acids: -Essential fatty acids are ones that o...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Cholesterol Cholesterol: -Essential to  cell membranes ,  steroids ,  nerve insulation ,  fat digest...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Cholesterol Cholesterol: -Cholesterol CANNOT dissolve in water, so it must be transported in the blo...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Cholesterol Cholesterol: HDL =  high density lipoprotein (more protein, less cholesterol) LDL =  low...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Cholesterol Cholesterol: <ul><li>High levels of  LDL  are  associated  with a higher risk of heart d...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Vitamins Vitamins are  organic  compounds which the body needs in  small amounts .  •  essential for...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Vitamins 2 types: 1)  water soluble  – vitamin Bs and C, folic acid •  easily removed  from the body...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Minerals Minerals are  inorganic  compounds (non-carbon- containing) which the body needs in  small ...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Minerals If you are getting  enough  minerals through your diet, should you still take  multivitamin...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Fibre Fibre is  cellulose, a polysaccharide   from plants. We  do not  have enzymes to digest cellul...
Nutrition Nutrition:  Fibre Choose 100%  whole wheat  products. Vegetables  and  fruit  have some fibre as well. We should...
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11U bio ani 03

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11U bio ani 03

  1. 1. Nutrition
  2. 2. Nutrition <ul><li>1) Macromolecules: </li></ul><ul><li>(big molecules) </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Fats (Lipids) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>3) Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>4) Fibre </li></ul><ul><li>5) Water </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nutrition: Macromolecules Macromolecules are broken down by enzymes Enzymes are the proteins responsible for breaking down molecules in your body.
  4. 4. Nutrition In general, enzymes are named according to the chemical they break-down followed by an –ase ending. protease  proteins carbohydrase  carbohydrates lipase  lipids Nutrition: Macromolecules
  5. 5. Nutrition The majority of enzymes are active in the small intestines . Release of these enzymes is controlled by hormones . Nutrition: Macromolecules
  6. 6. Nutrition Nutrition: Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy . Can be single molecules called monosaccharides . or chains of molecules called polysaccharides .
  7. 7. Nutrition Nutrition: Carbohydrates Excess carbohydrates are stored by the body as glycogen and (if too many) body fat . Complex carbohydrates (very large polysaccharides) are the healthiest and give a &quot;full&quot; for feeling longer. Glycogen. Each dot is a sugar molecule.
  8. 8. Nutrition Nutrition: Proteins - The average human is 3% nitrogen by mass, and most of this is N is found in protein . - Most abundant in animal products . - Also found in grains , legumes , and nuts .
  9. 9. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats Fats are made of fatty acids and glycerol groups . Fatty acids have several chemical bonds between hydrogen and carbon atoms, making them rich in energy. 1g fat = 9 Calories 1g carb = 4 Calories 1g protein = 4 Calories 1g alcohol = 7 Calories
  10. 10. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats Fatty acids and glycerol can form the following combinations: Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol Diglyceride: 2 fatty acids + 1 glycerol Monoglyceride: 1 fatty acid + 1 glycerol
  11. 11. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats : Saturated fats: -All fatty acids have single bonds -Usually solid at room temperature Unsaturated fats: -Fatty acids have some double bonds -Usually liquid at room temperature
  12. 12. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats : Saturated fats: -All fatty acids have single bonds -Usually solid at room temperature
  13. 13. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats : Unsaturated fats: -Fatty acids have some double bonds -Usually liquid at room temperature
  14. 14. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats Some fatty acids are essential : Essential fatty acids: -Essential fatty acids are ones that our bodies need but can not make -Must be eaten, are associated with good heath and prevention of heart disease
  15. 15. Nutrition Nutrition: Cholesterol Cholesterol: -Essential to cell membranes , steroids , nerve insulation , fat digestion ( bile ), and produces vitamin D -Body manufactures ~2/3 of cholesterol required; ~1/3 of cholesterol acquired through the diet
  16. 16. Nutrition Nutrition: Cholesterol Cholesterol: -Cholesterol CANNOT dissolve in water, so it must be transported in the blood in packages known as lipoprotein -lipoproteins are complexes of lipids , cholesterol , and proteins .
  17. 17. Nutrition Nutrition: Cholesterol Cholesterol: HDL = high density lipoprotein (more protein, less cholesterol) LDL = low density lipoprotein (less protein, more cholesterol)
  18. 18. Nutrition Nutrition: Cholesterol Cholesterol: <ul><li>High levels of LDL are associated with a higher risk of heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>HDL helps reduce bad cholesterol in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Colloquial terms: </li></ul><ul><li>HDL = “ good ” cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>LDL = “ bad ” cholesterol </li></ul>
  19. 19. Nutrition Nutrition: Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds which the body needs in small amounts . • essential for enzyme activity / cellular function • consumed through diet or produced though beneficial bacteria
  20. 20. Nutrition Nutrition: Vitamins 2 types: 1) water soluble – vitamin Bs and C, folic acid • easily removed from the body • easily removed during cooking 2) fat soluble – vitamin A, D, E, K • not easily removed from body  do not need to consume regularly
  21. 21. Nutrition Nutrition: Minerals Minerals are inorganic compounds (non-carbon- containing) which the body needs in small amounts . • essential for enzyme activity / cellular function • consumed through diet • Ex. calcium , phosphorus , potassium , iron , zinc
  22. 22. Nutrition Nutrition: Minerals If you are getting enough minerals through your diet, should you still take multivitamins / multiminerals ? No! Some minerals prevent other minerals from being absorbed optimally
  23. 23. Nutrition Nutrition: Fibre Fibre is cellulose, a polysaccharide from plants. We do not have enzymes to digest cellulose. Cellulose passes through our digestive system intact , but sticks to water and cholesterol along the way.
  24. 24. Nutrition Nutrition: Fibre Choose 100% whole wheat products. Vegetables and fruit have some fibre as well. We should all consume ~30g of fibre a day.

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